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Cornell University Library 
F 3081.H23 

A history of Chile, 

3 1924 021 202 316 

Cornell University 

The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


dj *).! 

Bernardo O'Higgins. 

^atin-^nxsvicfxn lleijublij;* 



Author of "Old Abraham Jackson," "Coitlan; A Tale of the 
Inca World," Etc. 


- g-fcy/ 1)3 ^ 


Copyright, 1893. By 
Charles H. Serqel and Compan? 

The Sergel Press 


Two periods of Chilean history have already been 
well presented to the outside world; the period of the 
revolution and that of the late war between Chile and 
the Peruvian-Bolivian alliance. Respecting the period 
between the years 1829 and 1879 there is no connected 
account in English. Since the war with Peru, Chile 
has attracted considerable outside attention, and with- 
in the past two years there have been several graphic 
accounts of modern Chile. What is now needed is a 
volume that will condense the information, which in 
English is scattered through many books, and give a 
complete, short history and picture of Chile in a sin- 
gle volume ; that I undertake to furnish in this work. 

I have devoted considerable space to the late civil war 
in Chile and have cut somewhat short previous political 
wars, which, in point of the numbers killed, were quite 
as bloody as this last. But all grew out of the same 
political conditions, and the last war, leading to the 
downfall of President Balmaceda, was in reality the cul- 
mination of years of political strife. Were I to go into 
the details of every skirmish between the forces of con- 
tending party leaders, the reader would be wearied with 
the recital. I have given results rather than ramifica- 


tions. Chile has been more fortunate than her neighbors 
in having a fairly well established government and a 
better class of leaders; she has subordinated the military 
to the civil authority and has usually preferred states- 
men to generals for her presidents. Still, she has had 
at different times quite too much of civil strife for the 
best interests of her exchequer, industries, commercial 
interests and national well-being. But she has passed 
her era of constitution making; she has a body of laws 
and precedents, a historic past, and patriotic, intelligent 
citizens; the lesson of the civil war of 1891 is, that the 
dictators will be no longer tolerated; the government 
must become more and more popular, representative and 
constitutional. If Chile's intricate foreign relations do 
not lead her into wars with neighboring republics, an 
era of progress and peace is before her. 

A. U. H. 
Chicago, iSgj. 



CHAPTER I — Almagro's expedition — early history and 


Pizarro's Rivals— The Inca Empire— Almagro sets out for Chile — 
His claims to Cuzco — Sends forward PauUu Topu — Hardships 
encountered in the mountains — Sends forward party to obtain 
relief — Appearance of Chile — Different tribes — Their civiliza- 
tion and manner of living — Explorations — Almagro reinstates 
an ulmen — Engagement with the Indians — Return to Chile — 
Subsequent career of Almagro 21 

CHAPTER II — The araucanians — valdivia's expedition — the 


Character of Valdivia — Character of the Araucanians — Their 
military system and social organization — De Hoz and Carmargo 
— Pizarro ignores the royal commission and appoints Valdivia 
to undertake the conquest of Chile — The expedition — Found- 
ing of Santiago and trouble with the Indians — Battle on the 
Mapocho river — Disaffection — Discovery of gold . 36 

CHAPTER III — Opening and conquering the country — 


Valdivia determines to send Monroy and Miranda to Peru — Mur- 
der of a chief's son — Vaca de Castro sends recruits to Chile — 
Pastene explores the southern coasts — Massacre at Quillota 


mines — Founding cities — Conquests — Valdivia goes to Peru, 
leaving Francisco de Villagran in command — Execution of De 
Hoz — Destruction of La Serena — Aguirre punishes the natives 
— Apportioning the lands — Aillavalu gives battle to Valdivia — 
Lincoyan — Valdivia establishes himself at Concepcion and 
seeks a title from Spain — Founding of Imperial and Villarica — 
Expedition toward the south — Recloma — Fortresses built — 
Aguirre dispatched to conquer provinces Cujo and Tucuman — 
Founding of Angol, the seventh city — Alderete sent to Spain — 
Colocolo incites Araucanians to resistance — Caupolican — Strat- 
agems and attacks upon forts — Battle at Tucapel — Lautaro — 
Death of Valdivia . . ... 44 

CHAPTER IV — Lautaro and caupolicaij — valdivia's succes- 

Spaniards in the south retire to Imperial and Valdivia — Skir- 
mishes with the Araucanians — Villagran takes charge of the gov- 
ernment — He crosses the Biobio and attacks the Indians at Mt. 
Mariguenu — Defeat of the Spaniards — Destruction of Concep- 
cion — Villagran undertakes to rebuild the city, but again is de- 
feated — Smallpox — Villagran and Aguirre submit their claims 
to the Royal Audience — Siege of Imperial and Valdivia — Lau- 
taro proceeds against Santiago — Defeat and death of Lautaro - 
Events of the year 1557 — Shipwreck of Alderete — Don Garcia 
arrives at Concepcion with a large force — Millalauco 55 

CHAPTER V — Continued wars with the araucanians — death 

OF caupolican discovery of THE ARCHIPELAGO OF CHILOE — 


Battle of Mt. Pinto— Battle at the Biobio — Don Garcia's inhuman 
acts — Galvarino — Founding of Canete — Skirmishes with the 
Araucanians — Caupolican's stratagem — Rebuilding of Concep- 
cion — The Cunches resort to an artifice — Exploring the Chiloe 
Archipelago — The poet Ercilla — Death of Caupolican — Caupol- 
ican II. — Siege of Imperial — Defeat of the Araucanians — Re- 
building forts and cities — Quiroga . . . 63 

CHAPTER VI — Antiguenu, paillataru and paynenancu — qui- 



The Araucanians prepare for a renewal of the war — Defeat of the 
Spaniards at Mt. Mariguenu — Canete burned — Sieges of Con- 
cepcion, Arauco and Angol — Defeat and death of Antiguenu^- 


Defeat of Lillemu — Founding of Castro andChacao and Chilo(S 
— The Indians of Chilo^ — Establishment of an Independent 
Royal Audience — Renewed hostilities with the Araucanians — 
Don Melchor de Bravo — Earthquakes — Mestizos — Dissolution 
of the Royal Audience — Different governors — Continued wars 
with the Araucanians . . • • • • 73 

CHAPTER VII — Cayancaru and other toquis — sir john 


Cayancaru elected toqui — Proceeds against the Spanish port of 
Karampangui — Lonconobal, Antulevu, Tarochina — Sotomayor 
builds forts of Trinidad and Espiritu Santo — Cayancaru attacks 
Arauco — Guepotan — Defeats, successes and expeditions — Non- 
gouiel — Cadeguala elected toqui — Pirates, English and Dutch 
descents upon the coast — Sir Thomas Cavendish lauds at 
Quintero Bay and is attaclied by Alonzo Molina — Angol set 
on fire — ^The fortress of Puren taken by Cadeguala — Combat 
between Garcia Ramon and Cadiguala — Guanoalca elected to- 
qui — Juan Tapia — Events of the year 1589 — Janequeo de- 
termines to avenge the death of her husband — Defeats the 
governor — She fortifies herself in the mountains — Her force 
dispersed — Quintuguenu elected toqui — Spaniards take the 
fort of Mt. Mariguenu — The younger Colocolo joins the Span- 
iards — Failure to effect a treaty of peace — Paillaeco succeeds 
Quintuguenu and is defeated — The governor withdraws the 
troops to Santiago — Leaves command to Pedro Viscarra and 
goes to Peru — Loyola appointed captain-general — Paillamachu 
sends Antipillan to Loyola . . . . 82 

CHAPTER VIII — General uprising of the araucanians — 


Loyola founds Coya — Exploits of the toqui, Paillamachu — Forts 
erected at Puren and Lumaco — Attacked by Paillamachu and 
demolished — Governor Loyola killed — All the southern cities 
besieged by the Araucanians — Concepcion and Chilian burned 
— Viscarra takes charge of the government — Francisco Qui- 
nones chosen governor — His cruelties — Valdivia burned and 
other cities besieged — The Dutch plunder Chiloe — R3.mon ap- 
pointed governor — Rivera succeeds him — The Biobio fortified 
— Fall of Vallarica, Imperial and Orsorno — Inez Aguillera — 
Successes of the Araucanians and close of the war — Huenecura 
as toqui — Ramon restored to the office of captain-general and 


arrives with troops — Builds a fort at Boroa— Lisperguer — Hu- 
enecura attacks a fort — Ramon's army destroyed — King Philip 
III. reestablishes the Royal Audience — Huenecura de- 
feated — Aillavilu, toqui — Luis de Valdivia undertakes to 
negotiate a treaty of peace — Recall of Rivera — Ancanamon, 
toqui — Failure of treaty — Utiflame — Talavaranno, Ulloa Qx 

CHAPTER IX — The seventeenth century 

Loncothegua succeeded by Lientur as toqui — Successes of the 
Araucanians — Cerda succeeds UUoa as captain-general — Pedro 
Ulloa — Noruena — Cordova — Putapichion attacks Fort of Na- 
tivity — Cordova ravages the Indian country — Governor La 
Vega carries on war against the Araucanians for ten years — The 
Dutch — Sir James Narborough — The Marquis of Baides — 
Treaty of Quillin and close of the Araucanian war — Renewal 
of the war — Spanish governors to 1665 — Second treaty of peace 
— Events from 1665 to close of the century — French block- 
ade — Condition of the country . ... 10 1 

CHAPTER X — The eighteenth century 

The condition of Spain — The French — Character of settlers — 
Captains of Friends and renewal of the Araucanian wars — The 
peace of Negrete — Cano — Founding of cities — Different cap- 
tains-general — Establishment of the University of San Felipe 
— Mint — Earthquake of 1751 and the destruction of Concep- 
cion — Amat — Failure of the attempt to compel the Araucanians 
to build cities — Jauregui — Conspiracy of Gramuset and Berney 
— Ambrosio O'Higgins — Condition of Chile at the close of the 
century — Expelling the Jesuits — Religious orders — Brief ac- 
counts of the administrations of different captains-general of 
this century to the time of the revolution . . . 109 



CHAPTER I — The revolt of Spain's colonies 
Spain at the beginning of the eighteenth century — Organization 
of the Juntas — The causes of the revolution — Tyranny of Span- 


ish viceroys and captains-general — Spanish monopolies — Tithes 
— Peculations — Tupac Amaru — Ubalde — Purnacagua — The 
struggle at Buenos Ayres, La Paz and Quito — The inhuman 
Goyeneche — The uprising at Caracas — San Martin and Bel- 
grano — The revolution at Buenos Ayres — Royalist successes in 
Peru — Buenos Ayres decides to assist Chile — Progress of the 
war in all the colonies — Bolivar — Aim of the first Juntas 127 

CHAPTER II — Juntas, dictators and dissensions — first stages 


Formation of parties in Chile — Formation of the first junta — Ar- 
rest of citizens in 1810 — Disposition of the captain-general 
— Conde de la Conquista made president — Second congress 
called — Doctor Rozas — J onte's mission to Santiago — Riot in the 
capital quelled by Carrera — Execution of Figueroa — Trouble 
in the congress over representation — Seizure of Spanish offi- 
cers — The Carreras compel congress to select a nevi? junta — 
Jose Miguel Carrara's power — Dissolution of congress — React- 
ion in favor of the Spanish party — Banishment of Rozas — 
High-handed measures of the Carreras — The viceroy, Abascal, 
dispatches Pareja to Chile with an army — Attacks at Yerbas 
Buenas and San Carlos — Patriot successes — O'Higgins and 
Mackenna — The royalists besieged in Chilian — Sanchez — 
O'Higgins given the chief command — Capture of the Carreras — 
Arrival of Gainza — Attack at Membrillar — Gainza retires to 
Talca — Lastra named supreme director — Arrival of Captain 
Hilliar and treaty of Lircay — Founding of the public library, 
the national institution and other schools — The first news- 
paper . .... . 141 

CHAPTER III — 1814 to 1817 — The struggle for freedom — 
SAN martin's expedition 

The Carreras abolish the office of supreme director — Party dis- 
sensions — Arrival of Osorio to reinforce Gainza — Defeat at 
Cachapoal and Rancagua — Consternation of the patriots — 
Flight to Mendoza — Osorio restores the authority of Spain — 
Banishment of citizens — San Bruno and Marco, their infamous 
acts — San Martin organizes an army at Mendoza — Rodriguez 
harasses the Spaniards — The passage of the Andes — Battle of 
Chacabuco and defeat of the royalists — San Martin enters 
Santiago — Bernardo O'Higgins named supreme director — 
Confiscations — Skirmishes in the south . . . '157 


CHAPTER IV — The battle of maypo 

Abascal sends another army to Chile under Osorio — Unsuccessful 
siege of Talcahuano — Osorio advances toward the capital — 
Independence of Chile formally declared — Skirmishes at Talca 
and Cancha Rayada — Rout of the patriot army — Rodri- 
guez rallies the patriots in the capital — Reorganization of the 
patriot army — Details of the battle of Maypo — San Martin re- 
turns to Buenos Ayres — Execution of the Carreras — Murder 
of Manuel Rodriguez — The war in the south — Benavides . i68 

CHAPTER V — Carrying the war into peru — naval 


Efforts in forming a navy — Capture of the ' ' Maria Isabel " — Ar- 
rival of Lord Cochrane — Departure of the Chilean fleet to 
Peru — Attack and repulse at Callao — Unimportant naval oper- 
ations — Cochrane chases the " Prueba " — Capture of Val- 
divia by Lord Cochrane . .... 179 

CHAPTER VI— The struggle in peru 

O'Higgins as supreme director — San Martin's appointees — 
Efforts to fit out the Peruvian expedition — The purpose of the 
expedition — Colonel Arenales marches a detachment into the 
interior — Armistice and diplomatic efforts — Cochrane captures 
the "Esmeralda" — San Martin establishes his headquarters 
at Huara — Defection of the Peruvian Numancia regiment — 
San Martin's conciliatory policy — Lord Cochrane's exploits in 
the south — The second armistice — San Martin enters Lima — 
Proclamation of independence — San Martin assumes control 
of the government — San Martin and Bolivar both seek to pos- 
sess Guayaquil — Monteagudo — San Martin resigns — Ayacucho 
and the last battles of the war . 186 

CHAPTER VII— Party dissensions 

Disputes concerning tariffs, and Lord Cochrane's measures to 
collect duties — Execution of the outlaw, Vicente Benavides — 
Assembling of congress — Party machinations — Official cor- 
ruption — Revolt of Concepcion and Coquirabo — O'Higgins is 
asked to resign — Arrival of General Freire in the capital — He 
becomes supreme director— Review of O'Higgins' administration 194 



CHAPTER I — The liberals in power — freire and pinto 

Freire's rule — Doings of the congress — The new tariff — The first 
constitution — Freire's unsuccessful expedition to Chilo^ — Dis- 
satisfaction and demoralization — Dissolution of the senate and 
setting aside of the constitution — Freire's efforts to build a 
navy — Cienfuegos, Muzi and Ferreti — First troubles with 
the church — Financial difficulties — Revival of the estancos — 
Political excitement and attempted assassinations — Congress 
dissolved — Troubles in the new congress — Political parties — 
Freire's second expedition to Chilo^ — Defeat of the royalists 
and the incorporation of Chilo^ into the republic, — Attempts 
to form a confederacy — Freire first president, Pinto vice-presi- 
dent — Freire resigns — Pinto assumes the office of president — 
The last acts of the congress — Troubles with the Araucanians 
— Difficulty between a British officer and a Chilean — Assem- 
bling of congress — Further efforts to draft a constitution — Pin- 
to resigns — Party agitations , . . . 201 

CHAPTER II — The conservatives in power — prieto and 



Political changes and disturbances — Revolution started by Prieto 
— Junta formed and congress called — Vicuna, Tagle, Ovalle, 
Portales — Deplorable condition of the country — The battle of 
Lircay — Bulnes dispatched against the Pincheiras — The con- 
stitution of 1833 — Freire captured and banished — Santa Cruz 
• — Affairs in Peru and Bolivia — War with the confederation of 
Peru and Bolivia — Death of Portales — Defeat of Santa Cruz — 
Distinguished scholars — Educational matters — William Wheel- 
right, and the first steamers — Church dignitaries — Markets and 
finances . , . . . 216 

CHAPTER III — The administrations of presidents bulnes and 


Bulnes' cabinet — University at Santiago — Bello— Literature, 


science and art — State institutions — Mines — Colonists — Debt — 
Punta Arenas — Repressive measures of the conservatives — 
Political societies — Manuel Montt — Urriola's insurrection — 
Revolution headed by General Cruz — Battle of Loncomilla — 
Defeat of the revolutionists — Material advancement — Various 
lawfs — Education — The policy of Montt and Varas — Second 
term — Troubles in the church — Party changes — Renewed insur- 
rections — Civil war of 1859 — The elections . . 227 

CHAPTER IV — The adminisJ'ration of president perez — out- 


Perez forms a ministry of moderate liberals and conservatives — 
His policy — Guentecol — M. de Tounans as King Antoine I — 
Doings of congress — England claims damages — Catastrophe in 
a Jesuit church — Railway opened between Santiago and Val- 
paraiso — Measures to aid colonization — Exciting debates upon 
religious questions — Cause of the war with Spain — Ports 
blockaded — Naval operations — Bombardment of Valparaiso — 
Efforts to arrange treaty of peace — Immigration — Skirmishes 
with the Araucanians — Attempted impeachment of the supreme 
court — Political reforms — Treaty with the Argentine Republic 
— Agricultural exhibition . . " . . 237 

CHAPTER V — The administration of president errazuriz 

Elections — Active canvass of church questions — Reformatory 
measures passed by congress — Circulating libraries — Party dif- 
ferences — The Patagonian and Bolivian boundary questions — 
Earthquakes — Coal fields — Loans negotiated — Railroads 255 

CHAPTER VI — The administration of president pinto 

Political agitations — Pinto, Amunategui, Mackenna — Pinto's cab- 
inet — Boundary disputes — Financial difiSculties — Paper money 

— Failure of crops — Nitrates and minerals — Statistical items — 
Schools — Disputes in respect to church questions — Taforo — 
The Roman delegate — The civil marriage law . . . 263 




CHAPTER I — The beginning of the war 

Causes of the war — The Chileans take possession of Antofagasta 
— Skirmish at Calama — Peru seeks to arbitrate — The armies — 
The navies — The Army of the South formed at Iquique — Naval 
operations — Bombardment of Pisagua . . 272 

CHAPTER II — Naval battles — prat and grau 

President Prado sails south with the Peruvian fleet to take com- 
mand of the army — President Daza of Bolivia arrives with 
troops — Captain Grau attacks the " Esmeralda " and " Cova- 
donga " — Loss of the " Independencia " — The "Huascar" 
sinks the "Esmeralda" — Heroic death of Captain Prat — Other 
naval operations and engagements— Changes of Chilean officers 
— Gallant act of Lieutenant Diez — Battle between the 
"Huascar" and the "Cochrane" — Death of brave Captain 
Grau ... ... 280 

CHAPTER III — The war in the south — pisagua, san francisco, 


Description of the desert provinces — Forces in Tarapaca — Cap- 
ture of Pisagua — Cavalry action at Jeramia — Army manoeuvres 
— Battle of San Francisco — Defeat of the allies and evacuation 
of Iquique — Battle of Tarapaca — Ports blockaded — Pierola 
heads a revolt in Lima, Campero in La Paz — Operations along 
the coast — Attempts of Peruvians to destroy Chilean vessels — 
Callao blockaded . . 289 

CHAPTER IV — The occupation of moquega, tacna and arica 


The battle at Los Angeles — Revolt headed by Colonel Silva 
against Campero — Cavalry action at Locumba — The battle of 
Tacna — Assault of Arica — Further attempts made by Peruvians 
to blow up Chilean men-of-war — Lynch's expedition — Naval 


engagements at Callao — Failure to arrange treaty of peace — 
Pierola turns over the government to La Puerta • • 298 

CHAPTER V — The battles of choeillos and miraflores— 



Peruvian army at the capital — Active preparations for the defence 
of Lima — Movements of the Chilean troops — The battles — Acts 
of vandalism — Burning of Miraflores — Mob rule — Calderon 
selected as provisional president — Skirmishes in the interior — 
Caceres — Failure to effect treaty of peace — Pinto's admin- 
istration . . 309 

CHAPTER VI — The administration of president santa maria 

Active political canvass — The liberals divided — Two conventions 
— Baquedano a candidate — Pinto favors Santa Maria — Santa 
Maria's cabinet — The war in Peru — Continued skirmishing in 
the interior — Caceres defeated at Huamachuco — Engagement 
at Huancayo — Peruvian officers submit to Lynch — Treaty 
signed — Iglesias made president of Peru — The terms of the 
treaty — Expense of the war — Chile's gain of territory — Bitter 
disputes with the church — Turbulence caused by church ques- 
tions and legislation relating thereto — New laws and public 
improvements . . 318 



CHAPTER I — President balmaceda — material progress 

Turbulence in elections — Opposition to the liberals — Reforms — 
Railroads and public improvements — The gathering storm . 329 

CHAPTER II— The revolt 

The constitution — Congress opposes the president — Party oppo- 
sition — Changes of ministries and votes of censure — The Con- 
stitutional Committee calls a congress — Balmaceda issues a 

manifesto — The Supreme Court declares his acts illegal 

Naval officers declare for congress, the army adheres to the 


cause of the president— The congressional fleet — Captain Montt 
takes the ' ' Huascar " out of Valparaiso harbor — The con- 
gressionalists proceed to Iquique — Skirmish at Zapiga — Pisagua 
captured and bombarded — Defeat of Colonel Robles — Fight 
at Huarez — Iquique taken by Colonel Soto, who subsequently 
surrenders it — Impressments — Defeat of Robles at Pozo al 
Monte . . , 333 

CHAPTER III — Balmaceda's position — naval operations 

The opposing forces — The Tarapaca nitrate fields — The ap- 
proaching elections — Claudio Vicuna — The parliamentary presi- 
dent — General view of the struggle — Various naval engage- 
ments — Sinking the ' ' Blanco Encalada " — Exploits of the 
torpedo-catchers, " Condell " and "Lynch" . 345 

CHAPTER IV — Triumph of the revolution — the affair of the 


The government's forces — The new congress — Elections — Dia- 
bolical plots — The opposition army embarks for Quintero — 
The landing — Consternation — The battle of Concon, or Colmo 
— Balmaceda's efforts to bring forward a new army — Movements 
of the respective armies — The battle of Placilla — Defeat of the 
Balmacedist army — Flight of government officers — The affair 
of the "Lynch" — Wild scenes iu Valparaiso — Riotous acts in 
Santiago — Suicide of Balmaceda — Formation of a new govern- 
ment — Jorje Montt elected president — Claudio Vicuna in Paris 
Feeling between the United States and Chile — The real cause 
of the difficulty — Attack upon the sailors by a Valparaiso mob — 
The victims — Diplomatic correspondence — Settlement of the 
affair . . . . .... 336 



CHAPTER I — The people of chile 

Charactei- of the people — Tastes and habits — Scholars — Liberals 
and conservatives — Social traits — The ladies — Church-going — 


Santiago and Valparaiso society — The English in Chile — The 
Germans — Peons, their habits, dress and manner of living — 
Wakes — The Indian population — Character and habits of the 
Araucanians — Their huts, marriage, customs, religion, super- 
stitions, manners — Patagonian tribes — People of the extreme 
south ........... 372 

CHAPTER II — Extent and resources 

Boundaries and extent — Geography of the country — Climate — 
Rains — Rivers — Lakes — Crops — Grape culture — Irrigation — 
The southern districts — Forests — Immigration — Hardships en- 
countered by immigrants — Coal mines — Manufactures — Nitrate 
works — Minerals — Mines , , . . 386 

CHAPTER III— Natural history 

Physical divisions of the country — Mountains — Deserts — Valley 
and coast country — Lakes — Character of streams — Earth- 
quakes — Destruction of Concepcion — Harbors — Islands — 
Straits of Magellan — Juan Fernandez — Animals, reptiles, fish 
and birds — Forests — Plants — Vegetables — Fruits . . 398 

CHAPTER IV — Railroads — army and navy — educational 


Government ownership of railroads — Cost of same — Different 
lines in operation — The Transandine Railway — Other Traus- 
andine lines projected — Private lines — Military schools — The 
army — National Guard — The navy — Naval officers — Commer- 
cial fleet — Pacific Steam Navigation Company — Subsidies — Ed- 
ucation — Instructions in the capital — Lyceums — National 
library — Painting, music, science . , 409 

CHAPTER V — Cities and government 

The cities of Chile and their population — Description .of Santi- 
ago, Valparaiso, Concepcion and other places — Political parties 
— Character of the government — The president — Intendentes — 
Governors — Sub-delegates — Courts — Congress — Deputies — Po- 
litical divisions of the country ... . . 418 


Provinces and capitals — Debt, receipts and expenditures — Banks 

—Money . 423 

Constitution of Chile ... . 425 
Authorities for the History of Chile ... . 456 
Index 455 



Bernardo O'Higgins, . . . Frontispiece 

Jose de San Martin, . ... 133 

Manuel Blanco Encalada, ... . .179 

Railroad Bridge between Santiago and Valparaiso, . 241 

Houses of Congress, . 263 

Jos^ Manuel Balmaceda, . . . 329 

The Plaza Victoria, Valparaiso, . 363 

A Private Residence in Santiago, . . 377 

Plaza del Armas, Santiago, . . 418 


General Map of Chile, . . . .21 

Battle of Tacna, . . .299 

Closing Battles of the War of i8gi . . -359 




When Francisco Pizarro achieved the conquest of 
the ancient empire of Manco his sway was disputed 
by rivals. Chief among them were Almagro and Alvar- 
ado. Alvarado, Cortez' dashing captain, he who was 
called by the Mexicans Tonatiuh, set out from Guate- 
mala with an expedition to seize upon Atahualpa's 
northern kingdom of Quito in defiance of Pizarro's 
rights, but found himself so stubbornly opposed by 
Benalcazar, an old rebel chief of the north, that he 
was glad to welcome Almagro, who had been sent 
against him by Pizarro, and to sell out to him his 
fleet, army and pretensions. Then after witnessing 
and participating in a friendly tournament arranged 
in his honor by Pizarro and his officers at Pachaca- 
mac, Tonatiuh departed for his own country, taking 
leave of his successful rival with many expressions of 

With his other formidable rival, however, Pizarro 


was not so fortunate. Almagro was one of the three 
partners in the famous compact drawn up at Panama 
for the exploration and conquest of the unknown re- 
gions south of the equator, whence rumors of fabulous 
wealth had come to the ears of the Spaniards. Father 
Luque, the partner who had furnished the funds, and 
Almagro, had been content at first to allow Pizarro to 
carry out his hazardous enterprise without interfer- 
ence or dictation. But no sooner had the indomitable 
captain, with his adventurous cavaliers, conquered the 
disunited empire of the Incas and dragged Atahualpa 
from his golden throne at Caxamarca, than Almagro 
appeared with reinforcements and sought to share in 
the benefits of his partner's successes. Then bicker- 
ings began over the distribution of the immense boot}'. 
This great empire, which Tupac Yupanqui and Huayna 
Capac had built up and extended from the river Es- 
meraldas to the river Maule, conquering and subdu- 
ing both the ancient kingdom of Quito and, in the 
South, all the ancient northern tribes of Chile — an 
empire containing, as some say, ten millions of souls, 
and with as high a civilization as that of Egypt — this 
beautiful and wealthy empire had poured its immense 
treasures into the little town of Caxamarca to ransom 
its beloved Inca from the hands of a corporal's guard 
of Spaniards. In a few weeks, Pizarro and his cava- 
liers had become immensely rich ; what more natural 
than that this sliould excite the envy of Almagro and 
his men, who arrived too late to share in the distribu- 
tion of the booty. Strifes and rivalries began, which, 
with frequent hypocritical reconciliations between 
the leaders, were kept up between Pizarro and his 
partisans on one hand and Almagro and his followers 
on the -other, until the battle of Las Salinas (April 
1538), removed Almagro, the father, and the battle of 


Chupas (Sept. 1542), led to the downfall of the son, 
Diego. Francisco Pizarro, too, came to his death 
because of this feud with the Almagrians ; he was 
assassinated by young Diego Almagro's followers, June 
26, 1541. 

In the contention between Almagro and Pizarro 
begins the Spanish history of Chile.* Almagro, the 
Marshal, as he was usually termed by the early Span- 
ish writers, was sent by Pizarro to Cuzco to take com- 
mand of the ancient Inca capital, in the early part of 
the year 1535. He had so far smothered his animos- 
ity, as to consent to take this command under his 
ancient partner, in obedience to a royal mandate. 
Pizarro also empowered him, either personally or 
through his officers, to undertake the discovery and 
conquest of the countries lying to the south of the 
Atacama desert. Pizarro's seemingly friendly object 
was soon apparent. Almagro had been suspicious of 
his rival, and had taken the precaution to send em- 
issaries to Spain when Hernando Pizarro had under- 
taken a mission to the mother country in the interests 
of his brother. Hernando's mission had resulted in 
the royal confirmation of his brother's grants. Know- 
ing that Almagro had agents at court to represent his 
interests, Hernando had not dared to unfairly present 
the partner's claims, so that Almagro was empowered 
by King Charles, to discover and occupy all that coun- 
try lying south of Pizarro's grant for a distance of 
about six hundred miles. The royal commissions were 
delayed, but Pizarro at Lima had an intimation of 
their contents. The boundary of Pizarro's territory 
on the south was not clearly defined, so that when 
tidings from his agent reached Almagro at Cuzco he 

♦Ferdinand Magellan had passed the straits bearing his name in 1520, in the 
first circumnavigation of the globe, and touched at the island of Chiloe. 


felt elated at finding himself at last independent of the 
Pizarros and forthwith intimated that he acknowledged 
now no other superior than his king. In this, 
Almagro was upheld by his partisans and the claim 
was urged that Cuzco fell within his grant. Pizarijo, 
not as yet made acquainted with the fact that his own 
territory had been extended by the royal grant a dis- 
tance of two hundred miles farther south, sought to 
anticipate Almagro's claims, which he knew his rival 
would set up as soon as the royal commission, which 
had been delayed, had arrived. He, therefore, sent his 
brothers, Juan and Gonzalo, to Cuzco to reassume 
there the command which they had yielded to Almagro 
by their brother's previous orders. But Almagro had 
received tidings from his secret agent, as we have 
seen, and the feud was already ripe. Pizarro, how- 
ever, did not court a resort to arms with his old part- 
ner, at this time, so the difference was temporarily 
arranged by a compact, in which the Almighty was 
called upon to visit death and loss of property upon 
him who should not strictly adhere to its terms. These 
compacts were often resorted to by Pizarro, and as 
often broken as made, which was the case in this in- 

Almagro now undertook the project of subjugating 
Chile. He sent forward Paullu Topu, a brother of 
the Inca Manco, the Incarial successor of Atahualpa, 
accompanied by Villac Umu, the Cuzco high priest, 
and three Spaniards, to prepare the wa}' by negotia- 
tion with the natives. Paullu and the venerated Villac 
were to use their influence to pave the way for the 
Spaniards with the Inca's subjects south of the Ata- 
cama desert, who had been brought under the Cuzco 
domination by the renowned Inca Yupanqui, grand- 
father of Atahualpa and Huascar, about a century 


before this time. A detachment of about 150 men 
under a Spanish captain, named Saavedra (he who after- 
ward discovered and named Valparaiso) next followed. 
Almagro himself tarried in Cuzco a while, attending to 
the collecting of recruits, but, suspecting that Pizarro 
was again trying to circumvent him, he set forth 
before his levies were completed, leaving orders that 
the remainder of his forces should follow him as soon 
as they could be brought together. 

So at the end of the year 1535, Almagro, with san- 
guine hopes of attaining immense booty — ^for reports 
of the immense wealth of Chile had been repeatedly 
received by the Spaniards in Peru^ — set out over the 
mountains upon one of the Inca's great military roads 
with an army of 570 Spaniards and about 15,000 Peru- 
vians commanded by Paullu. Great stone-flagged mili- 
tary roads radiated from Cuzco into every part of the 
Incarial empire. Two of these roads led to Chile ; 
one followed the trend of the seacoast across the des- 
ert of Atacama, where for three hundred miles there is 
neither shrub nor water nor living thing ; the other 
passed over the snow-capped Andes for a distance of 
over one hundred miles. The latter road was the one 
selected by Almagro, perhaps because it was the short- 
er route, or it may be because his Indian allies 
warned him against encountering the dangers of the 
great Atacama desert. The desert, however, could 
not have caused them worse fatigues and hardships 
than they encountered in crossing the mountains. On 
account of the intense cold and the frequent skir- 
mishes with savages, 150 Spaniards and 10,000 Peru- 
vians perished amid the gloomy forests of pine, in 
the gorges of snow, and upon the barren table- lands — 
the desolate despoblados where shrubs never grew. It 
was just at the beginning of winter, when snow covers 


the passes, which in summer are passable. The army 
was now destitute of provisions and not clad for this 
wintry climate. The unfortunate natives were com- 
pelled to do service as beasts of burden, chained to- 
gether in gangs, and were in other ways treated with 
the harshest cruelty. This Almagro affected to depre- 
cate, but his own conduct afterward in causing a 
large company of Chileans to be burned alive for the 
massacre of three of his men by some outraged 
Indians, would seem to indicate that he was not sin- 
cere in his expressions of displeasure concerning some 
of the cruelties perpetrated by his men upon this and 
other occasions. 

The expedition might have perished in the moun- 
tain defiles, leaving no survivor to tell the story, had 
not the veteran commander — now nearly seventy years 
of age — pushed forward resolutely with a small party 
of his horsemen and obtained timely relief from the 
natives at Copiapo. By this assistance those Span- 
iards with the more robust constitutions and a few of 
the Peruvians were enabled to extricate themselves 
from the snows of the mountains. 

They emerged into the green vales of Chile.* The 
natives at first were friendly, and received the new- 
comers with hospitality, because of their respect for 
Paullu. Almagro dispatched an officer in advance 
with a strong party to ascertain the character of the 
country to the south. A party of his recruits soon 
arrived under the intrepid Orgaiiez. Almagro also 
received sometime after this, his long delayed royal 
warrant defining his grant and powers. It appeared 
quite probable that Cuzco fell within his jurisdiction, 
and many of his men urged his return to take posses- 

*A word perhaps derived from the Quichna word Chiri (cold), for many Peru- 
vian words seem to have crept into the Chilean language. Or, perhaps, it may 
have been from Tchile (snow). 



sion of Cuzco. "You will," they said, "by so doing, 
confer a great boon and blessing upon your young son, 
Diego, who will be your heir." Friends at Cuzco also 
sent him letters, privately urging him to return and 
take possession of the capital. But the persevering 
commander — having encouraged his soldiers by a lar- 
gess of 500,000 ducats worth of gold, which Paullu 
had compelled the natives to bring in, in order that 
he might show his own importance to his leader — 
pressed forward through the beautiful country, dotted 
everywhere with busy villages and giving evidence of 
a considerable degree of industrial progress and civil- 

The primitive inhabitants of Chile had not, indeed, 
arrived at the degree. of urban civilization possessed 
by PauUu's followers, by the Inca's subjects at Cuzco 
and by the numerous Peruvian cities and villages, 
such as Xauxa, Huamachuco, Huanuco, Caxamarca, 
and Tumbez, cities scattered throughout the old Incar- 
ial empire. Nor were their power and prestige equal 
to that of the old Quitoan kingdom, which Atahu- 
alpa's father, the renowned Huayna Capac, had 
wrested from the last Sc3'ri, who died of a broken 
heart when his scepter fell, while Huayna married his 
beautiful daughter and ingratiated himself into the 
hearts of his subjects, the valiant people of the north. 

During the time that Huayna was extending the 
Incarial power and prestige toward the north, Yupan- 
qui, his father, was subjugating Chile, through his 
famous general, Sinchi Rocca. The northern tribes, 
the Copiapins (or Copaj^apuans), Cuquimpuans, Quil- 
lotanes and Mapochinians, were reduced to subjection. 
Promaucians (Pururnaneaes, or Promaucaes) allied 
with the Pencones and Cauques resisted Sinchi Rocca 
so successfully in a four day's battle that it is doubt- 


ful if the Incarial arms were ever borne bej'ond the 
river Maule.* Thus the southern tribes of Chile, 
the Promaucians, Cur^s, Cauques, Pencones, Araucan- 
ians, Cunches, Chilotes, Chiquilanians, Pehuenches, 
Puelcbes and Huilh'ches, were free from the power- 
ful autonomy of Cuzco, and at this time primitive 
manners, laws and customs prevailed among them. 
And even with the northern tribes, the Incas had not 
dared to hazard the attempt to introduce their form 
of government, language and manners, as they were 
wont to do when they had conquered a new territory ; 
so that the Spaniards found everywhere among the 
fifteen tribes inhabiting Chile, primitive manners, laws 
and usages. 

We can imagine with what curiosity the invaders 
looked upon the natives as they wended their way 
southward. Here was a people who had risen above 
savagery and had reached the stage of settled com- 
munities, cultivating the soil, mining, and carrying 
on all the industries usual to semi-civilized races. 
They spoke a language, which for richness of vocabu- 
lary and harmony of sound, was scarcely inferior to 
the cultivated Quichua of the Incas. So complete 
was their language that a grammar could be formed, 
in fact, one has been formed, and a volume would be 
necessary to contain its radical and compound words. 

Chile, like Peru, Mexico and Central America, 
as the architectural remains would indicate, had once 
been the home of a race more highly civilized than 
the warring tribes with which Almagro and his follow- 
ers now became acquainted. Undoubtedly the people 
of Chile had once been of one nation, for all the tribes 

*GarciUasso says they went onward to "the valley of Chile," which has been 
thouRht to be the valley of Mapocho. By some it is thought that the river 
Rapel was as far as the Inca fixed his southern boundary, as there were remains 
there of what appeared to be an ancient Peruvian fortress. 


spoke the same language and bore general physical 
resemblance to each other. They were all men of 
great strength, those of the mountains exceeding the 
ordinary height of man, so that .at Cuzco they &poke 
of "Atacama giants." Their complexion was reddish 
brown, the typical Indian color, but of a lighter hue 
than that of other Indians. One tribe, indeed, is 
spoken of as being nearly white. 

As in Peru, so also there, Almagro and his conquista- 
dores beheld substailtial aqueducts for watering the 
fields, which were fertilized and highly cultivated. 
Though the Chilean plow was a mere wooden spade, 
yet so industrious were the people that they grew 
immense crops of maize, potatoes, magu, guegan, 
tuca, pulses of all kinds, and various other plants and 
vegetables. They had domesticated a rabbit and the 
Araucanian camel, and tradition says they had pigs 
and fowls, but tradition is not always reliable. They 
cooked all their food, made bread, using a sieve to 
sift their meal and leaven to raise their dough. 

They used nearly a dozen different kinds of spirit- 
uous liquors, and were as habituated to drunkenness 
as the Peruvians. They had no large cities, as had 
the Peruvians and Mexicans, but gathered themselves 
together in patriarchal hamlets, each of which was 
ruled by a chief, or ulmen, who in turn was subject to 
a supreme cacique holding power over the whole tribe. 
The right of private property was everywhere recog- 
nized. Each farmer was absolute master of the field 
he cultivated and he could transmit it to his children ; 
this was unlike the Peruvian paternal system, where 
the soil was considered to be the Inca's by divine and 
paternal right and was by him apportioned in topus to 
his subjects. Here, in fact, was the radical difference 
between that wonderful paternal system, which had 


been gradually built up in Peru through fifteen or 
more generations of Yupanquis and Amautas, and the 
Chilean system. The Chileans were somewhat like 
tlie ancient free German tribes, the Peruvians were 
subjected to a Persian or Egyptian absolutism. The 
Peruvians submitted to authority and formed an invin- 
cible empire; the Chileans, lovers of liberty then as 
they ever sines have been, were the Highlanders, the 
Swiss, of the ancient Pacific coast nations. They 
were even jealous of the inherited prerogatives of 
their own ulmenes and toquis, and maintained their 
democratic love of freedom to the uttermost. In conse- 
quence of this, the Chileans could not be subjugated by 
the imprisonment of a Montezuma or Atahualpa ; they 
were bushwackers and had to be fought in about the 
same manner as the colonists of the United States 
fought the five nations. Almagro had no easy task 
before him in essaying to do what Yupanqui had 
failed to accomplish. For many generations the 
invincible Araucanians could maintain their indepen- 
dence against Spanish arms, long after the subjects 
of Montezuma and of Atahualpa had bowed their 
heads beneath the Spanish yoke and became merged 
with their conquerors. It is the mountaineers who 
preserve the liberties of men, perpetuate courage and 
individuality, and infuse regenerating life blood into 
nations and society which highly complex civiliza- 
tions tend to corrupt. 

These Chilean Indians, like their Peruvian neigh- 
bors, manufactured cloth for garments, making use 
of the spindle, distaff and loom ; the women sewed 
and embroidered. They made excellent clay pots, 
cups, plates and jars. Not only did they use clay in 
their manufactures, they also made utensils from wood 
and even from marble, as did the Peruvians, polishing. 


painting and varnishing them. They mined gold, 
silver, copper, tin and lead and made therefrom orna- 
ments, utensils, axes, hatchets and edged tools. 
They manufactured salt upon the seashore and ex- 
tracted it from the mountains. They made fixed dyes, 
used the bark of the quillai for soap, and from seeds 
they made oil. They made baskets and mats, robes, 
fishhooks and canoes. Their arms were as well manu- 
factured as those of the Peruvians or Aztecs. They 
had invented numbers by which they could express any 
quantity ; they used a mnemonical device similiar to the 
Peruvian quipu — a bunch of interwoven colored threads 
and knots — by means of which they preserved the mem- 
ory of their transactions. They had, like the Peruvians, 
only incongruous notions of art, and were even less 
skilful in drawing and carving ; but they had made 
considerable progress in physics and astronomy. 

The Araucanians, at least, and perhaps other tribes 
as well, worshiped the sun and moon, and, like the 
Peruvians, called themselves the "children of the 
sun." Death they considered a long sleep during 
which time they passed to a happy country on the 
other side of the great sea. Like the Puritan fathers, 
they believed in witches, and stabbed bewitched per- 
sons to death with daggers. They had few laws, but 
these were executed with Draconian severity, capital 
punishment with tortures being usual. They were in 
those days, like the Inca's subjects, a cleanly people, 
performed ablutions after each meal, took especial 
care of the teeth and were so fastidious that thej' 
were careful never to let a hair appear on their faces, 
or even grow on their bodies. They were as scrupu- 
lous about such matters as were the ancient Egyptian 
priests. The women were clad modestly with a 
woolen dress of greenish color, a girdle and a short 


cloak ; the men wore woolen ponchos, also of greenish 
color, shirt, vest, breeches, bandages of wool around 
their heads and, those of the higher classes, woolen 
boots or sandals. 

Such were the people dwelling in the fertile valleys 
of Chile, when Almagro and his little army descended 
from the mountains and astonished them with their 
prancing war horses, glittering armor, flashing weapons 
and thundering guns. The Spanish chroniclers say 
they found the valleys filled with inhabitants, and 
doubtless the population then was not so far below 
the rural population of Chile at the present day. 
Here was a country densely populated, with valleys 
as fertile as any under the skies, with an ocean front 
of nearly 2500 miles, an average "breadth of 140 miles, 
covering over 300,000 square miles stretching from 
the desert of Atacama to the Straits of Magellan, 
watered by more than 100 rivers of considerable size, 
enwalled by the towering Andes where fourteen vol- 
canoes belched smoke constantly and others occasion- 
ally, and protected against invasion from the north by 
three hundred miles of treeless, verdureless desert. 
Here was as favored a land, that the veteran Almagro 
looked down upon from the Andean passes, as the 
land flowing with milk and honey which the storied 
one of old beheld from "Nebo's lonely mountain." 
Here was a climate quite as salubrious as that of Italy 
or California, where thunder storms are unknown, 
rains gentle and winds attuned to an Eolian pitch; 
where in many districts, the hills are verdant and the 
valleys and plains covered with crops and fruitage and 
carpeted with flowers ; where the bowels of the earth 
are full of metals, both precious and useful. 

Coming down from the moimtains into these valleys, 
feasting their eyes upon this verdant landscape, upon 



all this incomparable natural beauty, mingling with 
these strange pastoral and agricultural Indians, Alma- 
gro and his men had but one thought in mind, gold, 
gold! They would not have taken the stretch of 
mountains, valleys, rivers and cultivated farms as a 
gift, had this been Elysium itself. How different was 
the colony which Valdivia afterward led into the 
country to establish cities and colonize the valleys. 
Gold was the object of the toil and search of these 
Almagrians, and when the expedition sent forward to 
make explorations returned after about two months, 
bringing unpromising accounts of the southern re- 
gions of Chile, there arose at once a clamor to return 
to Peru. Almagro listened to those who maintained 
that Cuzco lay within his grant, yielded to the impor- 
tunities of his men, and, with little reluctance, decided 
to take up his return march to Peru by way of the 
desert of Atacama. 

During his stay in Chile, which with his going 
and returning was from the latter part of the year 1535 
to the first part of the year 1538, Almagro accom- 
plished but little toward the making of his grant a 
Spanish province. He founded no important settle- 
ments, left no good impressions upon the minds of 
the natives. While at Copiapo he adopted Pizarro's 
tactics and undertook to ingratiate himself with one 
faction of the natives by ousting a usurping ulmen 
and reinstating a lawful heir. He gained the desired 
object : the natives applauded this seeming act of 
justice. But the contrary result followed his efforts 
at disciplining the aborigines. Two marauding sol- 
diers were put to death by Indians at Huasco. For 
this Almagro, having proceeded to Coquimbo, put to 
death by burning, the ulmen, the ulmen's brpthef — > 


the same who was the usurper at Copiapo — and twenty 
other natives. 

From this time the aspect of affairs with the natives 
grew ominous. As they advanced further into the 
country of the Promaucians, the Spaniards were 
opposed with much intrepidity. On the banks of a 
foaming mountain river an engagement took place. 
Almagro put forward his Peruvrans under Paullu, but 
they were soon routed. The Spanish cavalry advanced 
and a furious battle raged until nightfall. The 
Promaucians were not defeated, though they had been 
severely punished ; the following morning they were 
ready to renew the fight. But the Spaniards, though 
not defeated, thought it not worth their while to fight 
with no booty in sight. They retreated, and Alma- 
gro, still urged by some of his followers and more and 
more impressed by the letters he had received from 
his friends in Cuzco, determined to return to Peru, 
as we have already stated. 

The subsequent career of this intrepid Spaniard 
does not concern us in a history of Chile, so that we 
will give it in a few words. Upon his return he took 
possession of Cuzco, and, after several futile efforts to 
negotiate a settlement with Pizarro, fought the battle 
of Las Salinas in 1538 with Pizarro's brother, though 
too infirm to sit upon his horse at the time. His forces 
were defeated, but he himself made his escape to 
Cuzco. He was captured, thrown into irons, tried, 
condemned on a pretended charge of levying war 
against the crown and conspiring with the Inca, and 
executed as a public disturber by the Pizarros. By 
the terms of the royal grant he was authorized to 
name his successor; this he did, naming his minor 
son, Diego. Diego, as we have seen, did nothing to 
further the Spanish interests in Chile. Almagro's old 


veterans, called "the men of Chile," to the number of 
several hundred, remained scattered throughout Peru, 
feeling the most bitter hatred of the Pizarros for the 
deprivations and insults to which they were constant- 
ly subjected. They became young Diego's active par- 
tisans and compassed the death of Francisco Pizarro, 
but were at last defeated at the battle of Chupas, which 
decisive engagement ended the factional wars and 
bickerings so long continued between the adherents of 
Almagro and those of the Pizarros. Another leader, 
Pedro de Valdivia, is more intimately connected with 
the opening of Chile to Spanish interests than Alma- 



A marble statue of Valdivia on the hill of Santa 
Lucia, at Santiago, tells us that the "valeroso capitati" 
was 'primer gobernador de Chile," and founded Santi- 
ago on the i2th of February, 1541. History further 
tells us that the valiant conquistador was Pizarro's 
quartermaster, a prudent officer, (a statement which 
his'career in Chile does not altogether justify), an 
active officer, (as he certainlj' was), who had gained 
experience in the Italian wars. He unquestionably 
possessed a superior mind, great political ability and 
a high order of militarj' talents, and there is not 
imputed to him many of those acts of cruelty which 
stain the escutcheons of so many of the early Spanish 
conquerors. True, some of the old records hint at 
cruelties which he exercised toward the natives ; but 
considering the character of the Araucanians and 
their allies with whom he had to deal, this is not sur- 
prising, as that was not an age for delicate sensibili- 
ties and the Spanish conquistadores were not wont to 
resort often to mere mild words of persuasion in their 
conquests. But we read of no needless shedding of 

blood by Pedro de Valdivia, as we do in the case of 



Almagro, and there are few revolting pages in the his- 
tory of his early Chilean conquests, not more in fact, 
than in the pages of English conquests. 

Valdivia's great fault was his overweening confi- 
dence in his own prowess and military strength. Per- 
haps he had been led to think, from his former 
acquaintance with Indian warfare in Peru, that twelve 
Spanish knights, chivalrous and bold, were able any- 
where to cope with the whole Araucanian army. This 
confidence in Spanish valor, led to his death and the 
almost total destruction of his seven cities, which he 
had supposed himself able to defend with a handful 
of Spanish cavaliers and a small army of uncertain 
allies. He knew not the enemies with whom he had 
to cope. 

The river Biobio is the Rhine of South Amer- 
ica. From the middle of the sixteenth to the 
middle of the nineteenth century, hardy and warlike 
tribes of Indians have maintained this as their front- 
ier, and have doggedly resisted every encroachment 
upon their territories and combated every effort at 
their subjugation. Only since 1882 have the Araucan- 
ians become true subjects of the Chilean government ; 
only since 1889 have the Indians of Southern Chile so 
far submitted to the civil authorities as to permit the 
withdrawal of military supervision. Fifty thousand of 
them still remain in a state of half dependence, living 
under the protectorate of the Chilean government, but 
still maintaining pertinaciously their primitive habits, 
and loath to permit their pure blood to mix with that 
of the Spaniards. They are still proud, independent, 
well-built, well-dressed, and industrious, though con- 
firmed drunkards. They have been the most heroic, 
the most persistent, of the American Indians ; but, 
like the cognate races of the western hemisphere, 


they at last have succumbed to superior arms and 
numbers and will soon be known only in history. 
Still this almost unconquerable race leaves behind a 
hardy progeny and infuses its valor into the very air of 
Chile, until to-day the little republic stands at the 
head of Spanish-America, the most war-like, the most 
pugnacious and uncompromising of all the minor 
nations of the earth. These Southern Chilean tribes 
apparently withstood the conquering arms of the 
ancient Incarial dynasties, which for ages rose and 
fell in Peru like the Pharoahs of Egypt ; for three 
centuries and a half they have fought for their liber- 
ties against the dominant race, raising up hero after 
hero like the Highlands of Scotland, until Chile, like 
Scotland, has heroism quickening the flow of her blood 
by all the memories of her historic past. Therefore, 
Chile is aggressive, heroic and progressive. 

We have already given a brief epitome of the 
appearance, habits and customs of the natives Alma- 
gro found occupying Chile when he first descended 
into its verdant valleys. Some insight into the mili- 
tary system, social organization and disposition of the 
Araucanians and their allies, should be here given, 
that we may better know the character of the enemies 
with whom Valdivia had to cope. 

These Indians have from time immemorial inhab- 
ited the country lying south of the river Biobio, their 
territory extending to the vicinity of the city of Val- 
divia, and covering all the region between the Andes 
and the Pacific. The province of Arauco gives the 
leading tribe its appellation, or rather, perhaps, the 
province is named after the tribe. Thev divided their 
country into four political divisions running from north 
to south, calling each divison a uthul-mapu. The first 
was named in their language the Maritime country 



and comprised the provinces of Arauco, Tucapel, Illi- 
cura, Boroa and Nagtollen; the next, the plain coun- 
'try, comprised Encol, Puren, Repocura, Maquegua 
and Mariquina; the country at the foot of the moun- 
tains, included Marven, Colhue, Chacajco, Queche- 
regua and Guanagua ; the country of the Andes — Pire- 
mapu — included all the valleys "of the mountains inhab- 
ited by the allied tribe, the Puelches. They had 
three orders of nobility, the toquis, who stood at the 
head of each uthul-mapu, the apo-ulmenes who gov- 
erned provinces under the toquis, the ulmenes who 
were the chiefs and under the apo-ulmenes. 

The military system was efficiently organized. A 
grand council determined upon war, and elected a 
general-in-chief, to whom all the toquis and ulmenes 
were subjected, and whom they implicitly obeyed dur- 
ing the continuance of hostilities. Envoys were then 
dispatched to the confederate tribes; each toqui 
directed what number of men his uthul-mapu should 
furnish, and in this way an army of five or six thou- 
sand men could be soon raised. 

Before proceeding to hostilities, a three days con- 
ference, at which everyone was permitted to speak, 
was held, when the situation of enemies, condition of 
affairs, and necessity for war, were thoroughly can- 
vassed. If war was decided upon, the vice-toqui, who 
had been previously selected, assumed command of 
the right wing of the army, assigned the left wing to 
an experienced officer and then each soldier put on his 
leathern cuirass, took up his heavy war club or long 
spear, and prepared to die with his face to the foe, 
rather than flee the battlefield. Impressed, like the 
Saracens, with the idea that to die in battle is the 
highest earthly honor and a sure passport to the happy 
country beyond, they advanced singly to combat, and. 


shouting like fiends, sought to penetrate to the center 
of their enemy's forces in a hand to hand encounter. 

Their foes discomfited, they divided the spoils of 
war and enslaved their prisoners, sometimes offering 
up one or more of them to propitiate their gods of 
war, after they had humiliated the captives with all 
the marks of ignomin}' they could devise and had 
heaped innumerable execrations upon the principal 
leaders of their enemy. Usually there was but one 
prisoner sacrificed ; when dead, the leaders sucked a 
little blood from the victim's warm heart, and then his 
skull was formed into a bowl from which wine, in true 
Hunnic fashion, was drunk at a banquet. At the ter- 
mination of their wars with the Spaniards, a congress 
was always called on a plain situated between the Bio- 
bio and Duqueco rivers, where the Spanish president and 
the vice-toqui met in the presence of the armies and 
agreed upon the articles of peace. 

The Araucanians made war a principal business, 
and their youths were early instructed in the use of 
arms, seldom punished, and were even applauded for 
lying and insolence. It was a saying with them, that 
chastisement makes men cowardly. We do not read 
of their having such grand military contests and chiv- 
alrous initiations as the Incas provided for the young 
men in their annual huaracus, but there were man)' 
military games in which the boys engaged ; the games 
called pejico and palican were those most participated 
in, the first of these being a mimic siege of a fortress, 
the second having every appearance of a drawn battle. 
Having given some general insight into the political 
and military organization, the disposition and appear- 
ance of the Araucanians, we will now turn our atten- 
tion again to Pedro de Yaldivia. 

By the death of the elder Almagro, Pizarro fancied 



himself in a position to attempt the conquest of Chile, 
which he supposed might prove an important acquisi- 
tion to his possessions. Two cavaliers, Pedro San- 
chez de Hoz and Carmargo had been sent out by 
Spain after the death of Almagro to subjugate and 
take possession of Chile. Pizarro ignored the royal 
commission held by these men, and, with characteris- 
tic assurance, appointed for the undertaking Pedro de 
Valdivia, his own quartermaster, whom he directed to 
command the forces destined for Chile and to take De 
Hoz with him. Valdivia thereupon determined to 
form a permanent settlement in the new country, and 
for that purpose arranged that his little army, con- 
sisting of two hundred Spaniards and a considerable 
body of Peruvian auxiliaries, should be accompanied 
by a number of priests and women ; also, that every- 
thing requisite for a new settlement should be taken 
with them. 

Crossing the Andes in summer, the cortege arrived 
without losses upon the northern confines of Chile, 
where they were met by the natives, who opposed 
there progress at every turn as they wended their way 
through Copiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota and Melipilla. 
These provinces had formerly been under the Inca's 
domination, but with the fall of Atahualpa had found 
themselves free. They were not, however, united, 
and were, therefore, unable to make common cause 
against the Spaniards, who pushed on, despite con- 
stant skirmishes, to the vicinity of the present Santi- 
ago. Here the leader determined to make a settle- 
ment. It was far enough from Peru, being six hun- 
dred miles distant, to render it a difficult matter for 
his soldiers to desert him and return; the fertility of 
the surrounding country and the great natural advan- 
tages appeared to him to make it a suitable place to 


plant his colony. Here then on February 14, 1541, 
he established a town which he called St. Jago, in 
honor of the apostle; and this is Santiago, a city 
which, two centuries later, contained less than a hun- 
dred thousand people, and which in 1892 had a popu- 
lation of more than two hundred thousand. A cathe- 
dral, bishop's palace and government buildings were 
immediately erected, magistrates appointed and a 
fort constructed upon the hill of Santa Lucia. 

The Mapochinians were not disposed to look upon 
this settlement in their territory in a friendly spirit, 
and soon organized an active opposition. Valdivia, 
suspecting their designs, confined some of the chiefs 
in the fortress, then went with sixty cavaliers to the 
river Cachapoal to watch the movements of the neigh- 
boring Promaucians, whom he suspected of being 
about to unite with their neighbors in an uprising. 
The Mapochinians availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity afforded them by the absence of the commander 
to fall furiously upon the colony. One half of the 
new town was reduced to ashes; the inhabitants fled 
to the citadel where they defended themselves against 
repeated onslaughts. A woman among them seized 
a hatchet, and, single handed, beat out the brains 
of the captive chiefs. Inez Suarez can hardh' be 
eulogized as a Joan of Arc for this zealous act, as 
the death of the chieftains in no way aided Val- 
divia's cause, or dismayed the Mapochinians. From 
daybreak to nightfall the battle raged around the cita- 
del, fresh hordes of assailants constantly taking the 
places of those that fell. Alonzo Monroy, who had 
been left in command of the fortress, communicated 
with Valdivia during the day, and the latter, upon 
receiving the dispatch, returned hurriedly to the scene 
of the conflict. The Indians posted themselves on 


the banks of the river Mapocho where they fought 
desperately, but were slaughtered by the incessant 
musketry until they were obliged to fly the field. 
Though so roughly handled, they again and again 
renewed the contest, until the fruitful valley of the 
Mapocho was laid waste and the ancient tribe, giving 
it its name, utterly ruined. For six years this deso- 
lating war lasted, until the colony of St. Jago was 
reduced to starvation, and in desperation, organized 
a conspiracy to take Valdivia's life and then return to 
Peru. Discovering this disaffection in time, the com- 
mander caused the ringleaders to be executed, and 
then sought to regain the confidence of the colonists 
by instilling into their minds flattering hopes for the 
future. Fortunately gold was discovered in the ancient 
mines of the valley of Quillota in such paying quan- 
tities that soon no one thought of quitting Chile. 
A frigate was built and dispatched to Peru for aid and 



The history of these early days in Chile has its 
Pocahontas story. It runs in this wise : As the state 
of affairs at Santiago was in a critical condition, Val- 
divia determined to send Monroy and Miranda, with 
six companions in arms and thirty men on horseback, 
to Peru for assistance. With spurs and caparisons of 
gold, that they might make an enviable impression 
upon their countrymen in Peru, tliey set forth over- 
land. At Copiapo they were attacked by a certain 
Coteo, whose band destroyed the whole compan}', 
sparing only the two leaders. These they brought 
before the ulmen, who decided to put them to death 
forthwith, by some sort of refined torture. The ul- 
men's wife thereupon interceded for their lives, and, 
having softened the cacique's savage heart, unbound 
the captives, dressed their wounds, and then made a 
certain request of them, which was in substance that 
they should teach her son to ride a horse. This they 
promised to do. But while they were giving his 
young highness his first lesson, Monroy stabbed him ; 
at the same time Miranda seized a lance and put the 
guards to flight. Not stopping to say adieu to their 


benefactress, they made their escape across the Ata- 
cama desert to Cuzco. This treachery the Copiapaua 
avenged three years afterward by massacring a party 
of forty Spaniards. 

Vaco de Castro was at that time at the head of the 
Peruvian governmerit, and having been informed by 
tlie emissaries of the condition of affairs in Chile, dis- 
patched thither a company under Monroy, and furtlier 
sent recruits, under Juan Bapista Pastene, hy sea. 

Pastene upon his arrival was immediately dispatched 
by Valdivia to explore the southern coast of Chile as 
far as the Straits of Magellan. Having accomplished 
this task, he thereupon sent back to Peru for more 
recruits, for the Indians were vvarlike and seemed 
likely to cause further trouble. They had succeeded 
by a bold stratagem in massacring ail the soldiers in 
the Quillota mines. As the Inca Manco had at one 
time led the credulous Spaniards out of Cuzco into an 
ambush to look in a thicket for a golden statue of 
Huayna Capac, so the Quillotanes had deluded Gon- 
zalo Rios and his companions at the mines and led 
them a will-o'-the wisp chase after a fanciful pot of 
gold. They found not the pot of gold, more than 
Soto did El Dorado, but they did fall tumultuously 
into an ambuscade, which had been cunningly pre- 
pared for them, from which only Rios and a negro 
escaped. The arsenal and the new frigate which had 
shortly before been built, were thereupon destroyed 
by the Indians. 

The indomitable Valdivia immediately punished the 
natives, built a fort to protect the miners thenceforth, 
and continued the mining operations. 

Sometime afterward (1544), the commander founded 
the city of La Serena at the mouth of the Coquimbo, 
naming it in honor of the place of his birth. The 


name Coquimbo, however, was too old to be replaced, 
and soon prevailed over that of La Serena which Val- 
divia gave it. This settlement was made primarily as a 
strategical point in the north, but it was situated in 
a fertile plain and soon became the center of a thriv- 
ing province. 

The next year (1545) was occupied in extending the 
Spanish authority over the territory of the warlike 
Promaucians. No battles are recorded, and it appears 
probable that the Promaucians were induced to join 
the Spaniards against their foes the Araucanians, 
whence sprang up the antipathy which has ever since 
existed between the former and the latter tribes. The 
following year Valdivia extended his conquests south 
to the river Itata, but there met with such reverses in 
a skirmish with the natives at a place called Quilacura, 
that he decided to halt there and make that for a 
while the limit of his conquered possessions ; retrac- 
ing his steps, he returned to Santiago. 

He had been long expecting supplies and recruits 
from Peru. These not arriving, the commander 
decided to go thither himself and raise a company of 
troops sufficient in size for his purpose of conquering 
the Araucanians. Leaving Francisco de Villagran as 
acting governor in his absence, and taking with him 
a large quantity of gold, Valdivia set sail with Pastene 
for Peru, where, at this time, a civil war was in pro- 
gress between Gasco and Gonzalo Pizarro. Valdivia 
was in time to fight under Gasco's standard, in polite 
forgetfulness of his old-time obligations to the Piz- 
arros, for which service he was rewarded by a con- 
firmation of his title as governor of Chile — a confirm- 
ation he had been long seeking — and given a vast 
amount pf rnilitary stores, with two boat loads of Peru- 


vian adventurers, who afterward proved a menace to 
his colonies. 

Villagran had taken it upon himself during Val- 
divia's absence to rid his superior of the unwelcome 
presence of De Hoz, who, as will be remembered, had 
been deprived of his royally -commissioned rights 
by Pizarro at the time of Valdivia's appointment for the 
Chilean campaign. Whether or not De Hoz was now 
plotting to usurp the government as charged, may be 
questionable, but he had, at least, acted foolishly in 
keeping himself in the way of his rival. Villagran 
had him publicly beheaded, thus pleasing his master 
no doubt, even if he had not been secretly instructed 
to essay this dastardly piece of diplomacy. 

The Copiapins, having been successful in killing a 
party of Spaniards in revenge for Munro3''s and Mir- 
anda's cruelty practised while ostensibly teaching 
their young prince horsemanship, were emulated by 
the Coquimbanes, who at this time rose up and razed 
La Serena to the ground, massacring all the inhabi- 
tants there. Francisco Aguirre,was ordered thither, 
punished the revolting natives, and became the founder 
of the new town, which he built in a more advanta- 
geous location. 

Valdivia had now been nine years in Chile. Hav- 
ing effectually conquered and settled the country', he 
now apportioned the land among his followers, in a 
manner somewhat like the feudal tenures of Europe. 
Each a^ssignment carried with it the Indians who 
might be living upon it at the time. Thus each 
soldier became a sort of baron, and the rights of the 
natives were but little taken into account. 

Having received a large body of recruits, Valdivia 
again undertook his southern campaign. He journeyed 
240 miles southward from Santiago and halted on the 


shore of the bay of Penco, which Pastene had ex- 
plored some time before. There on the 5th da)' of 
October, 1550, the city of Concepcion was founded, 
being the third of Chile in historical sequence. The 
place was destroyed by earthquakes in 1757, and in 
1764 New Concepcion was established further south. 

Concepcion was founded within a territory whose 
inhabitants did not intend to become chattels upon 
Spanish repartos, for their forefathers had long re- 
sisted the Incarial mitimaes. The surrounding tribes 
made common cause with their neighbors and allies, 
the Araucanians, to whom they usually looked for 
assistance, and the latter resolved to free the country 
from the unwelcome invaders. Toqui Aillavilu crossed 
the Biobio with 4,000 warriors and gave battle to 
Valdivia, who had advanced to meet him. A hotly 
contested combat ensued which lasted several hours, 
when the toqui v.'as killed and his army compelled to 

Valdivia thereupon built a fort near his new town, 
to protect the place against those fierce enemies. But 
the Araucanians, nothing daunted, elevated a new 
chief, a person of gigantic stature, .to the command, 
and sent forth another army. This Goliath should 
have been given a war club and not the axe of author- 
ity, for he was irresolute and unfitted to lead. How- 
ever, in the year 1551, he decided upon war and 
marched against the Spaniards with his army con- 
ducted in three divisions. The Spaniards celebrated 
mass and hurried within their fortifications. Linco- 
yan, not understanding such defensive tactics, which 
were not in accordance with Araucanian notions of 
valor and methods of warfare, and fearing some strata- 
gem, ordered a retreat. Valdivia was quite as sorely 
puzzled as his antagonist, and so did not dare follow 


the fugitives. As at the slaughter of Caxamarca 
when Atahualpa was seized, and as in one of Cortez' 
battles when De Morla came riding up on a dapple- 
gray horse, St. James was again, in this instance, 
alleged b)' the Spaniards to have aided their cause ia 
putting to flight the natives; he rode up on a white 
charger and with his flaming sword struck terror into 
their ranks. 

Valdivia was so well pleased with Concepcion that 
he determined to establish himself there, to subjugate 
the Araucanians, and then to ask of Spain the prov- 
inces of Arauco and Tucapel, with the title of mar- 
quis. A marquisate of a wilderness and tribes of 
unconquerable savages was something in those days. 
He published statutes for the government of the city, 
established police and regulated the affairs of the 
place. These things occupied his attention during 
the remainder of the year 1551. 

The following year, having received reinforcements, 
he determined to attack again the Araucanians and 
hoped this time to subdue them. He marched into 
their territory without encountering serious opposition 
and, at the confluence of the rivers Cauten and Damas, 
founded the city of Imperial, naming it in honor of 
Charles V. This city flourished for a time, as we shall 
see, but was laid waste and abandoned because of the 
incessant wars of the frontiers. 

Valdivia now believed himself master of the country 
and therefore determined to apportion the territory 
and natives among his followers. But this time the 
grants were more fanciful than real, for the Araucan- 
ians were not to be made vassals so easily. Alderete 
was dispatched with sixty men to found a settlement 
on the shore of Lake Lauquen. Gold was found 
there and the place given the name of Villarica. 


Leaving the settlement of Imperial, Valdivia pushed 
toward the south, seeing a favorable opportunity for 
attacking Lincoyan, who timidly kept out of his way. 
Passing through Arauco, the Spanish leader came to 
the river Callacalla, beyond which was the territory of 
the Cunches, allies of the Araucanians. Here again 
a native woman, more humane than the Spanish Inez 
Suarez, interceded for the Spaniards. Recloma per- 
suaded the Cunches, who were in battle array on the 
opposite side of the river, to permit the Spaniards to 

Upon the southern shore of the river, Valdivia per- 
petuated his name by founding his sixth city and call- 
ing it Valdivia. The city attained some early impor- 
tance, on account of the discovery of gold mines in 
the vicinity, and the harbor, which was one of the best 
on the southern coast. 

On his return north in 1553, Valdivia built for- 
tresses in the provinces of Puren, Tucapel and Arauco, 
to protect his settlements and form bases for future 
military operations. These forts were, indeed, bases 
for many future military enterprises. At Santiago, he 
received a body of troops and 350 horses. With this 
increase of his forces, he determined to dispatch 
Aguirre with two hundred men to conquer the prov- 
inces of Cujo and Tucumen, east of the Andes. Val- 
divia himself soon returned to the province of Encol 
and there founded his seventh and last city, Angol. 

Returning to Concepcion, after having regulated the 
affairs of his new city, Valdivia instituted the military 
offices of quartermaster-general, serjeant-major and 
commissary, then sent Alderete to Spain with an 
account of his conquests and a large amount of gold 
for the purpose of obtaining for him the long wished- 
for title of Marquis of Arauco and the perpetual gov- 


ernment of the provinces he had conquered. He also 
sought to open up more direct communication with 
Spain by sea, and with that end in view dispatched 
Ulloa to examine the Straits of Magellan. 

Valdivia now supposed that he had practically 
finished the conquest of Chile. Alas, his seven cities 
were as cut off from the world and from each other as 
the seven golden cities of the mediaeval legend situated 
on a mythical island in the mid- Atlantic! The would- 
be Marquis of Arauco had overreached himself, Arauco 
was not yet his. 

The Araucanians had, in the meantime, become 
dissatisfied with their toqui, Lincoyan. An old chief- 
tain, by name Colocolo, with a passionate love for 
his country animating his heart, determined to arouse 
his countrj'men to heroic exertion. With this end in 
view, he traversed the Araucanian provinces and 
sought to arouse the natives, and to induce them to 
select a new leader and make a desperate resistance 
against the encroachments of the invaders. 

His appeals were successful ; the various ulmenes 
immediately assembled at the accustomed national 
trysting place, a feast was ordered and plans for a 
campaign discussed. There were many competitors 
for the military toquiship — Andalican, Elicura, On- 
golmo, Renco, and Tucapel, being the most distin- 
guished. Tucapel was foremost, but the contention 
was so heated, that Colocolo suggested the name of 
Caupolican, ulmen of Pilmayquen (a district of Tuca- 
pel), a modest and valiant man. This choice pleased 
the assembled ulmenes, and forthwith Caupolican, 
a true Patagonian in stature, with a wise looking face 
despite the fact that he had but one eye, assumed 
the authority as vice-toqui, curbed the excited ones, 


and formed his military plans with much caution and 

A party of eighty Indians had been conducted by 
Caupolican to the Arauco fort ; they were employed 
in taking forage to the Spaniards. In place of these 
auxiliaries, the wily toqui substituted eighty of his • 
own warriors. These were to conceal arms in the 
bundles of hay which they carried and to set upon the 
guards and hold the gates until the Araucanians could 
rush in. The guards were attacked, according to the 
prearranged plan, but the garrison, commanded by 
Francisco Reynoso, came to their assistance and drove 
back the Indians before Caupolican could bring up 
his troops. Nothing daunted the Indians attacked 
the walls on every side, but the fire from eighty can- 
nons within soon compelled the attacking party to 
withdraw. They then threw a line about the for- 
tress and prepared to besiege the place. 

Failing in repeated sallies to dislodge their assail- 
ants, the Spaniards resolved to cut their way out and 
retire to the fort at Puren, for if they remained much 
longer they would starve. Waiting until the night 
was far spent, they rushed out in a body and made 
their way safely through the lines of their confused 

The fortress in Tucapel was next assailed. Here 
there was a garrison of forty men, commanded by 
Martin Erizar. After man}' sallies, continuing through 
several days, the Spaniards escaped through some 
well planned artifice and made their way to Puren, 
where they joined the garrison, already augmented by 
the soldiers from Arauco. 

Valdivia was at Concepcion. Hearing of the 
assaults upon his forts, he started immediately for 
Arauco with all his forces, probably amounting, al] 


told, to 200 Spaniards and four or five thousand 
Indian auxiliaries. 

When well on the march Diego del Oro was sent 
forward to reconnoitre the enemy's position. This 
entire company of men, consisting of ten cavalrymen, 
were slain by Caupolican's troops, their heads cut off 
and suspended from trees by the roadside. The spec- 
tacle served the purpose for which it was intended : 
it filled the minds of the Spanish soldiers with horror, 
and many of them desired to return to Concepcion. 
But Valdivia was rash, as well as valiant, and pushed 
forward, though probably ten thousand Araucanian 
Indians were under arms ready to oppose him. On 
December 3rd, 1553, the Spaniards came in sight of 
the Indians at Tucapel. There the two armies ma- 
ncEuvred for some time for position within full view of 
each other. Mariantu commanded the right wing of 
the Araucanian army, the fiery Tucapel, the Marat of 
the Araucanians, after whom the province of Tucapel 
had been named, led the left wing. 

Mariantu began the battle, moving against Bova- 
dilla, who commanded the Spanish left. These Span- 
iards were immediately surrounded and cut in pieces. 

A detachment sent to reinforce the left was in 
a like manner annihilated. Tucapel now began an 
impetuous attack upon the Spanish right, and the 
fight thereupon became general along the whole line. 
The Spaniards mowed down the ranks of the Indians, 
but they quickly filled the gaps with fresh men from 
their reserves. Valdivia fought as a common soldier, 
animating his troops by his heroic example. Three 
times the Indians retired in order and reorganized out 
of range of the artillery, and then returned to the 
combat ; but the slaughter was too great and at last 
they gave way and were about to fly the field. But 


there was a youth of sixteen years among them with 
courage and patriotism animating his young heart. 
Lautaro had been captured by Valdivia sometime 
before, baptized and made his page. Quitting the 
Spanish ranks at the critical moment when his coun- 
trymen began to waver, the lad began to call to his 
Indian friends, reproaching them for their cowardice 
and exhorting them to return to the combat. Grasp- 
ing a lance, he turned upon the Spaniards and shouted 
to his countrymen to follow him. They returned with 
new zeal to the fray, and charging furiously, routed the 
Spaniards and their Promaucian allies, only two escap- 
ing the carnage. 

Seeing that the day was lost, Valdivia retired with 
his chaplain to pray, but his devotions were soon 
rudely interrupted by a partj' of the victors who took 
him prisoner and forthwith conducted him before Cau- 

Of the chief he asked that his life might be spared, 
and promised in return for the boon that he would 
quit Chile with all the Spaniards. He begged Lau- 
taro, his recent page, to intercede for him, and this 
the youth did, for he was magnanimous, as well as 
brave. But an old ulmen standing near, sneering at 
Valdivia's promises, made short work of the matter 
by dispatching him with his war club. 

The day following, the ghostly heads of the Span- 
iards and Promaucians were suspended from the trees 
by the great meadows where the Araucanians were 
wont to hold their festivals and celebrate their victo- 
ries ; and there for sometime the Indians held high 




Lautaro, the young hero of the battle of Tucapel, 
was accorded high honors in the great festival which 
followed the victory. Caupolican appointed him his 
special lieutenant, and invested him with authority in 
the army nearly equal to his own. By birth, the 
young man was of the Indian gentry, and, beside 
this advantage, was endowed by nature with noble- 
ness of character, beauty and affability. 

Another campaign was projected. The veteran 
Colocolo, the Ulysses of the Araucanians, was of the 
opinion that all the Spanish posts ought at once to be 
destroyed. Tucapel, on the other hand, argued that 
they should first go to Santiago and strike an effective 
blow while the Spaniards were in their present state 
of dismay. Caupolican, as usual, adopted Colocolo's 

The Spaniards in Ancol and Puren, as well as those 
of Villarica, hearing of the disaster which had be- 
fallen their hitherto invincible arms, retired to the 
towns of Imperial and Valdivia. In those cities Cau- 
polican determined to besiege them. Lautaro was 
thereupon given in charge the defence of the country 


about the Biobio, and, immediately assuming the 
hazardous task, fortified himself on the precipitous 
mountain of Mariguenu, one of the strongest natural 
defences in the south. 

About this time, Lincoyan fell upon a party of four- 
teen Spanish horsemen on their way from Imperial 
to Tucapel and so destructive was the slaughter that 
but seven of the cavaliers made their escape. Tidings 
of these reverses, reached Concepcion, as well as the 
two Promaucians who had escaped from the battle of 
Tucapel, and, as we may suppose, filled the hearts of 
the inhabitants with terror, stout hearted Spaniards 
though they were. Valdivia having been slain, the 
secret instructions which he had left were opened by 
the magistrates. He had signified that, in the event 
of his death, the successors in the government of 
Chile should be Alderete, Aguirre and Villagran. 
Alderete, as we have seen, was at this time in Europe; 
Aguirre was conquering the province of Cujo on the 
other side of the mountains ; Villagran alone, there- 
fore, was prepared to assume the reins of government. 

Making careful preparations, Villagran crossed the 
Biobio with a small Spanish army and a body of 
Indian auxiliaries and began a march against the 
Araucanians. In a narrow pass at the Mariguenu 
mountain, a strong force of Lautaro's men fell upon 
him and gave him three hours of hard fighting, at the 
end of which time the Indians withdrew to the moun- 
tain, where Lautaro commanded in person behind a 
strong palisade. A body of Spanish horsemen under- 
took to force a passage up the side of the steep moun- 
tain, but were met near the summit with such a 
shower of missiles that Villagran ordered the musket- 
eers and artillerymen to advance to their support. 

Lautaro had dispatched a body of his warriors to 


surround the Spaniards, but Villagran advancing pre- 
vented this manoeuvre from being successfully carried 
out. Perceiving now that his main losses came from 
the cannonading, Lautaro ordered Leucoton to cap- 
ture the guns, bidding him not to dare to show his 
face until the order was executed. Leucoton with his 
company thereupon fell so furiously upon the artillery- 
men that they were driven back and the cannon cap- 
tured. Lautaro followed up this advantage by a vig- 
orous attack in front, which threw the Spaniards into 
confusion and soon put them to flight. Of Spanish 
soldiers and auxiliaries, three thousand lay dead upon 
the field. Villagran himself was barely saved by the 
almost superhuman efforts of three of his soldiers, 
who picked him up wounded and put him upon his 

It was necessary for the Spaniards in their flight to 
repass the narrow defile where the battle had begun. 
This the cunning Lautaro had ordered obstructed by 
means of felled trees. There was a furious combat 
before the few remaining Spaniards could make their 
escape. The Araucanians pursued them to the river 
Biobio ; but fatigued as the Indians were, having 
sustained a loss of about seven hundred men, Lautaro 
halted to give his troops time for rest with the inten- 
tion of crossing the river the following day. The 
fugitives made their way to Concepcion, where Villa- 
gran hurriedly put the old men and women aboard 
ships and sent them to Imperial and Valparaiso. 

The remaining inhabitants started by land for Santi- 
ago, leaving their property behind them, so that when 
Lautaro entered the deserted city he found there much 
rich booty. The place was razed ; after which the 
young hero returned to Arauco to receive the plaudits 
of his nation. 


Caupolican was in the meantime slowly besieging 
Imperial and Valdivia. Villagran sent forward rein- 
forcements, whereupon the Araucanian general raised 
the siege and joined his forces with those of Lau- 
taro. He afterward remained for some time in his 
encampment, in fact until the time when Villagran, 
obeying a behest of the court of the Royal Audience 
of Lima, undertook to rebuild Concepcion, and had 
proceeded thither with eighty-five families for that 
purpose. The- surrounding tribes again called upon 
the Araucanians for assistance and Caupolican sent 
forward two thousand men under Lautaro, who met 
the Spaniards drawn up in battle array on an open 
plain, defeated them, drove them back into Concep- 
cion and followed them precipitately into the fortress 
through the open gates. The inhabitants fled to the 
woods and to the ships in the harbor, and escaping, 
made their way back to Santiago. The Indians again 
burned the city and carried off much booty. 

About this time, perhaps a little while before, small- 
pox broke out among the Indians and nearly depop- 
ulated several districts. Since that time the Araucan- 
ians have used the utmost vigilance in protecting 
themselves against this dread disease, by rigorous 
methods of quarantining and by stamping out the 
plague upon its first appearance. 

About this time, too, Francisco Aguirre came over 
the mountains with sixty of his followers, determined 
to place himself at the head of the government. He 
and Villagran agreed to submit their claims to the 
Royal Audience of Lima, with the final result that 
Villagran was directed to take charge of the govern- 
ment until further orders, and to rebuild Concepcion; 
the latter he attempted with such result as we have 
already described. 


Stimulated by Lautaro's success at Concepcion, 
Caupolican determined to begin again tlie sieges of 
Imperial and Valdivia; Lautaro, in the meantime, 
being required to march against Santiago to create a 
division of the Spanish forces. The young chief 
thereupon selected six hundred men, traversed the 
provinces lying between the Biobio and Maule rivers, 
and then fell upon the country of the Promaucians, the 
Spanish allies, which he laid waste. Fortifying him- 
self on the banks of the Rio Claro, he sent out spies 
and awaited information of the state of affairs at San- 
tiago. In the latter place, preparations for defense 
were actively begun. Juan Godinez with a body of 
horsemen was sent forward into the Promaucian coun- 
try to gain information of the whereabouts of the 
much dreaded enemy. He was attacked by a party of 
the Araucanians, by whom his little force was severely 
handled. Those escaping iled to Santiago, and the 
city was soon in consternation over the news. 

Villagran was ill at the time, and therefore placed 
his son, Pedro, in command of a body of troops, with 
which he ordered him to march against Lautaro ; the 
approaches to the city he directed to be hurriedly 
fortified. Young Lautaro had not come three hun- 
dred miles into the enemy's country to be defeated by 
young Pedro ; being attacked by the latter in his 
intrenchments on the banks of the Rio Claro, he 
feigned a retreat and thus drew the Spaniards into 
the enclosure. No sooner were they inside than the 
Araucanians fell upon them, furiously slaughtering 
all of them, with the exception of the cavalrymen, who 
were able to effect an escape. 

Pedro received reinforcements and three times 
attacked Lautaro, but was each time repulsed. There- 
upon he withdrew his forces to a meadow. Lautaro 


took up a position on a neighboring mountain, and 
there formed the plan of turning at night the waters 
of a branch of the Mataquito upon Pedro's camp. 
The encampment might have been flooded, had the 
young commander not been informed by a spy in time 
to retire to Santiago and thus escape the disaster. 

Villagran, having recovered from his sickness, 
marched against Lautaro with a little army consisting 
of 196 Spaniards and looo Indian auxiliaries. To 
effect a surprise of the Araucanian intrenchments, a 
secret route was taken by the seashore. At break of 
day Lautaro was aroused by his sentinels, and going 
to the side of the fortification to look at the approach- 
ing enemy, was pierced by a dart, fired by one of the 
Indian auxiliaries, and fell dead in the arms of his 

A fierce combat ensued, in which the Araucanians 
fought like wild beasts until all of them had been 
slain. The Spaniards lost heavily, but returned vic- 
torious to the capital, where for three days the fall of 
Lautaro was celebrated. And well they might cele- 
brate his fall, for this young man at the age of nine- 
teen was a veritable young Hannibal. The "Chilean 
Hannibal" he has been not unworthily called. 

Caupolican, learning of the death of Lautaro and 
the defeat of the troops sent against Santiago, at once 
abandoned the siege of Imperial, which was opportune 
for the besieged, as they were reduced to extremities. 

These are substantially the more important events of 
the year 1556. 

In April, 1557, Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza 
arrived in the bay of Concepcion to take charge of the 
government of Chile, having been appointed captain- 
general by his father, the viceroy of Peru. As will 
be remembered, Francisco de Villagran, was one of 


the three named by Valdivia to take charge of the 
government in the event of his death. At the time 
of his death, Valdivia's agent, Alderete, was at the 
court of Spain soliciting a marquisate and the inde- 
pendent governorship of Chile for his superior. Philip 
II. had succeeded his father, Charles V., on the throne 
of Spain, and learning of the death of Valdivia forth- 
with gave the government and conquest of Chile in 
charge of Alderete, furnishing him for that purpose 
six hundred soldiers and a ship. Alderete's sister 
appears to have been a reader of sixteenth century 
novels, and furthermore was accustomed to read in 
bed. While at this pleasant occupation one night, 
she accidentally set the ship on fire. The vessel was 
burned ; Alderete and three soldiers were all that 
escaped. The former, overcome with grief, died on 
the island of Taboga. It was upon hearing of these 
things, that the viceroy of Peru had appointed his son 
to the governorship of Chile. Villagran thereupon 
went to Europe to seek personally from the court his 
reinstatement in the office to which he had been 
appointed by Valdivia. 

Mendoza, or as he is generally called, Don Garcia, 
anchored his ten ships in Concepcion bay near the 
island of Quiriquina. He had brought a large number 
of soldiers from Peru, together with a great quantity 
of military stores; with these he determined to make 
such a display as would intimidate the natives. The 
latter opposed his landing on the island', but a few 
rounds of artillery firing sent them flying on their 
balsas for the mainland. Don Garcia captured two of 
them and these he appointed as emissaries to visit the 
neighboring Araucanians and to inform them that he 
desired to negotiate with them a lasting treaty of peace. 

Caupolican, acting upon a suggestion from old Colo- 


colo, dispatched to the Spaniards, Millalauco, an 
Indian of a diplomatic turn of mind, with instructions 
to congratulate the new governor upon his arrival and 
to express the wish that an amicable settlement might 
be reached ; but in reality, the envoy was to ascertain 
the strength of the Spanish camp, for the ulmenes had 
no notion of entering into a treaty of peace. They 
doubted the intention of the Spaniards too seriously 
to think of permitting them to obtain a firm footing 
in their territories. 

The Spaniards sought to impress upon Millalauco 
their importance and strength, and so conducted him 
about their camp, saluting him with the artillery and 
regaling him' magnificently. All which Millalauco 
accepted like a Stoic, and, returning home, gave 
Caupolican full information of the strength of this new 
arrival of invaders. Caupolican immediately placed sen- 
tinels in such a manner that the movements of the 
Spaniards could be at all times observed, and then 
took up his axe of authority and prepared for war. 

Don Garcia's cavalry forces had not been placed 
aboard the ten ships, but were making their way over- 
land from Peru under the command of Garcia Ramon, 
the quartermaster-general. The governor, therefore, 
decided to await the arrival of these before beginning 
an active campaign against the Indians. For this 
purpose, and also that he might obtain what troops 
the cities of his jurisdiction could furnish, he re- 
mained in camp on the island from April until Au- 



On the 6th of August, 1557, Don Garcia de Men- 
doza, having, as we have seen, spent the winter 
months on the island of Quiriquina, cautiously landed 
130 troops with engineers at Concepcion and fortified 
Monte Pinto by mounting upon it a number of guns 
and by the construction of a moat. The mountain 
commands the harbor, and thus a strong natural de- 
fense was secured for a future base of operations. All 
which proceedings on the part of the Spaniards were 
observed, and information concerning the same imme- 
diately communicated to Caupolican by his secret sen- 
tries. The Araucanian general forthwith collected his 
warriors and on the gth began a vigorous attack on 
the Spanish forces upon the mountain, from three sides 
at the same time, having first sent forward an advance 
party to fill up the moat with logs. The attack was 
obstinately conducted, the Indians mounting the 
mole, some even leaping down within the fortification 
led by the fiery Tucapel, who with his own hands 
slew four Spaniards with his ponderous war club and 
then leaped over the precipice followed by a shower of 

bullets. So terrible was the slaughter that the ditch 



was soon filled with the dead and wounded, over 
whose prostrate bodies other combatants rushed in 
their mad attempt to scale the walls. 

Seeing the imminent danger of those within the 
fortification, Don Garcia sent forward reinforcements 
from the island. These Caupolican met with a por- 
tion of his troops, whereupon a combat ensued which 
lasted for several hours. The Indians, hemmed in 
between this fresh force and the mountain, were 
handled so roughly that they were at length forced 
to beat a retreat. 

Nothing daunted, Caupolican raised a larger army 
and determined to proceed again to Concepcion ; but, 
learning of the arrival of the Spanish cavalry, which 
had been sent overland fronj Peru, and being informed 
that the Spaniards had received reinforcements con- 
sisting of two thousand auxiliaries and a body of 
Spaniards from Imperial, the Araucanian leader halted 
on the banks of the Biobio, unwilling to begin the 

With his force greatly augmented by the new arri- 
vals, Mendoza now took the initiative, crossed the 
Biobio in. boats and prepared to attack Caupolican, 
who had taken up a position not far from the river, 
his rear protected by a tract of timbered land into 
which he could readily retreat in case of defeat. After 
some skirmishing, in which two parties of Span- 
iards, one headed by Garcia Ramon, the other by 
Alonzo Reynoso, were cut to pieces, the battle 
began. The Indians adopted their usual tactics of 
rushing upon their foes and seeking by a hand to 
hand encounter to penetrate to their center; but the 
firing of the Spanish musketry was so rapid that they 
failed in their attempt; their ranks were soon so de- 
pleted that they were unable to fill the gaps, where- 


upon they were thrown into confusion, the Spanish 
cavalry pressed in and a complete rout followed. 

The Indians fled into the woods and the victorious 
army, abandoning the pursuit, marched into the prov- 
ince of Arauco, but on the way were constantly har- 
assed by bands of Caupolican's troops. Mendoza, 
more inhuman than any of his predecessors, had put 
to death some, and mutilated others of the prisoners 
taken. A brave fellow named Galverino had his 
hands cut off by the Spaniard's orders, and then was 
set free, perhaps for the purpose of inspiring the 
Araucanians with terror. The contrary, however, was 
the result. The bloody arms of their wounded com- 
rade aroused in the Indians feelings of revenge, so that 
even the women took up arms and became veritable 

At a place called Melipuru, the Spaniards were met 
again by the Indian army, which advanced upon them 
at daybreak in three lines, having previously sent 
forward word, in a spirit of bravado, that they would 
meet them in such manner. Here a closely contested 
battle was fought, the outcome of which was for a long 
time doubtful. The Spanish cavalry was met by the 
Indians with levelled spears and forced back in con- 
fusion ; the Araucanians penetrated into the center of 
the infantry, and were on the point of routing the 
whole Spanish army, when Don Garcia brought up a 
reserve force and with it charged that part of the 
enemy's lines commmanded by the giant Lincoyan. 
This threw them into such confusion that the whole 
Araucanian line was broken, seeing which Caupolican 
ordered a retreat. To save the army, Rencu, a val- 
iant chieftain, posted himself in such a manner with a 
few brave followers as to attract the attention of the 
Spaniards. While Don Garcia was attacking his 


party, Caupolican was effecting a retreat, by which 
means, perhaps, the Araucanian army escaped total 

Having hung twelve of the ulmenes captured — Gal- 
verino, whose hands had been previously cut off, being 
among them — as a warning to the other Araucanian 
chiefs of what they might expect if they continued the 
war, Don Garcia next proceeded against the province 
of Tucapel. On the spot where Valdivia had been 
massacred, a city, called Caiiete, was founded by 
Mendoza, the name being derived from the titular 
appellation of his family. A palisade, protected by 
a ditch and rampart, having been constructed, Alonzo 
Reynoso was given the command of the post; Don 
Garcia himself proceeded then to Imperial, from 
which place he undertook to dispatch provisions to 
his new city of Cafiete. But a band of Araucanians 
fell upon his convoy and carriers in a narrow pass, 
obliging them to drop their burdens and flee to Caiiete 
for safety. The latter place was now attacked by 
Caupolican, but after five hours of severe fighting the 
Araucanians were repulsed. 

Caupolican now resorted to stratagem, by means 
of which he hoped to get his troops inside the pali- 
sade. He sent one of his chiefs, named Pran, to the 
garrison in the character of a deserter. His plan 
might have been successful if Pran had not formed a 
friendship with one of Reynoso's auxiliaries to whom 
he communicated his plot and requested of him his 
assistance in carrying it out. 

The Indian pretended to be in sympathy with 
Pran's scheme, but immediatelj' disclosed it to Rey- 
noso. The plan was for the Indian, who was called 
Andres, to admit some of the Araucanians witliin the 
palisade while the Spaniards were taking their morn- 


ing sleep, as they were accustomed to do after their 
nightly vigils. Reynoso bade Andres carry out his 
plan. This was done ; but when a certain number of 
the Indians had rushed inside the fortification the 
gates were closed ; the cannons, loaded with grape- 
shot, were turned upon those without, while those 
within were slaughtered in a hand to hand combat, 
with the exception of three ulmenes who were taken 
prisoners, and who were afterward tied to the mouths 
of cannons and blown into shreds. The cavalry sallied 
from the gates and fell upon those of Caupolican's 
forces without which had chanced to escape the can- 
nonading. Caupolican, with a few followers, escaped 
to the mountains. 

Having brought the Araucanian war to a successful 
termination, Don Garcia rebuilt Concepcion, and then 
undertook an expedition against the Cunches (1558). 

These Indians had not yet been at war with the con- 
quistadores, although one of the allied tribes of _the 
Araucanians, as their territory was situated in the 
south of Chile and at some distance from Concepcion. 

The story is told that when the Cunches first heard 
of the arrival of Don Garcia's forces, they met in a 
great council to canvass the situation. One Tuncono- 
bal, an Araucanian exile, chanced to be present and 
advised them to hide all their gold arid other property 
and to send such presents as would lead the Spaniards 
to believe the country destitute of all those riches 
which alone would make it appear valuable in their 
eyes. This was done. Tunconobal was dispatched 
to meet the Spaniards, clothed in rags, shaking with 
fear, and bearing a basket of baked lizards and fruits. 
This had the desired effect ; looking upon Tuncono- 
bal and his shaking companions, the Spaniards burst 
out laughing and inquired of them the best road south. 


fully believing that they had come to a second Ata- 
cama desert. Tunconobal assigned one of his compan- 
ions for a guide at the request of the Spaniards. 
The army was conducted along a desolate and diffi- 
cult coast road and left on the fourth day by their 
treacherous guide in a barren and mountainous region, 
from which they extricated themselves with much 

This journey was not altogether fruitless. Press- 
ing forward, the Spaniards observed, from their high 
position on the mountains, the beautiful island of 
Chilo6. Not more pleased was Balboa, when from the 
top of a high mountain he discovered the mighty 
Pacific spread out before him. The channels were 
thronged with boats ; one of these was manned b)' 
fifteen Indians who pulled from the shore upon seeing 
the Spaniards. The chief inquired who the newcom- 
ers were and what they wanted. The half-starved 
Spanish troops asked for food ; this was given them. 
The natives brought fruit, maize and meat in their 
balsas, in the same manner as the unsuspecting people 
of Tumbez loaded canoes with provisions and hospit- 
ably entertained Pizarro when he landed upon their 

Provisioned, and accompanied by the natives, Don 
Garcia and his followers explored the archipelago. 
Some of the islands they found well cultivated, the 
women plying distaffs and needles, the people indus- 
trious and happy. 

The poet Alonzo de Ercilla went further south than 
any others of the party and inscribed his name with 
the date on the bark of a tree. This was on Januar}' 
31st, 1559. This young soldier and poet who served 
through the Araucanian wars, from 1554 to 1562, has 
celebrated in stirring poetry the scenes of these bat- 


ties, written at the time, night after night upon the 

Soon after this Garcia returned to Imperial, without 
opposition, through the country of the Huilliches, 
east of the territories of the Cunches. About this 
time, too, the city of Osqirno was established. 

For sometime the brutal Alonzo Reynoso had 
sought to obtain information of the whereabouts of 
Caupolican ; he had of^red rewards and subjected the 
natives to torture in his efforts to force them to dis- 
close their chief's hiding-place, but all to no purpose. 
At last a .mercenary spy was found who consented to 
conduct a company of horsemen in search of the chief- 
tain. Caupolican was surrounded, together with a 
few of his followers, and made prisoner. His wife 
exhorted him to die rather than surrender, which 
exhortation not being heeded, she threw his infant son 
at him and upbraided him for being a coward. 

Brought before Reynoso, the veteran chief was 
ordered to be impaled and shot to death with arrows. 
Caupolican met his cruel fate like a hero, warning 
the blood-thirsty Reynoso, who was detested both by 
Indians and Spaniards, that from his death would 
arise many and more fortunate Caupolicans. 

Another Caupolican indeed, like a phoenix, soon 
arose from the old chief's ashes. Acting under the 
advice of their wizard, Colocolo, the Araucanians ele- 
vated young Caupolican, eldest son of their late chief, 
to the position held by his father; Tucapel was at 
the same time elected vice toqui. This young chief, 
whom chroniclers call Caupolican the Second, raised 
an army, crossed the Biobio and marched toward Con- 
cepcion, which was now indifferently garrisoned. 
Reynoso proceeded against him with five hundred 
troops and overtook him at Talcahuano, where a sharp 


conflict ensued in which the Spaniards were cut to 
pieces and utterly defeated. Tucapel chased Reynoso 
and a few of his followers across the Biobio ; these 
were all who escaped the slaughter. 

Reynoso collected another army and returned to the 
contest, but was again defeated by the young Arau- 
canian general. Young Caupolican, encouraged by 
his successes, was about to proceed against Concep- 
cion, when Millalauco arrived", bringing information 
that Don Garcia had quitted Imperial with troops and 
was attacking the Indian provinces. Caupolican there- 
upon went to the assistance of hiS' friends and allies 
and, although caught in an ambush prepared for him 
by the way, yet defeated his assailants and then pushed 
forward rapidly to Imperial, whither Don Garcia had 
retired with his troops. 

Caupolican now besieged the city, but with poor 
success. Then he sent two emissaries as spies to 
solicit the aid of the Spanish auxiliaries, but the plot 
was discovered and the emissaries impaled within the 
walls, together with one hundred and twenty of the 
treacherous auxiliaries. Assault after assault was next 
made and such deeds of heroism performed as have 
immortalized the plains of Troy ; and yet Imperial 
held out. Caupolican at length withdrew his army 
and effected a junction with the troops he had left 
behind to oppose Reynoso. 

Numerous battles occurred within the month which 
followed, in some of which Caupolican was victorious; 
but in the end he was at a disadvantage, for his 
warriors were decreased in number by the constant 
fighting, while the Spanish commander constantly 
received recruits both from Spain and from Peru. 
Seeing that his heroic resistance was of little avail, 
the Araucanian general fortified himself in a place 


called Quiapo between Cafiete and Concepcion, and 
determined there to protract the struggle behind his 

Don Garcia marched against the young commander 
at Quiapo. Andres was sent as an ambassador to the 
Araucanians, but was coolly received by Caupolican, 
for the latter had not forgotten the Indian's treachery 
to his father. The following day Andres paid the 
penalty of his former duplicity ; being taken as a spy, 
he was hung by the heels and suffocated with smoke. 

Caup&lican made a desperate resistance, but, in a 
sally undertaken to dislodge the Spaniards from about 
his intrenchments, his officers were killed, Tucapel, 
Colocolo, Rencu, Lincoyan, Mariantu, Ongolmo and 
others of his bravest heroes fell, while his troops 
were mercilessly slain, in fact annihilated. Fortifi- 
cations were rebuilt at Arauco and Angol ; Villarica 
was reestablished, and its mines re-opened. In the 
capital a bishopric had been established. 

D. Fr. Bartoleme Roderigo Gonzales Marmolejo, of 
Carmana in Andalusia, was the first bishop of Santia- 
go, appointed by Pius IV. He erected the church in 
1563 and governed it until 1565, when he died. In 
1567, D. Fr. Fernando Barrionuevo of the order of 
San Francisco, a native of Guadalajara, Spain, was 
elected to the bishopric. He held the office eighteen 
months, when he died. Following Barrionuevo's 
death the office remained vacant five years.* 

Troops were sent to the assistance of Aguirre in the 
conquest of Cujo. The latter conquered the natives, 
the Huarpes, and established the cities of San Juan 
and Mendoza east of the Andes. These provinces 

*In 1564, D. Fr. Diego Medellin, a Franciscan from Estremadura, came from 
Lima and was made bishop. He governed tlie church until J593. The office was 
then vacant for two years. In 1595, D. Fr. Pedro de Azuaga was promoted to the 
office but died before be received the episcopal consecration. 


east of the mountains, we may add, were subsequently 
transferred to the Argentine Republic. 

Hearing of the arrival of Francisco de Villagran at 
Buenos Ayres, who had been appointed to succeed 
to the governorship of Chile, Don Garcia de Men- 
doza turned over the charge of Chilean affairs tem- 
porarily to Rodrigo de Quiroga and returned to Peru. 
The appointment of Villagran as captain-general of 
Chile is usually considered as marking the close of 
the period of the conquest. 




Francisco de Villagran, having succeeded Don Gar- 
cia de Mendoza in command, fully believed that the 
stubborn Araucanians were at last subdued, and, there- 
fore, turned his attention to wresting the province of 
Tucuman from the vice-royalty of Peru. This prov- 
ince had formerly belonged to Chile. Gregori Cas- 
taneda was given this enterprise in charge, .and, hav- 
ing defeated the Peruvian commander, Juan Zurita, 
restored the province to the government of Chile. 
Eventually, however, Tucuman was again attached 
to Peru by an order from Spain. 

But the Araucanians were by no means subdued, 
notwithstanding the slaughter at Quiapo and the loss 
of their most celebrated chiefs and heroes. The 
caciques escaping the battle assembled in a wood and 
elevated one Antiguenu to the rank of commanding 
toqui. He was a prudent general, and readily per- 
ceived that, in the present demoralized condition of 
the Araucanian army, it would be impolitic to hazard 
another battle. So he retired with his followers to a 
swamp, and caused scaffolds to be erected upon which 



his troops might encamp above the moist earth, like 
the ancient lake-dwellers of Switzerland. Here he 
rapidly accumulated an army, calling together the 
youth of the country and exercising them daily in 
military tactics, until he deemed himself sufficiently 
strong to quit his retreat and send out expeditions 
into the Spanish settlements. 

When news of these expeditions reached Villagran 
at Santiago, he hurriedly collected a small force and 
dispatched his son Pedro against the Indians. For 
a while unimportant skirmishes took place between 
the opposing forces. In the first of these Antiguenu 
met with slight reverses; at another time he defeated 
a body of Spaniards under Arias Pardo. At length 
Antiguenu stationed himself upon the top of the 
almost impregnable Mariguenu, the stronghold of the 
Araucanian country. The son of Villagran was sent 
with a strong force against him, but was himself killed ' 
in the battle which ensued and his army cut to pieces. 
Antiguenu, greatly elated with his signal victory, 
now marched against Canete. The inhabitants learn- 
ing of his approach, withdrew to Imperial and Con- 
cepcion, and the Indians burned the deserted town. 
About this time the indomitable Villagran died, it 
is said of grief, appointing as his successor his son 
Pedro. Antiguenu was now more active than ever. 
Collecting an army of 4,000 warriors, he sent one half 
of it against Concepcion under the command of his 
able vice-toqui, Antunecul. With the other division 
he marched against the fort in Arauco, which was 
garrisoned by troops under Lorenzo Bernal. 

Antunecul with his division defeated the governor, 
Pedro, in two attacks, and then began the siege of 
Concepcion which he continued for two months. The 
Spaniards received provisions by way of the sea, 


which Antunecul could not intercept ; thus the siege 
failed and the Araucanian commander withdrew his 

Antiguenu invaded Arauco, as we have seen, and 
the siege had been long protracted, when by strata- 
gem the Araucanian general led Lorenzo Bernal, the 
Spanish commander, to believe that his Indian auxili- 
aries were intriguing with the enemy, whereupon the 
auxiliaries were discharged and sent outside the walls. 
Antiguenu immediately fell upon them and put them 
to death b}' tortures in sight of the Spaniards. After 
this the Araucanian chieftain challenged Bernal to 
single combat to decide the fate of Arauco. The chal- 
lenge was accepted and the champions fought for 
more than two hours without serious results, neither 
of them receiving any wound or injury. Then they 
were separated by their respective troops, and the 
siege continued. Unable to secure provisions, as 
boats sent to their assistance had been repeatedly cut 
off by the besiegers, the Spanish commander at last 
withdrew his garrison ; the Indians, perhaps by agree- 
ment, allowed the troops to pass and then destroyed 
the town. 

The attempt to reduce Angol was not equally suc- 
cessful. The Araucanian division dispatched at first 
defeated a body of Spaniards, but was itself in turn 
defeated. Antiguenu himself proceeded there with 
2,000 reinforcements, but was met at the confluence of 
the Biobio and Vergoso and defeated by the Spanish 
army under Lorenzo Bernal ; not, however, until after 
a contest in which the Spanish infantry, which had 
once been put to flight, had been checked and reformed 
by the cavalry. Carried along in the rout of his 
troops, Antiguenu fell over a high bank into the river 
and was drowned. It is not known whether he met 


his death by accident, or whether, like a Roman gen- 
eral, he preferred death to the dishonor of defeat. 

This battle was fought in 1564, and closed the war 
for a season, or until the following year. At the same 
time the Araucanians met with disaster in another 
quarter. A detachment had been sent under another 
leader, called Lillemu, to lay waste the provinces of 
Chilian and Itata. Pedro Balsa went against him 
with a party of eighty Spanish troops, but was de- 
feated. The governor then marched from Santi- 
ago with one hundred and fifty Spaniards and with 
this force cut off a detachment of Lillemu's troops. 
The latter chieftain came with reinforcements to their 
assistance, but found that they had been already 
dispersed. The Spaniards fell furiously upon their 
reinforcements, and it was only by taking a stand in 
a narrow pass that Lillemu was able to effect a retreat 
of his forces ; but this stratagem cost him his own life 
together with the lives of a large number of his brav- 
est warriors. 

During the year following, Pedro de Villagran who had 
been appointed to the governorship merely as the tem- 
porar}' successor of his father, was succeeded bj' Rodri- 
go de Quiroga, who was appointed to the office by the 
Royal Audience of Lima. The Araucanians elected 
as Antiguenu's successor a relative of Lautaro, Pailla- 
taru by name. He was a cautious commander who 
contented himself with leading occasional incursions 
against the Spanish provinces. 

In 1565 Quiroga rebuilt the fort of Arauco and the 
town of Caiiete, also a fort on the spot where the 
battle of Quiapo had been fought. 

In 1566 formal possession was taken of Chilo6 with 
its accompanying archipelago, consisting of eighty 
outlying islands, and the city of Castro with the port 


of Cliacao was founded on the island. No opposi- 
tion was encountered from the peaceable inhabitants, 
though these islands are said to have had at the 
time a dense population of more than seventy thou- 
sand people, industrious, mechanical, quick to learn, 
good seamen, but rather timid in disposition. In 
language and appearance they were similar to their 
fierce Araucanian neighbors, but their island home 
had protected them from the wars which raged for 
generations along the Maule and Biobio, until they 
had become in habits pacific agriculturists. They 
submitted to a handful of Spaniards, and their seventy- 
six ulmenes henceforth became subject to the Spanish 
authority. The Araucanians had apparently been a 
bulwark protecting their southern neighbors against 
old Tupac Yupanqui's arms, and those of his succes- 
sors, for a hundred years. It is creditable to these 
warlike tribes of southern Chile that they had not 
turned their arms for pillage against the rich country, 
the well tilled fields and prosperous communities, of 
their wild neighbors. In fact, there is much in the 
Araucanian character which claims our admiration. 
They were heroic but not usually savage, brave but 
not often cruel. 

As the governors of Chile from Valdivia to Quiroga 
had not succeeded in subjugating the Araucanian 
nation, and as it seemed highly important that the 
conquest of this rich country should be effectively 
accomplished, Philip II. detached Chile, in a measure, 
from the government of Peru and established an inde- 
pendant Roval Audience for the political and military 
government of the country. Quiroga was removed and 
the command of the army given to Ruiz de Gamboa, 
who at once hastened to Caiiete where Paillataru was 
preparing to begin a siege. The two armies met near 


Canete and Paillataru was defeated. The Araucanians 
were so demoralized that for the period of a year they 
offered little resistance to the inroads of the Span- 
iards, who laid waste portions of their territory and 
enslaved their women and children. But the liberty 
loving Indians would accept no proposition looking 
toward a treaty of peace. 

Not succeeding as well as had been anticipated in 
its military administration, the Royal Audience turned 
over that part of its functions to Don Melchor Bravo 
de Saravia in 1568, constituting the offices he was to 
fill under three heads, president of the Royal Audi- 
ence, civil governor, and commander-in-chief of the 

It is said that Saravia was a much better governor 
than general ; at any rate, Paillataru defeated him at 
the memorable Mt. Mariguenu, and the president 
at once resigned his militar}' honors to Gamboa 
and Velasco, marshal and quartermaster respectively, 
with orders to abandon Arauco. Again was Arauco 
given up by the Spaniards. While Gamboa and 
^'^elasco were conducting its inhabitants to Caiiete, 
tliey were attacked by Paillataru, but succeeded in 
driving back their adversary. 

Paillataru took Quiapo, then again marched against 
Canete. Gamboa marched out to meet him and a fierce 
battle ensued, in which the Spaniards were victorious. 
They then proceeded into the Araucanian territory, 
but Paillataru had collected another armj^ and with 
this the Spaniards were driven back. After this inde- 
cisive war there was a calm for a period of four years, 
during which time the exhausted belligerents were not 
disposed to take up arms. Paillataru died in 1574. 

In 1570 a bishopric was established in the city of 
Imperial, the first bishop being D. Fr. Antonio de San 


Miguel y Solier, a Franciscan.* About this time, too, 
occurred the first earthquake, which did great damage 
to the cities. Concepcion was destroyed almost as 
totally as it was afterward in 1730 and in 1751. 

The condition of Chile had apparently changed but 
little since Valdivia's day. Yet sufficient time had 
passed since the early settlement for children to 
become men. Descendants of Spaniards and Indians — 
mestizos — had become numerous, and the Araucanians 
recognized the advantage of attaching this strong 
party to their interests. So on the death of Pailla- 
taru, a half-breed named Alonzo Diaz, who had taken 
the name of Paynenancu and had fought with the 
Araucanians for ten years, was made toqui. He was, 
however, a rash leader and attacked without caution 
or sufficient preparation. Bernal defeated him in his 
own intrenchments on the Biobio, and Rodrigo Basti- 
das routed him at Villarica. 

The war continued in a desultory manner during 
the year, and the court of Spain, dissatisfied with the 
■condition of affairs, sent out a special examiner, who 
undertook to cut down expenses. He dissolved the 
Royal Audience, ordering the members of it back to 
Peru. Don Rodrigo de Quiroga was again appointed 
governor and governmental affairs were arranged on 
the old basis. 

In the following year, 1576, Quiroga raised an army 
and marched against Paynenancu, who had long been 
harassing the settlements by frequent attacks. Failing 
to engage him in a pitched battle, Quiroga again laid 
waste the Araucanian territory. 

* San Miguel governed the church until 1589. He was a native of Vergara and 
was elected to his ofBce by Pope Pius IV. He erected the Reterida church in 
Imperial, April i, 1574. The next bishop was D. Fr. Augustin Cisneros, a Span- 
iard of Nacimiento, and dean of the church at Imperial. He governed the church 
until his death, which occurred in September, 159,1. D.Fr. Reginaldo Lizarroga 
was then elevated to the mitre (1596). 


Quiroga died in 1580, naming Martin Ruiz de Gam- 
boa, his father-in-law, who had founded the city of 
Chilian, as his successor. Gamboa conducted the 
affairs of the government for a period of three years, 
during all of which time he was engaged in border 
warfare with the Araucanians, who were still led by 
the half-breed Paynenancu. At the same time the 
Pehuenches and Chiquillanians, were induced by the 
Araucaniaris to attack the Spaniards from their moun- 
tain fastnesses. These latter tribes inhabited the 
mountain regions north of the allied tribes of the 
Araucanians, and east of Santiago and the river Maule. 
They were wandering tribes more like the North 
American Indians, yet far different in disposition, as 
they were industrious and commercial in their habits, 
though fond of the chase and of moving from place to 

The court of Spain nominated Don Alonzo de Soto- 
mayor as governor of Chile in place of Quiroga, de- 
ceased. Sotomayor in 1583, landed at Buenos Ayres 
with six hundred regular troops and marched across 
the country to Chile. He elevated his brother, Don 
Luis, to the office of commanding colonel of the 
province — an office which he seems to have created 
for him — and the latter proceeded to the relief of Vil- 
larica and Valdivia, which Paynenancu was at the time 
besieging. The Araucanians stubbornly opposed the 
Spaniards in two contests, but were defeated. They 
were defeated also while proceeding against two de- 
tachments of their enemy that had been sent to rav- 
age their territory. 

The Pehuenches likewise were repulsed and driven 
back from Chilian. Then with an army of seven hun- 
dred Spaniards and a large following of auxiliaries, 
the governor entered the Araucanian territory, which 


he laid waste, arid, taking many prisoners^ ordered 
them to be mutilated and turned loose, thinking by 
these abominable measures to intimidate the Indians. 
The hunted tribes fled from some of the provinces, 
destroying their houses and crops behind them. 

Despite all these vigorous measures, the Araucan- 
ians received reinforcements from their allies and from 
the mestizos, and were even joined by some Span- 
iards, so that Paynenancu, with the eight hundred 
men he was thus enabled to get together, soon gave 
battle to the whole Spanish army. The contest was 
stubborn, and not until the Araucanian army was slain 
almost to a man and Paynenancu taken prisoner, was 
the battle won. The heroic chief was executed, and 
the governor rebuilt the oft destroyed fort of Arauco — 
the battle haviug been fought in that vicinity — which 
he placed in charge of Garcia Ramon, the quarter- 



Paynenancu had not been lacking in valor, but his 
rashness had cost the Araucanians dearly, and their 
repeated defeats for some time depressed their military 
ardor; but their heroic spirit was not broken. In 
1585 Cayancaru, ulmen of the district of Mariguenu, 
was elected toqui, and forthwith messengers were dis- 
patched with the symbolical arrows calling the differ- 
ent provinces to arms. A new army was soon in the 
field, and with this Cayancaru proceeded against the 
Spanish post of Karampangui, his troops being led 
in three divisions by Lonconobal, Antulevu and Taro- 
china. Marching by three different routes, bodies of 
auxiliaries which the Spaniards had thrown out were 
first encountered and defeated. 

The Indians began their attack by moonlight, but 
the Spaniards, after momentary confusion, formed in 
line of battle and opened such a vigorous fire of 
musketry upon their assailants that they were at 
length compelled to give way. A charge was ordered 
by the governor, but it was only after hard fighting 
and great loss that the Indians were repulsed. 

At daybreak, however, the Araucanians returned to 
the attack. A battle ensued in the open plain, in 



which the Indians were again repulsed, though the 
combat resulted in heavy loss to the Spaniards. 

Quitting the Indian country, Sotomayor built two 
forts upon the frontier, one on each side of the Bio- 
bio, Trinidad and Espiritu Santo, and then set about 
raising recruits. Two thousand cavalry and a consid- 
erable reinforcement of infantry were soon added to 
the troops already under his standard. 

Cayancaru, as soon as Sotomayor had removed to 
the '^iobio, determined to attack the fort of Arauco. 
To create a diversion, Guepotan, at the head of the 
Puelches, was ordered to ravage the country in the 
neighborhood of Villarica, from his strong position 
at Fort Liben, where he had defied the Spanish arms 
for a period of more than two years. Cadeguala, who 
was to be Cayancaru's successor in the tpquiship, was 
directed against Angol ; Tarochina was instructed to 
guard the Biobio, Melilanca and Catipillan were sent 
toward Imperial. 

These projects met with varying successes.' Guepo- 
tan lost his fort of Liben, Tarochina captured a num- 
ber of boats on the Biobio. It was not, however, until 
the following year that Cayancaru began the siege of 
Arauco. The place was strongly invested, but the 
besieged made so desperate an onslaught against their 
enemies that they forced their ranks and compelled 
them to fly, whereupon Cayancaru, feeling much cha- 
grined, resigned the leadership to his son Nongoniel, 
and retired to his own district. Nongoniel again 
invaded Arauco, and with such success that the garri- 
son was obliged to evacuate. Then the successful 
young commander proceeded against Trinidad, but 
was attacked on the way by a strong force of Span- 
iards under Francisco Hernandez. Nongoniel lost an 
arm in the engagement and was forced to retire to a 


mountain. Here he was drawn into a combat and 
slain, together with fifty of his warriors. Cadeguala 
was then elected toqui. 

There had been frequent descents of pirates, corsairs, 
English and Dutch, upon the coasts and at diverse times. 
La Serena, Valparaiso, Concepcion and Valdivia had 
been sacked. In the year 15S6, three ships commanded 
by Sir Thomas Cavendish landed at Quintero Bay north 
of Valparaiso and sought to subject the Spanish prov- 
inces to English power. While he was entering •jnto 
negotiations with the natives he was attacked by Alonzo 
Molina, corregidor of Santiago, and driven from the 
place. This incident, serving to divert the Spaniards, 
led Cadeguala to plan an expedition against Angol. 
Some of the inhabitants of that place were friendly to 
his interests and these instigated some Chilean Indians, 
who were in the service of the Spaniards, to set the 
houses on fire during the night of his attack. The 
plan was successful. Fortunately Sotomayor arrived 
just before the attack, and inspired b}' his presence, 
the inhabitants at length retired to the citadel. Re- 
organizing their forces there, a successful sally was 
made against the enemy at daybreak and the Arauca- 
nian general compelled to withdraw his troops. 

Next Cadeguala undertook the reduction of the for- 
tress of Puren, and invested it with an army of four 
thousand men. The governor hastened to its relief 
with reinforcements; but Cadeguala met him on the 
way and obliged him to retreat. The toqui now offered 
the besieged the alternative of retiring upon parole, 
or joining his army. The terms were rejected by all 
of the garrison with the exception of one, Juan Tapia, 
who availed himself of the terms and joined the Arau- 
canians. Cadeguala now offered to settle the siege 
by single combat with the commander, Garcia Ramon. 


The challenge was accepted, the combat being arranged 
for the third day after. In this tilt Cadeguala fell, 
pierced by Ramon's lance, and the Araucanian army 

Guanoalca was elected toqui in place of Cadeguala 
and at once returned to the siege. Juan Tapia, the 
Spaniard who had accepted the terms of the Araucanians 
and had gone over to their side in the previous siege, 
informed Guanoalca that the garrison was short of pro- 
visions and divided in sentiment. This no doubt was 
true, as the besieged soon evacuated the place and re- 
tired to Angol, the Indians permitting them to pass 

Guanoalca next determined to take the new fort 
which had been erected recently near Mt. Mariguenu. 
Learning, however, that the post had been strongl}' 
reinforced, he changed his plan and proceeded against 
Trinidad and Espiritu Santo. On his approach, the 
governor abandoned the forts, transferring the garrisons 
to a new fort he had had constructed near Angol upon 
the river Puchanqui. These events occurred during 
the year 15S9. 

It was not unusual for women to wield spears in the 
Araucanian wars. A woman now took up arms who 
proved to be a veritable Joan of Arc. Janequeo was 
the wife of the heroic Guepotan, who after he had lost 
Liben, had retired to the mountains, where he was 
sometime afterward killed by the Spaniards, preferring 
death, it is said, to being taken prisoner. Janequeo 
determined to avenge the death of her husband, and 
for that purpose placed herself, in company with her 
brother Guechiuntereo, at the head of the Puelches. 

During the year 1590 she began to harass the Span- 
ish towns and showed no quarter to any of her enemies 
who chanced to fall into her hands. The governor pro- 


ceeded against her with a considerable army, but she 
occupied the mountainous regions and attacked his 
troops in van and rear until he was obliged to beat a 
retreat. An Indian prisoner taken was hung. This 
act enraged the Puelches and they clamored for ven- 

The intrepid woman next attacked the fortress of 
Puchanqui, but was unable to take it, though she de- 
feated a part of^the garrison and killed the comman- 
der, Aranda. She now withdrew to the mountain 
fastnesses of Villarica, where she fortified herself in a 
canon. From this retreat she carried on a lively war- 
fare against Villarica, so that the inhabitants were 
afraid to leave the streets. 

Complaints were made to the governor, who im- 
mediately dispatched his brother, Don Luis, against 
the almost impregnable stronghold of the enemy. The 
issue of the expedition was for sometime doubtful, as 
Janequeo repeatedly repelled the assaults of the Span- 
ish forces led by Don Luis, Castillejo and Penalosa ; 
but her troops were at last dispersed by the artillery 
and she herelf was obliged to seek safety in flight. 
Her brother was captured, and promised to prevail 
upon his sister to lay down arms on condition that his 
life should be spared. The Spaniards dismissed him 
for that purpose and he immediately presented the 
matter to a council of the nation. An old cacique 
present, Catipiuque, scorning all proffers of peace, 
slew the valiant warrior while the debate was in pro- 

Guanoalca was an old man ; he died toward the close 
of the year 1590, and the following year Quintuguenu 
was elected in his place. The new toqui was a j'oung 
chieftain enterprising and ambitious. But his career 
was of short duration. He took the fort of Mt. Mari- 


guenu, and fortified himself upon its redoubtable sum- 
mit. This inaccessible mountain, which had been the 
retreat of the Araucanians for half a century, had always 
enabled them to hold out against the Spaniards. The 
governor marched against Quintuguenu at the head of 
one thousand Spaniards and a large following of aux- 
iliary troops. To oppose these, Quintuguenu had two 
thousand men posted upon the mountain. Half way 
up the height the Spaniards were attacked with such 
fury that the governor with great difficulty succeeded 
in preventing a rout ; passing among his men, he 
urged them forward until they gained the lost ground 
on the top of the mountain. The Araucanians fought 
like wolves at bay, but notwithstanding their valor 
were cut in pieces. Quintuguenu fell, bleeding from 
three wounds, while those of his troops who were not 
killed in the engagement betook themselves to headlong 
flight down the precipitous sides of the mountain. 
Among the Spanish Indian auxiliaries the slaughter 
had been so terrible that the greater part of them were 
left dead upon the field. Of the Spaniards, about 
twenty were killed. 

This victory, the first obtained by the Spaniards at 
the ill-omened Mariguenu, was celebrated by general 
rejoicings, by discharges of artillery, and by broad- 
sides from the Peruvian fleet, which, sailing down the 
cost after the English, chanced at this time to be in 
the harbor. Taking advantage of the enthusiasm 
aroused by this victory, the governor sent to Peru by 
the fleet to obtain reinforcements, intending to prose- 
cute to a successful issue the war which had now 
raged so many years with only occasional periods of 

Sotomayor next abandoned the fort of Arauco, 
and reestablished it upon the coast, where it could 


not be so readily besieged. Colocolo, a son of the 
famous wizard, to whom we have already referred, 
was ulmen of the territory where the new fort was 
built. In attempting to drive off the invaders he was 
taken prisoner, and to save himself promised to per- 
suade his subjects to submit to the Spanish govern- 
ment. This, however, his people refused to accede 
to, so that Colocolo, enraged at their obstinacy, joined 
the Spaniards and led them against his own people. 

We have now reached the year 1592, and the Arau- 
canians are no nearer being subjected than when the 
Spaniards first crossed the Biobio. They had raised 
up commander after commander, army after army, and 
recovered from defeat after defeat, scorning all propo- 
sitions looking toward a treaty of peace, which they 
well knew meant to 5'ield their liberties and territories 
to the Spaniards. At this time a Spanish prisoner 
among the Indians undertook to effect a treaty of 
peace between the belligerents, but failed to satisfy 
either Spaniards or Indians by his proposals. The gov- 
ernor made a last proposition ; this not being accepted 
by the Indians, he marched an army into the province 
of Tucapel, which he laid waste far and near. Pail- 
laeco, having succeeded Quintuguenu, sought to draw 
the Spanish army into an ambush, but was himself 
deceived by his enemy's pretended flight and thus 
drawn into an open field where he was killed and his 
troops mercilessly put to the sword. The few escap- 
ing fled to the swamps. 

Notwithstanding these repeated victories the loss of 
the Spaniards had been so great that the governor de- 
cided to withdraw with his forces to Santiago and 
there await the expected recruits from Peru. These 
not arriving, he determined to go there himself for 
assistance, leaving the command of the army and the 


government to Pedro Viscarra, the quartermaster. He 
never came back. Don Martin Onez de Loyola was 
soon after this named his successor by the court of 
Spain. Loyola had won renown in Peru, as the con- 
queror of the rebellious Inca Tupac Amaru, who made 
a most stubborn resistance to the Spaniards and re- 
vived much of the ancient martial spirit of his race 
before he was finally overthrown. This brilliant con- 
quest had obtained for Loyola not only the govern- 
ment of Chile, but the Princess Clara Beatrix, or Clara 
Beatrix Coya, daughter and heiress of the Inca Syri 
Tupac. The new governor assumed his office at San- 
tiago in 1593. 

But Loyola was soon to find that conquering Tupac 
Amaru and subduing the Araucanians were different 
matters. Paillamachu had been elevated to the chief 
toquiship, and to him was reserved the honor of ac- 
complishing what his predecessors had attempted in 
vain, the destruction of the Spanish settlements in 
Araucania and the recovery of the ancient independ- 
ence of the race. He was an old man, wise as Colo- 
colo, and his first act was to appoint two of his best 
officers vice-toquis, Pelantaru and Millacolquin. Next 
he withdrew to the marshes of Lumaco to discipline 
an army with which he might hope to cope with the 
Spaniards, led by so renowned a leader as Loyola. 

Loyola, that he might carry on the war from a nearer 
base than Santiago, had proceeded to Concepcion. 
Paillamachu sent to him there an officer named Anti- 
pillan, ostensibly to compliment him, but in reality to 
obtain information. Acting as his predecessors had 
often done, Loyola sought to impress the envoy with 
an idea of the extent of his resources, and intimated 
that the Araucanians would do well to treat with him. 
The politic Antipillan replied so truly, that the Span- 


iards, by seeking peace, only wished to subdue them, 
that Loyola was struck by his patriotic sentiments and 
dismissed the Indian with many expressions of esteem. 
There was something in the Araucanian character that 
commanded the admiration of their foes ; an enemy's 
cause has seldom been treated with so little prejudice 
as in the case of the Spanish historians who have de- 
picted the Araucanian campaigns. 




In 1594 Loyola crossed the Biobio and founded a 
new town, which, in honor of his wife, he called Coya. 
This was in the vicinity of Angol and near the gold 
mines of Kilacoyan, both of which places the for- 
tresses of Coya were intended to protect. Magistrates 
were appointed, churches erected, monasteries founded, 
and two citadels, called respectively Jesus and Chive- 
cura, were constructed in such favorable positions as 
to commmand both shores of the Biobio. 

In the following year Paillamachu ordered Lonco- 
thegua, one of his officers, to take the fort of Jesus. 
This task had been nearly accomplished when the 
brave captain was killed ; whereupon his troops with- 
drew, after having burned a part of the fort. 

After this unsuccessful enterprise, Paillamachu re- 
mained quiet until the next year, 1596, when he began 
to make expeditions into the Spanish settlements to 
obtain forage for his army and to give his troops mili- 
tar}' exercise, but he was careful not to bring on an 
untimely engagement with the Spaniards sent out 
against him. 



To prevent these incursions as far as possible, the 
governor erected two forts, one at Puren and the other 
on the borders of the marshes of Lumaco, which he 
strongly garrisoned. Not long after he sent a com- 
pany to found a young city, San Luis de Loyola, in the 
province of Cujo. 

Pailiamachu, having at length in the year 1597 
raised a formidable army, descended with fury upon 
the new fortresses at Puren and Lumaco. The latter 
place was razed, the former reduced to extremit)', when 
a reinforcement opportunel)' arriving under Pedro 
Cortez, the Araucanians withdrew. The governor, 
however, deeming the forts of little worth ordered 
their demolition and transferred the garrisons to An- 
gol. Imperial being threatened, he withdrew his 
forces to that city, repaired the fortifications of the 
place, as well as those of Villarica and Valdivia, after 
which he starte.d with an escort to the river Biobio. 
While encamping in the valley of Caralava, the Arau- 
canian general fell upon him with a small party of 
two hundred warriors and killed him with all his com- 

Governor Loyola had been killed on the night of 
November 22, 1598; forty-eight hours after, all the 
Araucanian provinces, including the tribes of the 
Cunchese and Huilliches, were in arms. It is said 
that every Spaniard found outside of the fortifications 
was put to death. Sieges were at once begun against 
Osorno, Valdivia, Villarica, Imperial, Canete, Angol, 
Coya and Arauco. At the same time, Pailiamachu 
burned Concepcion and Chilian, then recrossed the 
Biobio in safetj' with immense booty. 

These reverses so discouraged the Spaniards that 
many were in favor of abandoning the country entirely, 
but better counsels prevailed and Pedro de Viscarra 


was chosen to conduct the affairs of government until 
the due appointment of another governor. He re- 
mained in office six months, during which time he 
crossed the Biobio with such troops as he could get 
together and conducted the inhabitants of Angol and 
Coya .in safety to Concepcion and Chilian, which he 
sought to repeople. 

The viceroy of Peru, learning of the critical con- 
dition of the provinces in Chile, dispatched thither 
Francisco Quinones as governor, with an army and an 
abundance of military supplies. Quinones, after 
several unsuccessful engagements with the Araucanians 
north of the Biobio where the Indians were ravaging 
the country, ordered the evacuation of the forts of 
Arauco and Caiiete and transferred the inhabitants to 
Concepcion. Quinones, like so many of his predeces- 
sors, was a soldier of cold blood; having taken several 
prisoners in an engagement with Paillamachu on the 
plains of Yumbel, he ordered them to be quartered and 
hung upon trees. As we have before observed, these 
measures of extreme cruelty served only to enrage the 

The sieges of the fortified places within the Arau- 
canian territories went on, except that of Valdivia, 
which had been razed. Paillamachu continued to 
ravage the Spanish provinces, which, having effect- 
ually accomplished, he next proceeded against Valdivia 
with 4,000 troops, crossed the river at night, attacked 
the city early in the morning, slaughtered the inhabi- 
tants, burned the houses, and even attacked the ship- 
ping in the harbor. In this onslaught he obtained two 
million dollars worth of booty, cannon, arms, and four 
hundred prisoners. A force of three hundred troops 
under Campo arrived from Peru after the destruction 
of Valdivia, and made an unsuccessful attempt to re- 


lieve Osorno, Villarica and Imperial, which were still 
invested by the enemy. 

The European wars resulted now and then in attacks 
being made by the contending parties on the American 
colonies. The English had sent expeditions against 
Peru and Chile under Drake and Cavendish (1578 — 
1585), Holland now dispatched five warships (1598 — 
1600) to the coast of Chile. These plundered the 
island of Chilo6 and massacred the Spanish garrison 
stationed there. At the island of Talca, however, the 
invaders were driven back with a loss of twenty-three 
of their men, in an attack made upon them by the 
Araucanians dwelling there, who seem to have taken 
them for a fresh arrival of Spaniards. 

Quinones requested to be recalled from the undesir- 
able government of Chile, and Alonzo Garcia Ramon 
was appointed to succeed him. Ramon was the An- 
thony Wayne of Chilean Indian battles but succeeded 
no better than his predecessor, despite his long ex- 
perience in Araucanian warfare. 

Alonzo de Rivera was appointed by the court of 
Spain to succeed Ramon. The new captain-general 
had won spurs in the wars of the Low Countries, and, 
having brought with him from Spain a regiment of 
veterans, much was expected of him. His first act 
was to fortify the Biobio with a series of strong forts. 
This infused new courage into the hearts of the de- 
spondent Chilean settlers but it did not save the Arau- 
canian cities which Valdivia had established, and 
which had been defended so many years with so great 
an outlay of Spanish blood and treasure. After a 
siege of nearly three years Villarica and Imperial fell 
into the hands of the Araucanians. The latter place 
held out long after the garrison had been reduced to 
the utmost extremities, encouraged thereto by the 


heroic spirit displayed by a Spanish lady, Ines Aguill- 
era, who, having lost husband and brothers in the 
siege, yet by her heroic example and ardent words, 
persuaded the garrison to hold out until a favorable 
opportunity presented itself for an escape by sea. 
Osorno also fell about this time, the besieged inhabi- 
tants having undergone terrible hardships, being com- 
pelled to subsist on the most loathsome food. 

This for a period closed the Araucanian wars, as the 
cities and forts were not rebuilt in the Indian territor- 
ies. Paillamachu, the most successful chieftain of the 
Araucanians, died in 1603, and was succeeded in the 
toquiship by Huenecura. 

Of the Spaniards in the Araucanian territories, many 
who were taken prisoners, afterward intermarried with 
the natives. Spanish women, on the other hand, were 
conducted to the homes of the conquerors; many cap- 
tives settled in the Indian country and dwelt there, 
uniting themselves with the tribes. 

In those days, when the Spanish succession was of 
paramount interest, it was a courtier's duty to obtain 
his royal patron's permission when he wished to wed a 
lady in the favor of court. This, Alonzo de Rivera 
failed to do when he married Aguillera's daughter, in 
consequence of which he was transferred from the 
governorship of Chile to that of Tucuman and Alonzo 
Garcia Ramon was restored to the office. The latter 
was, at the time of his restoration to office, given 
1250 soldiers, veterans from Europe and Mexico, 
which swelled the Chilean army to three thousand 
Spanish troops, beside a large body of auxiliaries. 
With this army the captain-general marched into the 
Araucanian territories, and, encountering no opposi- 
tion, went as far as the province of Boroa, where he 
built a fort and garrisoned it with three hundred men 


under the command of an officer named Juan Rodulfo 

No sooner had Ramon retreated with his main army 
than the toqui, Huenecura, proceeded against the new 
fort. Falling in with a detachment of one hundred 
and sixty men commanded by Lisperguer in person, 
he almost destroyed the whole party, Lisperguer him- 
self being among the killed. 

Next the Indian commander attacked the fort, but it 
was so valiantly defended by the garrison under Ne- 
grete, who had succeeded to the command, that the 
Araucanians were obliged to suspend their attacks and 
to begin a siege. Hearing of this, the captain-general 
withdrew the garrison. Then the old story of fort 
building and fort destroying, attacks and repulses, 
was repeated, and in the end, Ramon's army was 
destroyed. He had sent his troops in two divisions, 
commanded respectively by Alvaro Pineda and Don 
Diego Saravia, to lay waste the enemy's country. 
Huenecura fell upon the divisions and destroyed each 
in turn so completely that it is said not a single man 
escaped death or captivity. 

These disasters caused the new king, Philip HI., to 
establish an army of two thousand troops on the fron- 
tiers, for the support of which an appropriation of 
nearly ^300,000 was annually made; and also, in the 
following year, September 8th, i6og, to re-establish 
the Royal Audience court in Chile. This court, form- 
erly held at Concepcion, now began its sittings at 
Santiago, Garcia Ramon receiving by this change the 
titles of president of the Royal Audience, and captain- 
general of Chile. 

This court was composed of one regent (rejente), one 
senior (deca?to), three judges {oidores'), and one fiscal, 
and was presided over by the governor. Its functions 


were not alone to administer justice, but also to aid 
the governor in the direction of governmental affairs 
and in the conduct of war.* 

The veteran, Ramon, enjoyed his gubernatorial 
honors less than a year. On the loth of August, 1610, 
he died at Concepcion ; not, however, until after he 
had obtained a victory over Toqui Huenecura in the 
marshes of Lumaco. He had marched an army of . 
two thousand men against the enemy, and the battle- 
which ensued was characterized by all the old time 
fury upon both sides. The governor placed himself 
in the front rank when his lines were about to give 
way, and so animated his men that what had been 
near!)' a rout was converted into a victory. Perhaps 
no captain-general of Chile was more endeared to the 
people, or more esteemed lay the Indians, than Garcia 
Ramon. For that age he was a humane man. He 
was succeeded by Don Luis Merlo de la Fuente, the 
oldest member of the Royal Audience. Toqui Huene- 
cura about this same time died of a wound he had re- 
ceived in battle and was succeeded by Aillavilu the 
Second, who proved to be one of the best of the 
Araucanian generals, though his achievements are not 
to be counted with those of Paillamachu. 

Luis de Valdivia was a Jesuit missionary. He de- 
sired to convert the Araucanians to the Christian 
faith, but found it no such easy task as Father Val- 
verde had in converting the Incas or Father Olmeda 
the Aztecs. It was impossible to preach while battles 
were constantly being fought. Animated by religious 
zeal, he proceeded to Spain and had an audience with 
Philip III., who was a zealous catholic. The king 

*The governor was president of the Royal Audience. For this reason he is of- 
ten referred to by Chilean historians as/r^J2^^«^^. The three names, governor, 
captain-general and president, are given indiscriminately by different writers. 
Id this book the three titles are used. 


immediately sent orders to Chile to the effect that 
war should cease, that lasting peace should be con- 
cluded with the Araucanians and that the river 
Biobio should henceforth be considered the boundar}' 
of the Spanish possessions. The priest was placed at 
the head of the government, which had been for a 
short time conducted by Juan de .Xara Quemada, but 
Valdivia refused to exercise any civil authority what- 
ever, and selected Alonzo de Rivera for the office, 
which nomination was confirmed and that person 
recalled to Chile. 

Upon his arrival in Chile in 1612, the priest at once 
communicated with the Araucanians relative to the 
proposed treaty. He brought with him a letter from 
Philip, but to all of this Aillavilu gave little heed, as 
he supposed it merely a pi6ce of Spanish deception. 
He was, however, soon succeeded in the toquiship by 
Ancanamon, who thought it the part of wisdom and 
good policy to send the ulmen, Carampangui, to confer 
with Valdivia. The result of the conference was, that 
Valdivia met a deputation of fifty of the Araucanian 
chieftains at Nancu in the province of Catiray, and to 
these he read the royal letter and made known the 
terms of the proposed treaty". The assembled caciques 
listened attentivelj'-, thanked the priest for his efforts, 
and promised to make a further report to their com- 

When Valdivia had returned to Concepcion accom- 
panied by Carampangui, Governor Rivera, pleased 
with the progress already made toward establishing 
peace, sent an ensign, Pedro Melendez, to Ancanamon 
with the king's letter and a request that he should 
come to Paicavi to confer with him in respect to 
the treaty. The toqui went with a small guard, 
and was received with due honors. Then the terms 


were discussed. These were that the Biobio should 
henceforth be the boundary, that neither nation should 
pass that river with an army, that all deserters should 
be mutually returned, and that Christian mission- 
aries should be permitted to preach to the Arauca- 

The toqui required, as a preliminary step to satisfy 
himself of the good faith of the Spaniards, that the 
forts of Arauco and Paicavi, recently established upon 
the seacoast, should be abandoned. Thereupon the 
fort of Arauco was abandoned and the governor 
promised to withdraw the garrison from the other as 
soon as the treaty of peace should be agreed upon. 
Satisfied with this, Ancanamon departed to confer with 
his chiefs. 

But the negotiations were suddenly interrupted in 
an unexpected manner. Ancanamon had a Spanish 
wife in his seraglio. During his absence she fled to 
the governor ; with her were two children, as well as 
two other wives and two daughters, of the toqui. 
These refugees were kindly received by the Spaniards 
and this so incensed Ancanamon that he gave up all 
thought of peace. He demanded of the governor the 
return of his wives and children. This demand was, 
after considerable parleying, refused on the ground that 
the refugees had embraced the Christian faith, and 
that they could not be permitted to run any danger 
of loosing so great a blessing by a return to their 
Indian master. 

Thus the negotiations were about to fail of any sat- 
isfactory result, when the head ulmen of lUicura, Uti- 
flame, who had long been a most inveterate foe to the 
Spaniards, came to visit Valdivia at Arauco out of re- 
gard for the priest's benefaction to him in returning 
sons who had previously been taken as prisoners. He 


was civilly received both by Valdivia and the governor, 
and grateful for his treatment, offered to receive the 
missionaries into his territory and to use his influence 
in persuading Ancanamon to accept the proposed 
treaty. Valdivia appointed Utiflame to carry on the 
negotiations, and by the advice of the chief, turned 
over to him Ancanamon's wives, whom he was to con- 
duct safely home. Utiflame departed, accompanied 
hy three Spanish missionaries, Horatio Vecchio, Mar- 
tin Aranda and Diego Montalban. 

When Ancanamon learned of Utiflame's arrival at 
Ilicura accompanied by the missionaries, he repaired 
there with two hundred horsemen and slew the whole 
party. This brought an end to all efforts looking to- 
ward a treaty of peace. The Spanish army cried 
loudly for vengeance. Ancanamon renewed the strug- 
gle and laid waste the Spanish settlements. He was 
succeeded by Loncothegua, who opposed the Spaniards 
in several engagements with varying results. 

Rivera died in 1617 and was succeeded by Fernando 
Talaveranno. Ten months afterward, Talaveranno 
was succeeded by Lopez de Ulloa as governor. 



The next toqui, succeeding Loncothegua who re- 
signed, was Lientur, whose military exploits were 
noted for their dash and daring, so that he was desig- 
nated the wizard {brujo^ by the Spaniards. Levi- 
pillan was selected as vice-toqui, and proved himself 
an able second in his chief's undertakings. They rav- 
aged the Spanish territories north of the Biobio, 
captured at one time four hundred cavalry horses, and 
at another time defeated the corregidor of Chilian, 
who was killed. He also defeated RoboUedo, com- 
mander at Yumbel, captured Neculguenu in the fol- 
lowing year, the garrison of which place was put to 
the sword, and invested Yumbel, which however was 
saved by Ximenes, the commandant. These reverses 
and constant anxieties so weighed upon the mind of 
Governor Lopez de UUoa that he died, November 20th, 
1620. He was succeeded by the eldest member of the 
court of the Royal Audience, according to the custom. 
This person was Cristoval de la Cerda, who held the 
office one year, during which time he built a fort on 
the Biobio and had several encounters with Lientur. 
Pedro Sorez de Ulloa succeeded Cerda and held the 
reins of government until September nth, 1624, when 


he died. The office was then filled for six months by 
his brother-in-law, Francisco de Alva y Noruena. 

During all this time the war was continued with 
Lientur, but that chief was aged and much broken in 
strength by his constant exertions, and, therefore, re- 
signed the command, September nth 1624, and ap- 
pointed for the position Putapichion, a young warrior 
of abilit5' and courage whose youth had been spent as 
a slave among the Spaniards. 

The Spaniards also received a new commander, Don 
Luis Fernandez de Cordova y Area, Senor del Carpio, 
a relative of the viceroy of Peru, who received from the 
latter an army and a large quantity of military stores, 
with orders to carry on an offensive warfare against 
the Araucanians. He introduced reforms in the 
Chilean army, paid the soldiers the arrears due them, 
and assigned various offices to Creoles who had been 
hitherto neglected and slighted. It was during his 
administration, that the boundaries between Chile and 
Peru were definitely fixed at El Paposo. 

Having arranged affairs in a satisfactory manner, 
the governor directed Alonzo Cordova, his cousin, to 
make an expedition against the provinces of Tucapel 
and Arauco, with a force of six hundred men. In this 
incursion, one hundred and fifty prisoners, both men 
and women, and a number of cattle, were taken. 

One of the strongest places held by the Spaniards 
on the Biobio, was the fort of Nativity. This post, 
situated on the top of a mountain, was thought to be 
impregnable. Putapichion determined to win for him- 
self undying military fame by the capture of this im- 
portant stronghold. He came unexpectedly upon the 
garrison, scaled the difficult ascent and set fire to 
some of the works; he also captured the ditch. The 
garrison rallied to the defence and poured such a con- 


tinuous rain of lead into the enemy's ranks, that the 
Araucanian leader was compelled to retreat. 

Crossing the Biobio, Putapichion proceeded against 
Quinel, a strong port garrisoned by six hundred troops, 
but the attack proved a failure, whereupon, the toqui 
turned his attention to sacking the Spanish settle- 
ments in Chilian. The governor sought to retaliate 
in the following year (1628), by invading the Arauca- 
nian territories in three directions. Many prisoners 
were captured and rich spoils taken, when Putapichion 
presented himself with an army of three thousand men 
and offered battle to the division commanded in per- 
son by the governor. The outcome was about equal 
on both sides, the slaughter being everywhere great. 
The quartermaster, who had commanded one of the 
three divisions, was more fortunate than the governor 
in that he captured a vast amount of booty, droves of 
horses, a thousand cattle and two hundred prisoners ; 
but, transferring them aboard ship, he lost them all 
at sea during a tempest. The third division, com- 
manded by the sergeant-major, accomplished noth- 
ing worthy of note, as the natives along the Andes, 
against whom he had directed his march, fled to their 
mountain fastnesses, where he was unable to follow 

Don Francisco Laso de la Vega succeeded Cordova, 
being appointed captain-general by the Spanish court. 
He was a gallant and experienced officer, and humane 
in his policy of treating the natives. His first act 
with reference to the Araucanians was to send home 
all the Indian prisoners and undertake to arrange a 
treaty of peace with them. Failing in this, he began 
and carried on an effective war against that unconquer- 
able nation for a period of ten years. There were 
many evenly contested fields, Piculgue, Robleria, 


and many less important engagements, which do not 
materially differ, either in detail or result, from the 
many battles we have already described. Putapichion 
was defeated and killed in a battle at the port of Alvar- 
rado. Quepuantu was next in command and sought to 
rally the Araucanians to a charge after the fall of the 
leader, but in vain; the army fled, pursued for a dis- 
tance of six miles by the victorious Spaniards. 

Thus the war continued during the whole long 
period of Laso's government, little quarter being 
shown on either side. Each nation was so decimated 
that a treaty of peace became possible under Laso's 
successor, Don Francisco de Zuniga, Marquis of 
Baides. Quepuantu, who succeeded Putapichion as 
toqui, was surprised at his home by a force of four 
hundred Spaniards, and, his party being slain, he 
himself was killed in a combat he had accepted with 
Loncomallu, chief of the Spanish auxiliaries. He was 
succeeded by Loncomilla, who in the following year 
shared the fate of his predecessor. Guenucolquin 
became leader and was slain in an engagement with 
a Spanish force of six hundred men; Curanteo once 
routed the enem}', but was killed in a subsequent bat- 
tle ; Curimilla was also killed — a sure fatality seemed 
to attend the axe of Araucanian leadership. 

In 1638 a Dutch squadron, consisting of four ships 
of war, made a descent upon the Chilean coast, but 
the vessels were scattered by a storm. The crews 
sought assistance from the natives of the islands of 
Mocha and Talca, but were attacked and killed, as 
the Indians were suspicious of the intentions of all 
Europeans. In a second attempt five years afterward 
the Marquis of Mancura sailed into Valdivia harbor 
with ten warships to give battle to the Dutch, but the 
invaders had gone; he then fortified the harbor. An 


English squadron under Sir James Narborough, made 
at one time a similar attempt but failed. 

The Marquis of Baides arrived in Chile in 1640, 
and acting under instructions, at once sought to bring 
about a treaty of peace with the invincible Indians. 
Lincopichion had succeeded Curimilla, and with him 
the governor sought a personal interview in which 
terms of a treaty were discussed and agreed upon by 
the commanders. They fixed upon the 6th of January 
following for a ratification of the treaty, the place 
designated being the village of Quillin. 

At the time agreed upon the governor appeared at 
Quillin escorted by more than ten thousand persons ; 
the Araucanian general appeared at the head of the 
toquis and ulmenes of his nation and was followed by a 
large body of attendants. A llama was killed, blood 
sprinkled, speeches made and the treaty ratified, be- 
ing similar in its terms to the one which had been 
sanctioned by King Philip some years before, but with, 
the additional stipulation that the Araucanians should 
not permit the troops of a foreign nation to land upon 
their coast, nor furnish supplies to enemies of the 
Spaniards. Notwithstanding specious arguments and 
all manner of obstructions interposed against the ar- 
rangement by interested schemers of both nations, who 
were desirous of having hostilities kept up, the treaty 
was ratified and an end put to the desolating war, 
which had continued with few interruptions for nearly 
a century. 

The Araucanians for some time adhered to the treaty. 
In 1643 they refused to join the Dutch, or to furnish 
them with provisions, when they made a second un- 
successful attempt to conquer Chile by building forts 
in the harbor of Valdivia, where they expected to receive 
aid from the natives and to proceed against the 


Spanish provinces. They observed the terms of 
the treaty faithfully during the six years of the Mar- 
quis of Baides' government, and during that of his 
successors in oiBce, Don Martin de Muxica and Alonzo 
de Cordova y Figueroa. Don Antonio de Acuna y 
Cabrera succeeded to the government, and during his 
administration the war between the Spaniards and 
Araucanians broke out afresh, but of its causes we 
have little information. 

In 1655 there was a renewal of the war, caused prin- 
cipally by the cupidity and stupidity of the maestre de 
campo and the sergeant-major, relatives of the gover- 
nor, who commanded the army. The people of Con- 
cepcion were so incensed that the timid governor fled 
to Santiago to escape their fury. Clentaru was elected 
toqui and defeated the Spanish army under the ser- 
geant-major. He also captured the forts of Arauco, 
Colcura, San Pedro, Talcamavida and San Rosendo, 
which the Spaniards had built and repaired ; he crossed 
the Biobio, defeated the governor at Yumbel, destroyed 
several forts and burned Chilian. The war lasted dur- 
ing a period of ten years, Pedro Portale Casanate, 
Diego Gonzales Montero, Angel de Pereda, Francisco 
de Menes6s being the governors. 

Generally speaking, the Araucanian leaders — Clen- 
taru, and the mestizo, Alejo — seem to have been usually 
successful in military exploits, so that in 1665 the 
Spaniards were satisfied to conclude another treaty of 
peace with the Indians, similar in its terms to the 
treaty made at the time of Baides in 1640, which 
treaty was afterward kept by both nations until 1722. 
Menes6s was as unfortunate as Rivera before him had 
been, in marrying without the royal decree. He mar- 
ried the daughter of the Marquis de la Pica, in which 
affair he was seriously opposed by the Royal Audience, 


as the alliance was against the king's interests. To 
settle the matter the king sent out the Marquis of 
Navamorquende, who sent Meneses to Peru and in- 
stalled himself in his place. 

From 1670 to the end of the century the captains-- 
general were Montero (second time), Juan Henriquez, 
Don Jos^ de Garro, and Don Tomas Martin de Poveda. 
Nothing of importance occurred during this period. 
Nor, for that matter, is there much of importance to 
record during the governments of Francisco Ibanez de 
Peralta, Juan Andres de Ustariz and Jos6 de Santiago 
Concha, to the year 1717. Ibanez was banished to 
Peru for taking sides in the war of the succession 
against the House of Bourbon. The islanders of 
Chilod once revolted, but were subdued by Don Pedro 
Molina, who was sent against them. 

From 1707 to 1717, during the wars of the succes- 
sion, the French blockaded all the Chilean ports and 
took possession of the commerce of the nation. It is 
said they took from the country large sums of gold 
and silver, and that many of them settled there per- 
manently v.^hen the fleet was withdrawn. Father 
Feuill6, the French naturalist, made extensive botani- 
cal and other scientific investigations during a three 
years' residence in the country, at the time the French 
were occupying the ports. 

At the close of the seventeenth century, Chile was 
behind other South American countries in material ad- 
vancement. The population was scattered and the 
only towns of any importance were Santiago, the capi- 
tal, Concepcion, Chilian, La Serena, Castro and Val- 
divia. These were little more than villages separated 
by wide stretches of almost uninhabited country. In 
Valparaiso there were only a few small warehouses 
and a row of poor buildings; Santiago had a popu- 


lation of about 8,000 Spaniards, Indians, mestizos and 
negroes. The houses were poorly constructed, all of 
one height, and many of them covered with straw. 
There were a few temples, convents and monasteries 
which ministered to the spiritual wants of the sparse 

The first governors had been distinguished generals 
but inferior statesmen. Preoccupied with the Arau- 
canian wars, they passed their time in Concepcion and 
on the frontiers, neglecting the capita) and the best in- 
terests of the people. They sought military glory and 
private gain and made Chile a stepping-stone to 
wealth, titles and viceroyalties. 



At the opening of the eighteenth century, political 
despotism and religious intolerance had prostrated the 
energies of Spain, whose cavaliers were once so chiv- 
alrous and daring. The American colonies had come 
to serve the purposes of the kings principally in en- 
abling them to sustain destructive religious wars against 
the English, the Germans and the Hollanders. Con- 
sidering herself rich in the exhaustless mineral wealth 
of her American colonies, Spain discarded peaceful and 
useful labor and in the end encountered poverty, for 
her gold went to enrich the more industrious stranger.* 

Charles II. was the last of the kings of the Austrian 
dynasty: he died in 1700, leaving no lawful successor. 
An archduke of Austria and a prince of France dis- 
puting the Spanish throne, the war which followed, 
devastating and pitiless, resulted at length in placing 
the grandson of the powerful Louis XIV. of France 
upon the throne of Spain, with the title of Philip V. 

The first kings of this new Bourbon dynasty brought 
to the administration of the affairs of the kingdom, 
ideas more liberal and tolerant than those held by 

* "Sus fSbricas fueron desapareciendo, i su oro paso & enriquecer la industria 
eslraujera que lossurtio de mercaderiSs." — Gasfar Toro. 



their predecessors. They undertook important reforms 
and one of these brought about good results, in fact, 
went far to better the condition of prostrate Spain and 
her American colonies. The king permitted his French 
compatriots to open trade in America — with Chile by 
way of Cape Horn. French manufactures were intro- 
duced directly into Chile, whose ports had hitherto been 
closed against her. This gave a new impetus to com- 
merce and increased the receipts of the custom-house, 
which before had been nominal. At the same time a 
new activity was given to immigration, both of French 
and Spanish. During the first years of the seventeenth 
century there was a heavy emigration from Aragon and 
the Basque provinces of Spain. These people were 
hardy and industrious classes of settlers and soon 
became thrifty farmers and merchants. Perhaps to this 
fact, more than to any other, is due the later energy 
and progress of Chile. Instead of hunting for chimeri- 
cal Eldorados these settlers set about developing the 
resources of the country. 

In 1722 the Araucanians became enraged over the con- 
duct of- a class calling themselves Captains of the 
Friends, {Capitanos del Amigos), whose pretended busi- 
ness seems to have been the guarding of the mission- 
aries. This organization sought to exercise certain 
surveillance and authority over the natives, a course of 
conduct that was highly distasteful to them. They 
therefore resented it and chose a war toqui, Yilumilla, 
and took up arms. 

The new commander held very ambitious views ; he 
not only desired to obtain justice for his race, but also 
to expel the Spaniards from Chile. He actually sent 
emissaries to all the Indians throughout Chile, and 
requested them to take up arms at a given signal — the 
building of fires on the tops of the highest mountains. 


The fires were kindled on March gth, 1723, but the 
Indians did not all respond, those north of the Biobio 
being timid and fearful of the issue. 

Vilumilla requested the missionaries to quit the 
Araucanian territories; then, as soon as they had 
crossed the Biobio, he proceeded against the fort of 
Tucapel, which he captured. The fort of Arauco was 
also occupied, and that of Puren reduced to extremi- 
ties. Gabriel Cano de Aponte had succeeded Concha ; 
the new governor now marched against Vilumilla with 
an army of five thousand men. The Araucanian gen- 
eral offered battle, but the governor thought best to 
withdraw the garrison of Puren and retire. A succes- 
sion of insignificant battles followed until peace was 
established at Negrete, where the order of Captains of 
Friends, so odious to the Araucanians, was abolished 
and the treaty of Quillin reaffirmed. 

Cano ruled Chile satisfactorily for a period of fifteen 
years. Francisco Sanchez de la Barreda, Manuel de 
Salamanca and Jos6 de Manso followed Cano. Manso 
founded, in 1742, the cities of Copiapo, Aconcagua, 
Melipilla, Rancagua, San Fernando, Curico, Talca, 
Tutuben and Los Angeles; this was done under orders 
from the king to collect the inhabitants of the country 
in urban societies. The governor was at one time 
obliged to forego his labors in city building to attend 
to the defence of the coast which was threatened by an 
English squadron sent out by Lord Anson. The usual 
Cape Horn tempest, however, caused the English to 
repair to the island of Juan Fernandez. 

Chile at this time had become a stepping-stone to 
promotion, so that the office of governor, or captain- 
general, was much sought after; from captain-general 
of Chile the splendid office of viceroy of Peru often fol- 
lowed. This was true of Don Jos^ de Manso; as a re- 


ward for his services in Chile he was made viceroy of 
Peru and given the title, Conde de Superunda. 

Succeeding Manso, were Francisco de Obando and 
Domingo Ortiz de Rosas, who continued the plan of 
founding cities and gathering the population of Chile 
in them. Rosas founded Huasco, Choapo, Petorca, 
Ligua, Curico, Quirihue and Coelemu. For this ser- 
vice the king recompensed him with the title of Conde 
de Poblaciones — Count of Populations. He also under- 
took to people the island of Juan Fernandez. 

By authority of his king, Philip V., Rosas estab- 
lished a university in Santiago, which he called the 
University of San Felipe, after the king. This was in 
the year 1747. The first rector of the institution was 
Tomas de Azua. The college was regular and gave 
courses with the degrees of Bachelor and Master. A 
theatre was attached to it in which amateur plays were 
rendered. The arts, philosophy, and theology were 
taught, all in bad Latin ; medicine and law were taught 
in a superficial manner. One result of founding the 
college, however, was to take some of the educational 
facilities out of the hands of the monks and Jesuits, 
who had long been almost the sole instructors of the 
Chilean youth. 

Two years after the university of San Felipe had 
been founded, Rosas established a mint in Santiago, 
also by authority of the king, and began the work of 
coining money, both of gold and of silver; from that 
time the monetary circulation became much more active. 

It was during Rosas' administration that the third 
great earthquake occurred, 1751, which destroyed Con- 
cepcion by a wave of the sea and caused much destruc- 
tion in Santiago and outlying villages, and in the new 
cities. Concepcion was reestablished on a new site 
about two leagues from the sea. An earthquake dur- 


ing the rule of Cano had done much damage to Santi- 
ago and other places. Some years later, during the 
time that the Marquis of Aviles was governor, an earth- 
quake caused considerable damage in the cities of Copi- 
apo, Huasco and Coquimbo. Other less severe shocks 
were felt frequently but the damage done was compar- 
atively trifling. 

The captain-general succeeding Rosas, Don Manuel 
Amat, continued the policy of founding cities, and 
established Santa Barbara, Talcamavida and Hualqui. 

Don Manuel de Amat y Junient was a military ge- 
nius of considerable repute. The robbers and other 
criminals of the country had' reasons for fearing and 
hating him. He persecuted them, as it were, with a 
rod of iron, and filled the jails with them. He organ- 
ized patrols of dragoons and vigilance committees, 
and created a militia to defend the coasts against the 
ravages of pirates. He also organized civilians into 
military bodies and these afterward, in the war of the 
revolution, did much good service. When Amat was 
promoted to the viceroyalty of Peru, the corregidor in 
Santiago, Luis de Zanartu, continued to prosecute these 
rigorous measures against criminals, and, having filled 
the jails, put them to work constructing a stone bridge 
over the Mapocho. 

The next captain-general, Don Antonio de Guill y 
Gonzaga (Berroeta having acted a short time provision- 
ally), undertook to gather the Araucanian Indians into 
cities. The outcome of this chimerical scheme Was a 
renewal of the war, as the Indians proceeded to elect a 
toqui and prepare for hostilities in case the Spaniards 
should persist in their course. Curignancu was elected 
toqui: two or three cities were begun, but the Indians 
demanded tools with which to work, offered all manner 
of excuses for the purpose of delaying the enterprise, 



and finally, these efforts failing to dissuade the Span- 
iards from the undertaking, the)' slew their superin- 
tendents and besieged the quartermaster in his camp. 
The governor now formed an alliance with the Pehu- 
enches, but Curignancu suddenly fell upon them, routed 
them in a battle and took prisoner their leader, Coli- 
guna, whom he put to death. 

Failing to accomplish his undertaking, Gonzaga died, 
and the government fell a short time to Juan de Bal- 
maseda ; he was succeeded by Don Francisco Xavier 
de Morales. The war with the Araucanians was con- 
tinued. Curignancu and his vice-toqui, Leviantu, con- 
stantly ravaged the country and defeated the Spaniards 
on more than one occasion. 

In 1773, after the war had cost the Spaniards more 
than a million and a half of dollars, a treaty was again 
entered into ; by this the treaties of Quillin and Negrete 
were reaffirmed, and a further request by Curignancu 
was granted, which stipulation was, that henceforth the 
Araucanians should be permitted to keep a minister in 
Santiago, like other independent nations. 

Don Agustin de Jauregui succeeded Morales for a 
time, (1773 to 1780), then accepted the more important 
office of viceroy of Peru and was followed by Ambrosio 
de Benavides, a cavalier of the Royal Order of Charles 
III. Tomas Alvarez de Acevedo governed a short time. 

During the governorship of Jauregui, 1776, Charles 
III. promulgated a decree creating the viceroyalty of 
La Plata at Buenos Ayres. With this he incorporated 
the territory of Cujo, which had been for two centuries 
a part of the territory of Chile. 

Two years after this, in 1778, the same king threw 
open the ports of Spain to the colonies, permitted 
freedom of commerce with the French, which had been 
prohibited, and suppressed the odious privileges of the 


Cadiz commercial monopoly, which had long enjoyed 
almost exclusive trade with South America. 

In 1780 occurred a conspiracy. An increase in the 
amount of contributions levied and certain reforms of 
the religious orders, caused much discontent and pub- 
lic excitement. There were in the capital two French- 
men, who attempted to take advantage of the popular 
agitation to stir up a revolution, hoping to establish 
in Chile an independent republic. Their names were 
Antony Gramuset and Antony Berney. But Chile was 
not yet prepared for a revolution, or for republican 
principles, and the Frenchmen were apprehended and 
sent to Peru, where they languished in prison for a 
time before being sent to Spain. Berney perished in 
a shipwreck, Gramuset died in a Cadiz prison. The 
ideas they advanced found sympathizers and they had 
some adherents of note. Don Jos6 Antonio de Rojas 
was one of these. He was a wealthy and well educated 
Chilean of good family. He had introduced revolu- 
tionary books and revolutionary ideas into the country 
furtively, and was for that reason held by many to be 
a wizard. 

Governor Benavides suffered so much from constant 
bad health during his term in office, that it was thought 
almost miraculous that he could accomplish the amount 
of work he did before his death, which occurred on the 
28th of April, 1787. During his administration, from 
1781 to 1787, Chile was well governed. 

Following the death of Benavides, occurred a pro- 
visional government, or superintendencia by Don To- 
mis Alvarez de Acevedo, who received his papers from 
the viceroy of Peru and continued his administration 
one 5'ear from the 30th day of April, 1787. On the 
26th of May, 1788, he delivered his office to Ambrosio 


O'Higgins, who had been appointed captain-general 
by the court of Spain. 

The Spaniards sought to firmly establish themselves 
in that part of Chile north of the Biobio. This terri- 
tory had been divided into thirteen provinces, and was 
governed by an appointee, usually a lieutenant-general, 
combining as we have seen, after the second estab- 
lishment of the Royal Audience, the titles of president, 
governor and captain-general. The captain-general re- 
sided at Santiago and was directly responsible to the 
court of Spain, save in the event of war, when, in cer- 
tain matters he was subject to the viceroy of Peru. 
During Jauregui's administration the province of Maule 
was subdivided, the river serving as the boundary be- 
tween the two new states. The southern part was named 
Cauquenes and its capital was the city of that name. 
Afterward the province was still further divided, and 
the new province Curico formed in the north of it. 

Besides the provinces above mentioned, the Span- 
iards held of Valdivia's early conquest, the fortress of 
Valdivia, the Archipelago of Chi]o6 and the island of 
Juan Fernandez. There were four subordinate govern- 
ors of Chiloe, Valdivia, Valparaiso and Juan Fernandez, 
under the captain-general. The latter, beside his 
general office, commanded the army, and had the su- 
preme administration of justice, presiding over the 
highest tribunals at the capital, whose jurisdiction ex- 
tended to all the provinces. They were the Tribunal 
of Audience, or royal senate, that of finance and that 
of commerce, all presided over by judges receiving 
large salaries. The captain-general also had under 
him the three principal officers of Chile, the quarter- 
master, the sergeant-major and the commissary. The 
provinces were governed by prefects, or corregidors, 
called also subdelegates, who were usually appointed 


by the captain-general, owing to the great distance of 
the country from Spain. The subdelegates had juris- 
diction over civil and military affairs and their pay 
depended upon fees; which fact led to many abuses in 
office. In Peru the hated office had been abolished in 
1784, after the uprising headed by Tupac Amaru in 
1781, which uprising was not fully suppressed until 
1783. This office, together with the old Spanish ^^/ar- 
timientos and forced labor, were the main causes of that 
rebellion. There were also in Chile municipal magis- 
tracies, called cabildos, composed of several regidores. 
These were appointed for life. A standard-bearer, a pro- 
curator, a judge, called the Provincial Alcalde, a high- 
sheriff (^Alguazil),X.^o consuls (^Alcaldes') chosen annually 
from the cabildos, were also among the officers. 

At this time the inhabitants were divided into regi- 
ments consisting of 15,856 militia troops in Santiago 
and Concepcion, 10,218 in the first, 5,688 in the sec- 
ond place. These corps were established by Jauregui. 
Besides this militia there was a force of regular troops, 
numbering 1,976 men. 

In this brief review of Chile as it appeared at the 
close of the eighteenth century, we may mention sla- 
very. Negroes had been introduced by contraband 
means and were subjected to a mild form of servitude. 
They were employed chiefly as domestics, and could 
ransom themselves by paying their very humane mas- 
ters. Those who were ill-treated could demand letters 
of sale and seek a purchaser. Slavery did not thrive 
in Chile, and almost the first act of the patriots when 
forming a government for themselves was to liberate 
the slaves. The peasantry, a healthy, robust race, gay 
and fond of games, enjoyed considerable liberty, and 
this class was not subjected to the same harsh indig- 
nities as the Indians and peons of Peru. They dressed 


in the Araucanian style, and on the frontiers, spoke 
both the Indian and the Spanish languages. In the 
Chilean cities, Lima prescribed the fashions for the 
women and France for the men ; but the country peo- 
ple adhered to primitive customs and manner of dress. 

At the close of the last century, the Chilean people 
of wealth were fond of display. San Martin, when he 
had styled himself the Protector of Peru, imitated all 
the ways of the European courts, though professing to 
found a republic ; so also the wealthy families of Chile 
made a splendid display in dress, servants, coaches and 
titles. A few of the leading citizens obtained high 
titles in Spain — Don Fernando Irrazabal was made 
Marquis of Valparaiso, Don Fermin Caravajal, became 
Duke of San Carlos, Don Juan Covarrubias was given 
the title of Marquis of Covarrubias, Don Ambrosio 
O' Higgins, formerly of Ireland, became Marquis of 
Osorno and Baron of Ballenar. The South American 
republics had their Virginia blue-bloods and imitated 
Spain as the United States imitated England in the 
pre-revolutionary days. 

In 1766 smallpox had been introduced into the pro- 
vince of Maule, and cow's milk was resorted to as a 
remedy. This disease, as we have seen, had once 
nearly depopulated the Araucanian territories. If we 
may credit legendary accounts the plague had several 
times, in preceding centuries, spread its terrible rav- 
ages among the Inca nations at Cuzco, so that it may 
have been known on the Pacific coast before the advent 
of the Spaniards. It was not until the time of Gov- 
ernor Guzman, in the first part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, that vaccination was introduced into Chile by 
Doctor Grasales. 

At this time Chile was divided into two dioceses, 
Santiago and Concepcion. Valdivia had first intro- 


duced monks of the Order of Mercy when he arrived 
and began his settlements. The Dominicans and Fran- 
ciscans came in 1553, the Augustins in 1595, the Hos- 
pitallers of St. John of God in 1615, the Jesuits with 
Loyola in 1593, Loyola being himself a nephew of 
the founder of the order. All of these orders flour- 
ished at the beginning of the present century, but re- 
sistance was made by the Chileans to the introduction 
of new orders, as the church tithes'were oppressive 
in the extreme. 

In 1767 there had even occurred an order expelling 
the Jesuits. This order, the Company of Jesus, had 
acquired great riches in Chile by donations from the 
devout colonists. They had innumerable houses, haci- 
endas, mills, vineyards, herds and slaves, and exer- 
cised great power and influence. In consequence of 
their secret interference in politics, they had been 
about that time expelled from Spain, Portugal, France 
and other European countries. In one night their 
houses in Chile were occupied and about four hundred 
of them expelled from the country and sent to Italy. 
The company had produced several eminent names in 
Chile, Olivares, Lacunza and Juan Ignacio Molina, 
the celebrated historian who wrote the "Historia Civil 
y Natural de Chile", also the historians Ovalle and 
Resales. At the time of their expulsion, the property 
of the Jesuits was confiscated for the use of the state. 

The population of Chile at this time in the Spanish 
provinces was probably not far from five hundred 
thousand souls. There were a few French, English, and 
Italian settlers, but for the most part, the population 
consisted of Spaniards and Spanish-Indian descend- 
ants. The internal commerce was of little import- 
ance, but began to increase about this time by the 
employment of coast vessels in the transportation of 


merchandise, where before there had been only the 
overland traffic upon mules. Ships were built for ex- 
ternal commerce, the principal part of which was 
controlled by the monopolies of Spain and Peru; 
about twelve or thirteen thousand tons capacity in 
shipping was now employed in the trade. 

Don Ambrosio Higgins (or O' Higgins, as he after- 
ward styled himself) was appointed captain-general of 
Chile on November 21st, 1787, and proved himself to 
be one of the best of the long line of Spanish governors. 
O' fiiggins's career had been romantic enough. He' 
was born near the castle of Dangan, Ireland, and for 
a time acted as errand boy for Lady Bective. He was 
sent to Cadiz to be educated by a priest, his uncle, 
and in time wandered away to South America, not 
being greatly pleased with scholastic study and the 
prospect of taking orders. For a time he lived in Peru, 
then went to Chile where he obtained engineering 
work in the army. He lived several years in San- 
tiago and amassed a fortune. He was sent on an ex- 
pedition against the Araucanians, and, having distin- 
guished himself, was given the command of the cavalry 
and made a brigadier general. He soon gained the 
love and esteem of the Chileans, for he was brave, 
intelligent and good-natured. He was made quarter- 
master and given the intendencia of Concepcion. There 
O'Higgins entertained the celebrated La Perouse in 
such a highly gratifying manner that the latter warmly 
commended him to his sovereign, the king of France. 
The French court, impressed with young O'Higgins's 
abilities, asked the Spanish court for his promotion. 
Thereupon he was made captain-general of Chile and on 
September the 19th, 1789, was further honored by ap- 
pointment as field-marshal of the royal armies. He dis- 
charged the duties of his ofiSce with vigilance, dispensed 


justice rationally, encouraged agriculture, built cities, 
opened mines, promoted commerce and the fisheries, 
ameliorated the condition of the laboring classes, sup- 
pressed the Spanish fiefs, or encomiendas, in 1791 pro- 
jected the Tajamar, or dike, at Santiago, which pro- 
tects the city from the inundations of the Mapocho, 
and made an excellent road from Valparaiso to Santi- 
ago, carrying it over the tops of the high mountains. 
He was made a baron, a marquis, and finally, in 1796, 
was appointed viceroy of Peru. His natural son, Ber- 
nardo, was a leading character in the Chilean revolu- 
tion a few years subsequent to this time. 

Following the O'Higgins administration, the rejente 
of the Royal Audience was acting governor of Chile for 
a period of four months. This person was Don J6s6 
de Rezabal, and he employed the time during his short 
lease of power in the general improvement of the cap- 
ital, and in constructing a beautiful boulevard, or paseo. 

Rezabal was succeeded by General Gabriel de Aviles, 
who, as inspector-general of the troops of Peru passed 
to the office of captain-general of Chile, September 
i8th, 1796. During this year, 1796, news was received 
in Chile of the treaty of peace between Spain and 
France, which treaty gave rise to much dissatisfaction 
in the Spanish colonies. By the terms of the treaty 
Spain gave the most fertile portions of the island of 
Santo Domingo in exchange for certain plazas of the 
peninsula, San Sebastian in Guipuzcoa, and Figueras 
in Catalonia, which places had been occupied by the 
French troops in the war of the republic and were still 
held by them. This act on the part of the mother 
country opened the eyes of the colonies to the fact that 
her interest in them was of the most sordid and mer- 
cenary kind. The treaty led to a war with England, 
October 8th, 1796, and this war on the part of the mother 


country being prolonged and sanguinary, caused much 
damage to Chilean commerce, as well as to that of the 
other Spanish-American provinces. Except for this 
war, Chile was at peace with all the world and under 
Aviles made progress, slowly but surely. 

The captain-general labored assiduously for the ad- 
vancement of the country. He was a very devout man 
and spent a considerable part of his time in his devo- 
tions, so that it was said of him that he received in- 
spiration from above.* He, however, found his post a 
most difficult one to fill; there were imceasing bicker- 
ings and complainings, and these at length caused him 
to turn over his office to Pino, March 15th, 1799, and to 
accept without regrets, the more important office of 
the vice-ro5'alty of Buenos Ayres, where he remained 
until June 1801, when he passed to the vice-royalty of 

The Marquis of Aviles' successor in office, the maris- 
cal de campo, Don Joaquin del Pino, came to Chile 
by way of Mendoza and repaired immediately to the 
always ready country house of the governors {a. la siem- 
pre preparada casa de campo), from whence, on the 31st 
of January 1800, he was conducted by a deputation of 
the magistrates {Ayiintamientd) to the capital and there 
received, in the imaginary gate of the city, as governor, 
and in the Royal Audience chamber as president."}" 

Pino found the most pressing matter demanding his 
executive attention to be the troublesome Maypo and 
Mapocho rivers, which now as of old continued to 
rise above their banks and to flood the city and coun- 
try. His administration was taken up in discussing 
ways and means of constructing a canal to divert the 

* "Parecia recibir ipspiraciones de arriba en sus meditaciones, y sus obras cor- 
respondian S sus hSbitos cristianos," — Claudio Gay. 

t Claudio Gay. 


waters from the city. A plan was formulated to turn 
the waters in this manner. Pino's successor in office, 
however, disregarded his plans and appointed a com- 
mission to make a new survey for a route higher up 
than those plans called for. The commission ap- 
pointed to this work continued to act for the space of 
five years, accomplishing in that time very little, but 
bringing Guzman's administration into rather bad odor 
on that particular account. 

Beside canvassing the canal project, Pino's admin- 
istration did little else than discuss the ways and means 
and propriety of making Spain a present, a present 
which the king had solicited by way of pecuniary assist- 
ance. The royal exchequer being depleted, it had 
been suggested to the colonies that financial aid would 
be acceptable, nay, necessary. 

On the i8th of March, 1801, Pino received the ap- 
pointment as viceroy of Buenos Ayres, and on the 30th 
set out for that city. Just at that moment the Royal 
Audience happened to be without a head to assume 
the governorship provisionally, as was customary, the 
chief i^decano) being in La Paz. The office was, there- 
fore, somewhat irregularly given to the subdecano of the 
Tribunal, Don Jos^ de Santiago Concha, who was recog- 
nized as captain-general and president of the Royal 
Audienceprovisionally. On the 31st of December therfif- 
ca>io\i\ra.'s,&\i arrived, Don Francisco TodeoDiaz de Medi- 
na y Collado, and on the same day assumed command of 
the government and the presidency of the Royal Audi- 
ence. But he only exercised the duties of his office 
for a period of one month, at the end of which time 
the new captain-general, Don Luis Munoz de Guzman, 
arrived from Peru and made his entrance into the cap- 
ital (January 30th, 1802). Guzman had been president 
of Quito and from that position was now advanced to 


the more important post of captain-general of Chile 
and president of the "Royal Audience, into which offi- 
ces he was inducted with the usual ceremonies. He 
made a fairly good governor, and, as we have noted 
above, gave a new impulse to the construction of the 
ancient Mapocho canal, although there were some 
scandals connected with it, and erected many public 
buildings in Santiago under the direction of the cele- 
bated Roman architect, Joaquin Toesca. 

We may refer here to the fact that the residents of 
the cities had for some, time been constructing two- 
story houses, perceiving that they withstood earthquake 
shocks as well as the old single-storied buildings. They 
also used brick and stone instead of sun-dried clay, and 
thus the Chilean cities began to have a much improved 
appearance. Guzman restored the ancient palace in 
the plaza, built a new custom-house and finished the 
work upon the Moneda, or government building. Bar- 
racks also were constructed for dragoons and a hospital 
for orphans, the latter having been first founded by Don 
Juan Nic-Aguirre, and endowed by the king. A cathe- 
dral also had been built at the royal expense. Con- 
cerning this building the story is told that two English 
architects had been engaged upon the work. Their 
wages being too small to satisfy them, they quit. Two 
Indian employees took their places and superintended 
the successful completion of the work. 

As to the canal, which occupied so much of Guzman's 
attention, there was need of something of the kind, 
for Santiago had long been subjected to inundations 
from the river, and these sometimes caused immense 
damage. Dikes had been at different times constructed, 
O'Higgins having done much in this way to protect 
the city. But these were not always sufficient to turn 
the floods. During the colonial period the absence of 



rains often produced great distress and caused the ruin- 
ous destruction of crops and stock. Against these 
droughts the people employed no other means to pro- 
tect themselves than public supplications to the saints 
to send rain.* But on other occasions the skies opened 
their floodgates and prolonged and heavy rainfalls 
caused terrible inundations. In 1783 occurred a great 
flood, called "avenida grande," which swept away the 
dikes, or tajamares, along the Mapocho for several 
squares and caused immense damage in the capital. 

Guzman died, February nth, 1808. In the autumn 
following, his office was conferred upon Francisco An- 
tonio Carrasco. But this brings us to the period of 
the revolution. 

Recapitulating, a list is herewith added of the 
captains-general and provisional governors of Chile 
during the colonial period. 

Pedro de Valdivia, 
Francisco de Villagran, 
Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, 
Roderigo de Quiroga, 
Villagran, a second time, 
Pedro de Villagran, 
Quiroga, second time, 
Martin Ruiz de Gamboa, 
Melchor Bravo de Saravia, 
Quiroga, third time, 
Gamboa, second time, 
Alonzo de Sotomayor, 
Martin Onez de Loyola, 
Pedro de Viscarra, 
Francisco de Quifiones, 
Alonzo Garcia Bamori, 
Alonzo de Rivera, 
Ramon, a second time, 
Luis Merlo de la Fuente, 

Juan de Xara Quemada, 
Rivera, a second time, 
Fernando Talaveranno, 
Lopez Uiloa y Lemus, 
Cristoval de la Cerda. 
Pedro Sorez de UUoa, 
Francisco de Alva y Noruena, 
Luis Fernandez de Cordova y 

Francisco Laso de la Vega, 
Francisco de Zuiiiga, (Marquis 

de Baides), 
Martin de Muxica, 
Alonzo de Cordova y Figueroa, 
Antonio de Acuna y Cabrera, 
Pedro Portale Casanate, 
Diego Gonzales Montero, 
Angel de Pereda, 
Francisco de Menes^s, 

* Caspar Toro. 



Marquis de Navamorquende, 

Montero, second time, 

Juan de Henriquez, 

Jose de Garro, 

Tomas Martin de Poveda, 

Francisco Ibanez de Peralta, 

Juan Andres de Ustariz, 

Don Jose de Santiago Concha, 

Gabriel Cano de Aponte, 

Francisco Sanchez de la Barreda, 

Manuel de Salamanca, 

Jose de Mauso, 

Francisco de Obando, 

Domingo Ortiz de Rosas, 

Manuel Amat y Junient, 

Felix de Berroeta, 

Antonio Guill y Gonzaga, 

Juan de Balmaseda, 

Javier de Morales, 

Agustin de Jauregui, 

Tomas Alvarez de Acevedo, 

Ambrosio de Benavides, 

Acevedo, second time, 

Ambrosio O'Higgins, 

Jose de Rezabal, 

Gabriel de Aviles, 

Joaquin del Pino, 

Jose de Santiago Concha, 

Francisco Diez de Medina y 

Luis Murioz de Guzman, 
Francisco Antonio Carrasco. 



The French revolution of 1789 and the success of 
republicanism in North America were precursors of the 
revolt of Spain's colonies. The writings of Montes- 
quieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, and others of that school 
had taken effect ; France and the two Americas be- 
came republican. France, having applied the torch, 
for a time recoiled from the terrible effects of her fierce 
revolution and Bonaparte became emperor. In triumph 
he entered the capitals of the old world with his vic- 
torious armies, but England with her fleets he found 
invincible to his conquering arms. 

Portugal was in the alliance with England, so against 

Portugal Napoleon desired to dispatch an army. His 

troops he wished to send through Spain, and permission 

was, therefore, obtained of Manuel Godoi, who stood 

high in the favor of the queen, Maria Louisa, and in 

reality governed Spain, rather than the king, Charles 

IV. At that time Prince Ferdinand, heir to the crown, 

was conspiring against Godoi, the queen's favorite who 

had been raised by her from an officer of the guards 

to the position of prime minister, and was in constant 

quarrels with his royal parents. It wfis at this time 



that Napoleon concerted with Godoi and gained per- 
mission to enter Spain with his armies. It was a 
stratagem ; instead of marching to Portugal, Napoleon 
advanced to Madrid. 

It was now that Charles IV. abdicated in favor of his 
son, Ferdinand, the people having pronounced against 
Godoi and the court. But he was a fickle monarch 
and soon desired to resume his crown; that, Ferdinand 
would not permit him to do. 

Napoleon professed a willingness to assist the royal 
household of Spain to an amicable settlement of their 
difficulties and for that purpose arranged a meeting in 
Bayonne. There Charles IV., Maria Louisa and Godoi 
appeared against Ferdinand VII. and recriminations 
followed. Napoleon had father and son renounce their 
rights and conferred the crown of Spain upon his 
brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Charles and Ferdinand 
were retained in France. 

Indignant at this perfidj', and lo5'al to Ferdinand, 
the Spaniards organized y?^«/(7j de gobierno in the pro- 
vinces and a central junta in Seville to carry on the 
government provisionally. These the French dispersed, 
whereupon a "council of the regency'' was formed in 
Cadiz with which was united the cortez and house of 
representatives. This regency organized an active re- 
sistance to the French and a war followed. The Span- 
iards won a victory at Bailen, but the French, notwith- 
standing that, continued to occupy the peninsula until 
the downfall of Napoleon, when Ferdinand recovered 
his crown. 

This outline of the history of Spain at the time throws 
light upon the revolt of her American colonies. The 
junta of Seville and the regency of Cadiz sought to 
exercise authorit)^ over them. This was resented. 
The colonies would neither recognize Joseph Bona- 


parte nor the Spanish juntas as having authority over 
them, but wished to govern themselves through the 
medium of juntas of their own creating, during- the 
captivity of the king. This was obnoxious to the Span- 
ish officials in the new world and was looked upon as 
treasonable by the junta of Seville and the Cadiz re- 
gency. The Creoles, or American born subjects of 
Spanish descent, established juntas, or governing 
boards composed of three or more leading citizens, 
and began the reform of institutions and abuses. The 
Spanish party resisted and war followed. By the time 
Ferdinand VII. regained his crown the revolution had 
taken from him his American colonies. Perhaps the 
Holy Alliance, which the monarchs of the old world 
formed upon the fall of Napoleon, to crush out repub- 
licanism and restore absolutism, would have aided 
Spain in her contest with her provinces had not the 
United States announced its famous Monroe doctrine 
about that time, declaring that "America was for Amer- 
icans. " It was a significant warning, sufficiently em- 
phasized by Yorktown in North America and Ayacucho 
in South America, to be respectfully heeded. 

The abuses which led to the revolt of Spain's South 
American colonies, and, in the end, to their declara- 
tion of independence, were long endured. These abuses 
can be summed up in the words, oppression, extor- 
tion and corruption. Such men as Morillo, Morales, 
Tristan, Marco and Osorio brought on the final crisis. 
Their names are written in blood and their memories 
held in execration. But these men are only exagger- 
ated examples of the Spanish viceroys and governors 
from Pizarro to Lascerna. The greed and corruption 
of the civil and military men sent out by Spain to gov- 
ern the natives, with few exceptions, from the time 
of the conquest to the revolution, tended to alienate 


the natives and American born Spanish people from 
the mother country. They practiced horrible cruelties 
upon the Indians, enslaving them upon their fiefs, and 
compelling them to work and perish in the mines. The 
Spanish system of governing was tyrannical in the ex- 
treme, and gave the people few of the benefits of gov- 
ernment, of their labor and of the natural productions 
of the countries ; the right of cultivation of grapes, 
olives and tobacco was denied them ; they were com- 
pelled to buy their wines, oils and tobacco from monop- 
olies promoted by the mother country; enormous duties 
were levied upon all imported manufactured goods, 
and these importations were confined to a monopoly 
of Cadiz merchants who sent out only a few vessels 
each year. These goods the natives were compelled 
to purchase at extortionate prices by the Spanish gov- 
ernors, who often shared in the profits. The financial 
system of the colonies was based upon a perfect monop- 
oly and exclusion in favor of Spain, and the revenues 
were raised in a corrupt and tyrannical manner. The 
estanco was a monopoly which the government claimed 
for itself exclusively ; it was a monopoly of the growth 
and sale of tobacco, and sale of foreign wines and spirits. 
Of these, tobacco j'ielded an immense profit. Guayaquil 
was the principal place for the cultivation of the plant; 
at Lima, the king had extensive central warehouses. 
No tobacco \Yas suffered to grow in Chile; every per- 
son retailing the article must pay a license and even 
then could only purchase from the government depots, 
which were established in the different towns. In the 
year 1808, the royal revenues from tobacco amounted 
to $183,278, and it is probable that the amount would 
have reached $300,000, had it not been for official pec- 
ulations and depreciations in value. 

Another burden the colonies endured under Spanish 


rule was the system of tithes. By a special act of the 
papal authorities the king of Spain was given the church 
under his special care, and by him the tithes were 
claimed and collected. Nominally these were distrib- 
uted in the following manner : one-fourth to arch- 
bishops and bishops, one-fourth to deacons and canons, 
one-fourth to curates, the remainder to the building of 
churches. In time corruption crept in ; the king appro- 
priated large sums to other purposes and cut down 
ecclesiastical salaries ; the tithes were farmed out to 
individuals in large lots, and these again to smaller 
bidders, all seeking to niake large profits from the pur- 
chases. This came at length to be a severe burden and 
imposition upon the peasantr}', who had the tithes to 

Again, Spain had given the territories belonging to 
the natives to military favorites in immense grants. 
Between two hundred and three hundred held the lands 
of Chile in this manner, half the number probably, 
holding all the best estates. Pizarro and Valdivia had 
assigned estates to their followers, with the Indians 
upon them. The rich ruled the countries, and, form- 
ing a combination, regulated markets ; in Peru, there 
was a system of enforced labor ; everywhere military 
exactions were cruel and intolerable. 

A system of checking, one official by another, was 
thought by the Spanish court to be sufficient to prevent 
frauds and peculations, but it was as bad as no regula- 
tion ; officials winked at each other's robberies and con- 
nived at frauds to make themselves rich. Getting an 
appointment meant getting rich. 

All these frauds and extortions going on year after 
year, from one administration to another, with no pros- 
pect of amelioration, at length aroused the passive na- 
tives to a sense of their wrongs. If the wealthy Span- 


ish-Americans objected to the monopolies and the offi- 
cial arrogance of the mother country, the peasantry 
had far more to complain of in the burdens which fell 
most heavily upon them. A rebellion broke out in 
Peru, where the native classes were more oppressed 
than in Chile. An Inca descendent, Jos6 Gabriel Con- 
dorcanqui, called Tupac Amaru after his ancient pro- 
genitor, aroused the long suffering people to such zeal 
that they took up arms. He defeated the Spaniards at 
Sangarara, November 13th, 1780, and a few days after- 
ward published the causes which had led to the revolt. 
He addressed letters to the bishops and other officers, 
proposing changes of the existing oppressive measures ; 
his proposals were rejected with disdain. 

In 1781, Condorcanqui was defeated at Checacupe, 
where with his family he was taken prisoner. Hideous 
cruelties were perpetrated upon the captives by the 
Spanish courts, and terrible was the vengeance wreaked 
upon the patriots; but their deaths did not end the 
revolt. It was not until the year 1783, that the rebel- 
lion was finally put down ; but the death of Tupac 
Amaru was as a bugle blast resounding through Span- 
ish-America. He had not died in vain, for an attempt 
was soon made to ward off the storm in Peru by a few 
measures of reform; such as abolishing the repartimien- 
^^j, which held the natives to a species of serfdom, modi- 
fying the rules respecting forced labor, and doing away 
with the obnoxious office-of corregidor. Tupac Amaru 
had accomplished more than had Don Jose Antequera 
fifty years before, in his attempts to reform abuses and 
establish a representative government in Paraguay. 

Ubalde succeeded no better in Peru in 1805; he re- 
kindled the fires of patriotism, but paid the penalty in 
death. In 1809, patriot forces were defeated at Huaqui; 
General Belgrano led a patriot army from Buenos 


Ayres against a royalist army under Pezuela in Upper 
Peru (Bolivia). Another rebellion broke out in Cuzco 
headed by an Inca named Pumacagua, and that city 
and several other smaller towns were occupied by the 
revolutionists. But this uprising was put down by 
General Ramirez in the battle of Umachiri, March 15th, 
1815. The Spanish power in Peru was too well organ- 
ized, and few further attempts to achieve their inde- 
pendence were made by the Peruvians until after the 
battle at Maypo in Chile, April 1818; their final inde- 
pendence was not achieved until Bolivar had won the 
battle of Pinchincha, near Quito, in 1822. 

Chile, Peru, the Argentine Republic, Bolivia, and 
Colombia, are so intimately associated in the revolu- 
tionary struggle that the history of the period applies 
scarcely more to one than to all of these provinces. 
Belgrano, San Martin, and Bolivar are names connected 
with the struggle from Colombia to La Plata. They 
are South American heroes, honored alike by all the 

In this united struggle it was necessary for Buenos 
Ayres, where the revolutionary movement had been 
early made in the south, to assist both Chile and Peru 
to preserve her own declared independence against the 
royalist stronghold in Lima. This brought the war 
early to that part of Peru bordering upon the terri- 
tories of Buenos Ayres — Upper Peru, now Bolivia. 
The revolution first broke out at La Paz, where the 
Spanish authorities were deposed, March 25th, iSog, 
and a junta established. In August of the same year 
a junta was formed at Quito, the Marquis Selva Alle- 
gre being chosen its president. Cisniros, the Spanish 
viceroy of Buenos Ayres, sent an army against the 
patriots of La Paz under Nieto; the viceroy of Lima 
sent another force under Goyeneche ; the viceroy of 


New Granada sought to destroy the junta at Quito, 
assisted by the viceroy of Peru. The patriots of La 
Paz were defeated, and the most terrible cruelties per- 
petrated upon them by the inhuman Goyeneche. The 
leaders of this early revolution, the Lauzas and Rodri- 
guez, fell among the victims. The junta of Quito was 
also compelled to yield to the superior forces brought 
against it. 

The revolution next broke out in Buenos Ayres and 
Caracas ; in the former place the viceroy, Cisneros, 
was deposed and a junta formed, May 22d, 1810. Cas- 
telli's eloquence in the congress, which was assembled, 
confounded the royalists and paved the way for a revo- 
lution. Spain could do little to assist the royalists in 
the southern provinces, having as much as she could 
do in the north. Napoleon had at this time nearly 
completed her degradation; Ferdinand VII. and the 
royal family were under surveillance at Bayonne; the 
crown of Spain had been renounced by Ferdinand in 
favor of Joseph Bonaparte; the Council of the Indies 
had transferred the Spanish provinces to Bonaparte ; 
Napoleon had, as we have seen, dispersed the central 
junta in Spain, May 1810, and had (1808) sent envoys 
to the provinces to notify them of the cessions of 
Bayonne ; all this had brought confusion into the 
whole Spanish world. The patriots of Spanish-Amer- 
ica deemed this a fitting time to throw off the intolera- 
ble yoke of the mother country. The royalists, looking 
to the loaves and fishes they had so long enjoved, 
would have submitted to Bonaparte rather than have 
had no king. 

After some successes, followed by reverses in Mon- 
tevidio and the province of Salta, the patriots of Bue- 
nos Ayres finally made a treaty with the Brazilian Por- 
_tuguese sent against them to Montevideo, the Spanish 


colonies of La Plata being then at war with Brazil 
over boundaries. General Belgrano, after being driven 
from Salta, obtained a signal victory over Tristan, the 
royalist general of Peru in Tucuman, September 24th, 
1812. Discussions in forming a congress followed, 
which retarded the independent movement ; but a gen- 
eral meeting of the inhabitants of Buenos Ayres con- 
fided the government to a junta composed of three 
leading citizens, Pena, Passo and Jonte. 

San Martin, in February, 1813, defeated the royalists 
at San Lorenzo, and on the 20th, Belgrano defeated 
the Peruvian forces assembled at Salta after a four 
hours battle, taking Tristan prisoner with all his army. 

On the 31st of the following January, a congress 
{consttiuyente') assembled in Buenos Ayres, which de- 
clared the independence of the provinces of La Plata. 
The junta was changed to a supreme executive board, 
consisting of Pena, Perez and Jonte. Several liberal 
measures were adopted, including the emancipation of 

But the independence of the La Plata provinces had 
not yet been satisfactorily achieved, owing principally 
to internal dissensions. A conspiracy was formed at 
Montevideo, instigated by royalist Spaniards of Buenos 
Ayres. A battle was fought at Vilcapugio, in which 
Belgrano was defeated by the royalist forces of Peru 
under Pezuela, and a little later the patriots were com- 
pletely routed, so that the royalists of Peru were now 
masters of Upper Peru, Jujuy and Salta. 

The situation of Buenos Ayres was now critical, 
threatened as it was on the side of Peru by a victori- 
ous royalist army and on the side of Montevideo by an 
opposing Portuguese-Brazilian army. The congress 
in December, therefore, decided to do away with the 
triangular junta and to vest the executive power in, a 


single individual, to be called the supreme-director, 
thinking that this might strengthen the central gov- 
ernment. This office was conferred upon Posadas. 
Dissensions followed, and San Martin alone, by adopt- 
ing a guerrilla mode of warfare in Upper Peru, pre- 
vented the armies of the viceroy of Peru from follow- 
ing up their victories. Trouble occurred between the 
supreme-director of Buenos Ayres and Artigas, a gen- 
eral of Montevideo. Montevideo was a province at- 
tached originally to the viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. 
Brazil had tried to overrun and take it, but was driven 
out by Buenos Ayres and Montevideo acting together. 
Having won Montevideo for the patriot cause, General 
Artigas now claimed it as his own especial property, 
independent of Buenos Ayres, which disputed his dic- 
tatorial claims. This caused dissensions. Posadas 
resigned. Alvear, his successor, was compelled to re- 
sign. The municipality of Buenos Ayres established 
a new junta de observacion, whose chief duty was to 
watch the supreme director. Rondeau and Alvarez were 
subsequently elected directors but were soon removed. 
Balcarce succeeded, but remained not long in office and 
the government was placed finally in the hands of a com- 
mittee. Then a new congress assembled in Tucuman 
and appointed Pueyredon supreme-director. This se- 
lection was more fortunate, and the friends of liberty 
thenceforth became more hopeful. On the gth of July, 
1816, congress met, announced the independence of 
the United Provinces of Buenos Ayres and published 
a manifesto. But dissension did not cease with this, 
and it became apparent that Buenos Ayres could not 
single-handed maintain her independence against in- 
triguers, royalists, and continued attacks from the Por- 
tuguese province of Brazil, which was determined to 
extend the limits of Brazil to the river La Plata. They 


must assist the patriots of the neighboring provinces 
of Chile and Peru to obtain their independence ; and 
for this undertaking, San Martin was the leader most 
naturally selected. 

While the struggle was going on in Buenos Ayres 
and in Chile and Peru, the northern provinces were 
in like manner fighting for their independence. Here' 
the war was waged by the royalists with even greater 
persistence and ferocity than in the south. Venezuela 
was the first to form an independent junta and throw 
off the Spanish yoke ; but there the royalists were, 
after a time, victorious, and terrible was their revenge. 
The people of Venezuela were proscribed, Caracas 
was turned into a vast prison. These brutal measures 
raised up young Marino with an army ; cruelty and 
extortion had, indeed, previously raised up a patriot 
army in Venezuela for General Miranda. The libera- 
tion of Venezuela and Colombia was finally achieved 
by Marino and Bolivar. The battles of Pantano de 
Bargas and Boyaca, in July and August, i8ig, and of 
Carabobo on June 24th, 1821, decided the fate of Spain 
in Colombia, after twelve years of savage warfare, 
hardly equalled in history for atrocious barbarity and 

The fate of Quito was decided favorably by Bolivar 
and Sucre in the battle of Pinchincha, June 22d, 1822. 
The battle of Ayacucho, December gth, 1824, struck 
the fatal blow to the royalist power in Peru. Olaneta 
was defeated by General Sucre at Potosi in April, 1825, 
and the territories of Upper Peru, the theatre of the 
first and last acts in the bloody drama, were made free, 
and declared themselves the Republic of Bolivar. The 
battle of the Maypo, April 5th, 1818, decided the issue 
in Chile in favor of the patriots. 

This rapid glance at the rise and progress of the 


revolution in the neighboring colonies, is necessary 
to abetter understanding of the same struggle in Chile, 
for the war had its origin in almost identical causes 
from Mexico to Buenos Ayres. And the causes were 
not different, though perhaps more aggravated, than the 
Stamp Act and the episodes which preceded the North 
American revolution. Only the Spanish colonies en- 
dured more, clung more steadfastly to the mother coun- 
try, and longer sought redresses of their grievances, 
before resorting to arms. Their first efforts were not 
to obtain independence, but a redress of grievances ; 
to establish juntas which should still acknowledge Fer- 
dinand VII. as king; for they opposed the claims of 
the central junta of Spain but not of the king in exile. 
They first asked to be permitted to plant and cultivate 
whatever their soil and climate would produce ; to open 
their ports to all nations; to have free trade among 
themselves and between the colonies and the mother 
country ; to have all monopolies in favor of the king 
and the public treasuries suppressed ; to have free 
working of quicksilver mines; to make Spanish Amer- 
icans eligible equally with Spaniards to all appoint- 
ments of rank and employment ; to have consulting 
juntas formed in each capital to the intent that they 
might propose persons to fill vacancies. In Caracas, 
Buenos Ayres, Santiago, La Paz, and Quito, the first 
juntas made no declarations of independence; they 
sought only redress of wrongs. 

The mere statement of the concessions asked is suffi- 
cient to show the intolerable burdens by which the 
colonies were oppressed. That the condition of affairs 
was not much improved after the revolution, is not to 
be wondered at. The colonies had been educated in 
a corrupt school; they were not prepared for republic- 
an institutions; they were rent by factional strifes; 


they had no well organized political institutions. 
More than all, the young republics had large popula- 
tions of half-civilized natives, of ignorant classes un- 
fitted for exercising the privileges and responsibili- 
ties of the elective franchise. 

They might not so soon have been led into a war for 
independence, if the subjugation of Spain by Bonaparte, 
and the unsettled condition of the government at home 
which followed, had not forced them to take steps for 
their own preservation and security. Their sympathies 
were with Spain and bitterly against France ; they were 
still loyal to Ferdinand ; they formed juntas in the 
name of Ferdinand, but they denied the authority of 
the regency of Cadiz and of the juntas of Spain ; they 
offered assistance, and did afford aid in the war against 
France. Almost without complaint, they permitted 
Spain to impoverish the colonies to carry on her wars. 

But these measures undertaken primarily for relief 
excited the bitterest antagonism of the governing body 
of Spain, of Spanish rulers, of the Cadiz monopolists, 
of Spaniards in America, and greatly increased also 
the jealousy and unfriendly feelings which had long 
existed between the native Spanish-Americans, 5r Cre- 
oles, and the European Spaniards in America. War 
was at first rather with the arrogant and corrupt vice- 
roys and their Spanish sympathizers, than with Spain 
herself; the opposition was rather to the oppressive 
burdens and obnoxious officials than to the principle 
of dependence. But the measures immediately adopted 
in Spain to crush all efforts at amelioration, to put 
down what was called a rebellion, to throttle the first 
efforts to obtain "home rule" or a fair share in the 
government and offices, and these too by the most cruel 
and barbarous measures known in history, soon alien- 
ated the colonies from the mother country and filled 


the Creole citizens with most intense feelings of hatred 
of their oppressors. Henceforth, it was war to the 
knife ; no concessions from Spain would avail anything 
after the massacres and imprisonments in Caracas, in 
Quito and on the plateaux of Bolivia. England might 
mediate in vain, as she once essayed to do, to save 
Spain her colonies ; the bridge had been crossed, blood 
must be avenged, independence achieved. 



It was the leading citizens of Chile, rather than the 
native population, who were inspired by the news from 
Caracas, LaPaz, Quito and Buenos Ayres, the rum- 
bling preceding the storm, to do something toward 
alleviating their own galling burdens. Their desire 
was not at first to separate themselves from Spain but 
rather to modify the laws sufficiently to emancipate 
themselves somewhat, to better the condition of the 
native inhabitants, and to form a junta, or governing 
board of leading citizens, which was to govern in trust 
for the unfortunate Ferdinand VII. 

It was in August and September of 1809, that the 
news reached Chile by way of Buenos Ayres of the in- 
vasion of Spain by Bonaparte. Sentiment was gener- 
ally in favor of the captive king and plans were dis- 
cussed how best to carry on the government during his 
captivity. The cabildo of Santiago took upon itself the 
authority to call a national assembly, decreed imposts 
and undertook warlike preparations. Two political 
parties soon appeared ; the Spanish party, the mem- 
bers being nicknamed godos or san-acenos, headed by 
the president and supported by the Royal Audience, the 


clergy and government officers, who desired that the 
juntas of Spain should be recognized as authority; the 
patriots formed the other party and advocated the for- 
mation of ■&. junta nacional de gobierno, or national gov- 
erning body, to take charge of the government during 
the captivity of the king. This latter party was sup- 
ported by the cabildo of Santiago and the leading Chil- 
ean families. These were called rebels by the royalist 
party, and feeling became intense. 

In the month of May, in the year 1810, party feeling 
ran so high that the captain-general, Carrasco, arrested 
several leading patriots. There were frequent gather- 
ings of the principal Chileans of revolutionary senti- 
ments at the house of Don Jose Antonio de Rojas, the 
old revolutionist. One night Carrasco sent an armed 
body of troops to the house and arrested Rojas, also 
Don Juan Antonio Ovalle, proctor of the cabildo, and 
Don Bernardo Vera Pintado, an eminent lawyer. (Vera 
became afterward "the poet of the revolution.") This 
violence precipitated the revolution. The people of 
Santiago requested the release of the patriots, but they 
had been sent to Valparaiso to be taken thence to 
Peru. The clamor was so great that Carrasco at last 
yielded and dispatched an order for the patriots to 
return to the capital. But two of them had already 
embarked. Vera had remained in Valparaiso on account 
of sickness. 

The- agitation increased ; news came that the patri- 
ots of Buenos Ayres had formed ■A.juiiia de gc?bierno 3.nA 
this made the patriots of Chile bolder and more per- 
sistent in their demands. On the 22nd of June, the 
captain-general convened the inhabitants of the capi- 
tal in the palace square to announce to them the orders 
of Ferdinand and enjoin obedience to the French re- 
gency, when a tumult arose and public indignation was 


loudly expressed. Some of the members of the Audi- 
ence advised Carrasco to resign, and this he, in effect, 
did on the i6th of July, 1 810, in a cabildo abierto, or 
gathering of leading citizens. The junta filled his 
place by proclaiming as president, Mateo de Toro Zam- 
brano, Conde de la Conquista (Count of the Conquest), 
an old military officer eighty years of age, who had 
acquired a large fortune in commercial pursuits, to- 
gether with his title. 

The Conde de la Conquista favored, to a certain ex- 
tent, revolutionary measures and was elected to the 
presidency upon the condition that he would refuse 
to acknowledge the French regency and reserve Chile 
for Ferdinand VII. This was the more conservative 
view of the situation at the time, as there were even 
at this early day many who favored complete indepen- 
dence; such, for instance, as Rojas, Vera and Ovalle. 
Toro found himself in a trying position, as he was 
besieged both by patriots and godos. But eventually 
he leaned to the side of the patriots and joined with 
the other members associated with him in the junta in 
calling a congress, or another cabildo abierto similar to 
that which had deposed, or received the resignation of, 
Carrasco. It was a notable gathering composed of the 
cabildo of Santiago,' civil and military officers, church 
dignitaries and four hundred leading citizens, the major- 
ity of whom belonged to the party of the patriots. 

This assemblage received the resignation of Toro and 
created a national junta de gobierno to govern the coun- 
try during the captivity of the king. The junta was 
to be composed of seven members and^two secretaries. 
A congress composed of members from the different 
cities was to be convened. This day, the i8th of Sep- 
tember, 1810, is regarded as the date of Chilean inde- 


At the head of the junta was Doctor Juan Martinez 
de Rozas, a lawyer from Concepcion, and he was sec- 
onded in all his efforts by the two secretaries, both of 
them lawyers, whose names were Gasper Martin and 
Jose Gregorio Argomedo. Rozas had been assessor of 
the intendencia of Concepcion and afterward Carrasco's 
secretary. He had great influence in Concepcion, where 
he had started the revolution and opposed the bishop, 
Villodres, who was of the Spanish party. His arrival 
in Santiago was a gain for the patriots, and being sa- 
gacious and energetic, he was soon the acknowledged 

Under the leadership of Rozas the junta organized 
military bodies and opened the Chilean ports to free 
commerce with all nations. This quadrupled the cus- 
toms receipts in a single year. 

This junta, which was formed on September i8th, 
was composed of influential members, of whom Toro 
was placed at the head. The other members were 
Rayna, Resales, Rozas and Carrera. This was estab- 
ished in the name of the king, in manner similar to 
the juntas which had been formed in the Argentine 
Republic and Venezuela, and even in Spain herself. 
The office of captain-general was abolished. It seems 
that even before this time four of the members asso- 
ciated with Carrasco in the Royal Audience were in 
favor of cooperating with the junta which had been 
formed at Buenos Ayres. Don Antonio Jonte, one of 
the most influential citizens of Buenos Ayres, had been 
dispatched to Chile by the junta of that province im- 
mediately upon its formation, to urge the taking of a 
similar radical step in the sister province. His mis- 
sion, perhaps, hastened the crisis; when the junta was 
established, Jonte was continued there in the capacity 
of charge d' affaires from the new government of Buenos 


Ayres, and in this capacity obtained three hundred 
Chilean troops for the assistance of La Plata. 

The junta had called an assembly, or congress, fixing 
the elections for April, 181 1, and prescribing the man- 
ner of representation. The regulations for the election 
of deputies prescribed a certain number of members 
for each municipality, which, not being according to 
population, gave rise afterward to much dissatisfaction. 
During the time of the elections, a body of troops was 
stationed in the square of Santiago to preserve order. 
This detachment was commanded by Don Tomas de 
Figueroa, a European Spaniard who had at first de- 
clared in favor of the revolution, yet had been intri- 
guing against the junta; he now sought to use his situa- 
tion to crush the revolution in its incipiency. A skir- 
mish took place between the squad commanded by Figu- 
eroa and a party of patriots led by Jos6 Miguel Car- 
rera, who was afterward head of the army and govern- 
ment. Fifty or sixty men were killed, but the patriots 
were successful. The affair inspired the revolutionary 
leaders ; Figueroa was executed and the leading con- 
spirators banished. 

The first congress assembled on July 4th, 181 1. Many 
reformatory measures were passed, including the aboli- 
tion of slavery. The Ro3^al Audience had been dissolved, 
a camera de apolaciones appointed in its stead, and the 
executive power vested in the junta. Congress decreed 
that curates should be paid from the public treasury, 
not by tithes ; that restriction should be removed from 
commerce ; that the ancient law regulating the appoint- 
ment of officers in the municipalities (the cabildos') 
should be annulled, and that henceforth such offices 
should be filled by annual elections. Certain offices 
were abolished and salaries reduced. The powers of 


the junta were prescribed, military schools and manu- 
factories of firearms were established. 

Such declarations was little short of revolutionary 
measures, and Spain could not have been expected to 
accede to them, even though ihe. congress proceeded 
thus far in the name of the king. A revolutionary 
newspaper, we may add, appeared about this time in 
Santiago, edited by a friar named Camilo Henriquez. 

Like the congress of Buenos Ayres, dissensions were 
rife. As we have stated, the representation was un- 
equal. Santiago had elected twelve deputies, almost 
as many as all other provinces combined. The southern 
provinces were the wealthiest, the most enterprising, 
and possessed the most talent; the landholders of the 
middle provinces about Santiago outnumbered those 
of the south. The fact of, Santiago having so large a 
preponderance in representation caused complaints to 
be made b}' the southern cities, and their representa- 
tives withdrew. In the meantime, parties began to 
form. One faction of the patriots wished to conduct 
reforms on the basis of ancient institutions, in other 
words, were conservative. Another faction wished 
to move with greater dispatch; here was a radical 
party which recognized Rozas as its leader. The con- 
servatives controlled the cabildo. Then it was, as ever 
since, radicalism found its home in the south. The 
first radical leaders were always from Concepcion. 
Santiago was conservative, the southern provinces rad- 
ical. When, therefore, the quarrel arose over repre- 
sentatives, Rozas, the radical leader, withdrew to Con- 
cepcion, perhaps to stir up a rebellion. The conserva- 
tives, or Santiago faction, thereupon dictated a change 
of the government and named a new junta composed 
of three of their own favorites. 

To reduce the power of Spain as much as possible 


steps were taken to replace Spanish officers with patri- 
ots. The three Carrera brothers, Jos6 Miguel, Juan 
and Luis, had this in charge, and executed the manoeuvre 
skillfully. The Spanish officers were seized in their 
barracks and the troops gained over. Congress passed 
a decree to the effect that all Spaniards* who were not 
satisfied with the new movement, should quit the 
country within six months with all their property and 

The Carreras now sought to effect a revolution, by 
which means they hoped to place themselves at the 
head of the government. The junta of leading citizens 
which had been formed, one of whom was Jos6 Miguel 
Carrera, the eldest brother, became impatient of the 
restraint and control of congress, and considered the 
advisability of usurping the whole governing power. 
Don Jos6 Miguel Carrera was most active and ambi- 
tious, and anticipated the other members. He com- 
pelled congress, at the head of his troops, (but without 
the shedding of a drop of blood) to select a new junta, 
composed of himself, Portales, and La Cerda; this 
having been done he expelled seven of the Santiago 
deputies from congress and replaced them with radi- 
cals, and came into supreme power, September 4th, 

At the same time Rozas effected a revolution in Con- 
cepcion and established there a radical junta ; Valdivia 
soon after followed the example. This gave the radi- 
cals control of congress and of the country. Carrera 
was popular with the army and had effected his revo- 
lutionary measures by being assured of its support; he 
maintained his usurped office, relying upon the same 

*By the term Spaniard, one born in Spain, Royalist, is understood; Amer- 
icans of Spanish descent were called natives, patriots, Creoles. 


But the radicals soon began to conspire against them- 
selves as they had previously against the conservatives. 
Carrera met with opposition and now obtained tempor- 
ary support from the godos, whom he deceived into 
believing that he wished to restore the colonial regime. 
A new military commotion in the capital placed him 
again in full control and he immediately formed a new 
junta composed of himself, Gasper Marin and Doctor 
Rozas, as representative persons from Santiago, Co- 
quimbo and Concepcion. 

Rozas declined the position which Carrera had forc- 
ibly obtained for him, and remained in Concepcion. 
His followers in congress assumed a hostile attitude 
and conspired against Carrera. This caused the latter 
to forcibly dissolve congress, December 2nd, 181 1. 
Thereafter, Carrera ruled in Santiago and Rozas in 

Their rivalries increased and soon threatened to ter- 
minate in a civil war. They advanced against each 
other with troops and encamped on opposite banks of 
the river Maule. The Spanish party, taking advantage 
of these discords, fostered reactionary sentiments 
against the patriot cause. In Valdivia, the godos over- 
threw the junta. In view of the danger of a royalist 
reaction, Don Bernardo O'Higgins acted as mediator 
between the hostile patriot chiefs and succeeded in 
warding off civil strife. The rivals celebrated peace 
on the banks of the river Maule and each went to his 
own capital. 

But the country remained divided. Valdivia and 
Chilo6 acknowledged the government- of the viceroy of 
Peru ; Santiago was governed by Carrera and Concep- 
cion by Rozas, each at the head of a junta of patriots. 
In this situation Carrera soon schemed to overthrow 
his rival. When it came time to send pay to the 


troops on the Araucanian frontier, he dispatched emis- 
saries to Concepcion who stirred up a riot, subjected 
the city to the authority of the junta of Santiago and 
apprehended Rozas, who was banished to Mendoza, 
where he soon after died. 

During the time that the Carreras were in power, 
there were constant dissensions and disaffections. Four 
conspiracies against them were suppressed ; all kinds 
of shocking enormities were committed ; many were 
the confiscations, great was the corruption. They quar- 
reled among themselves and Carrera once withdrew 
from the government; but a reconciliation was effected 
and he resumed his office. The Penquistos, or Concep- 
cion party, were greatly enraged at their loss of influ- 
ence, and made unceasing complaints. To cover his 
own ambitious designs and stop the complaints, Car- 
rera proclaimed a constitution (1812). This appar- 
ently placed the control of the junta in a senate, in a 
manner similar to the regulation prescribed in the con- 
stitution adopted at Buenos Ayres, and established a 
consulting council of seven members. Here was the 
first attempt in Chile to have the executive power con- 
trolled in all its executive functions by another body, 
a chimerical scheme which in subsequent years led to 
civil war. This constitution proclaimed civil equality, 
liberty of the press and other political and social re- 
forms, and for a time allayed the jealousies and fac- 
tional spirit of the leading families; then, too, they 
now had no time for quarreling among themselves as 
a new foe required their attention. 

Hearing of Don Jos6 Miguel Carrera's usurpation of 
the government at Santiago, Jos6 Ferdinand de Abas- 
cal, viceroy of Lima, dispatched south a large force 
under General Antonio Pareja in the early part of the 
year 1813, which in March attacked and took posses- 


sion of Talcahuano, meeting with little resistance. 
He then advanced to Concepcion, where the garrison 
joined his force, swelling his army, which originally 
consisted of 2,100 men obtained principally from Val- 
divia and Chilod, to 4,000 men. With this augmented 
force he deemed himself strong enough to put down 
the rebellion and compel Chile to recognize the autho- 
rity of Spain and the viceroy of Peru; he began his 
march toward the capital. At Talcahuano, and after- 
ward at Chilian, the Peruvian general seems to have 
won over some Araucanian allies. 

Extraordinary efforts were made in Santiago to raise 
and equip a force with which to oppose the Spaniards; 
donations were received, contributions levied, and 
arms procured. To oppose Pareja, Josd Miguel Car- 
rera, leaving his brother, Juan Carrera, in his place 
at the head of the government, marched south with 
the Chilean army, consisting of 12,000 badly drilled 
and poorly equipped men, and advanced to meet the 
enemy at Talca. There were engagements by the ad- 
vanced forces at a place called Yerbas Buenas and be- 
fore San Carlos, April 27th and May 15th. The attacks 
met with success and Pareja was compelled to fly with 
his troops in great confusion. After the rout succeed- 
ing the first attack, however, the royalists had rallied, 
and the next morning a severe action ensued in which 
the patriot losses were heavy, but the enemy was driven 
back and compelled to take refuge in Chilian, where 
Pareja was obliged to shut himself up and erect forti- 
fications for his defense in the siege which was begun 
against him. Here he afterward died, and was suc- 
ceeded by Colonel Juan Francisco Sanchez in command, 
who long maintained the siege, until bad weather set- 
ting in, the patriots retired. The garrisons he had left 
for the defense of Concepcion and Talcahuano were 


obliged to surrender to the patriots, as well as Los 
Angeles and other royalist towns in the south. Their 
commanders escaped to Peril. In several skirmishes 
which followed the first successes, O'Higgins and Mac- 
kenna were usually successful. 

The royalist troops remained in Chilian, completely 
isolated, within the fortifications they had constructed. 
With provisions stored for three months they awaited 
reinforcements from Peru; hoping, too, in the mean- 
time, that they would be reinforced from the south, 
as the Franciscans were friendly to their cause and 
those zealous churchmen were good recruiting officers 
among the Araucanians. Carrera returned with his 
army to the attack and for three days besieged the city, 
but he was in want of provisions and ammunition, and 
of means for protecting his troops from the rain and 
the excessive heat. The men died from exposure and 
deserted, and Carrera was compelled to raise the siege 
and retire toward Concepcion, August loth. 

At a place called Roble, on the banks of the Itata riv- 
er, Juan Francisco Sanchez surprised Carrera, whose 
army at this time was greatly diminished. O'Hig- 
gins, however, succeeded in rallying the troops and in 
turning what was nearly a rout into a victory, Octo- 
ber 17th. 

The junta had long been seeking an opportunity to 
free the capital of the influence and tyranny of Don 
Jos6 Miguel Carrera; for it was not forgotten that he 
was an usurper, though he had promoted reforms, 
opened schools in all the convents, recruited and dis- 
ciplined troops and done much good service for the 
patriot cause. Advantage was now taken of his absence 
to make the desired changes. Juan Carrera, who was in 
charge, was sent to the army ; the junta was reorgan- 
ized and Carrera' s place filled, the members being now 


Jos6 Ignacio Cienfuegos, Augustin Eyzaguirye and Jos6 
Miguel Infante. Having carried out the scheme thus 
far, they now removed to Talca to be near the army. 
Jos6 Miguel Carrera continued to command the army 
and refused to submit to the junta ; in the districts 
commanded by his troops, he governed without re- 
straint. But his oppressive measures and the devas- 
tations of his army so enraged the people of the 
southern provinces that Concepcion sided with the 
royalists. The junta, seeing the necessity of ridding 
the army of a leader who exasperated the people, re- 
moved Carrera and gave the chief command to Bernar- 
do O'Higgins, naming as second in command Colonel 
Mackenna, a brave and competent young Irishman. 

Don Bernardo O'Higgins was a natural son of the 
illustrious Ambrosio O'Higgins, Marquis of Orsorno, 
and was at this time about thirty-eight years of age. 
He was educated in England, then went to Spain and 
subsequently to Chile, where he passed his time look- 
ing after the estate left him by his father. When the 
revolution came and war seemed imminent, he became' 
a stanch supporter of Doctor Rozas and embraced ar- 
dently the cause of the patriots. He was a deputy in 
the first congress, and a member of one of the early 
juntas. Upon the fall of Doctor Rozas, Don Bernardo 
retired to his estate, where he remained until the inva- 
sion of Pareja, when he toolc up his sword in defense 
of the patriot cause. It was after the battle of Roble, 
that Carrera expressed admiration for his talents as a 
soldier by calling him " el primer Soldado de Chile," (the 
first soldier of Chile). 

Carrera at first refused to yield up the command, 
but was finally abandoned by the army and found him- 
self obliged to submit. With his brother he quitted 
the army and they set forth together on their journey 


to Santiago, where the}' expected to regain by family 
influence and their usual intrigues the power and posi- 
tions they had lost by their arbitrary and exasperating 
measures. On the way they were captured by a party 
of royalists and taken to Chilian as prisoners. 

The Spanish forces under Pareja remained for some 
time at Chilian within their fortifications, both parties 
making active preparations during the time, for a re- 
newal of the contest. Soon after the time of General 
Pareja's death, General Gavina Gainza arrived from 
Peru with a large number of reinforcements, which 
now gave the royalist army a decided advantage, as 
it was superior to the Chilean army both in cavalry 
and artillery, and had been recruited by the indefatiga- 
ble Sanchez with Araucanian Indians and peons from 
the southern provinces. General Gainza assumed com- 
mand and opened the campaign with vigor. The guer- 
rilla commander, Eiorreaga, took Talca for the royal- 
ists, the junta having previously retired to Santiago 
with a part of the patriot troops. 

The first movement was made by General Gainza, 
who attempted to prevent a union of the patriot army. 
On the 19th of March, 1814, he was repulsed by O'Hig- 
gins on the heights of the Quilo, and the day following 
he attacked Colonel Mackenna with a division of the 
Chilean army encamped at Membrillar, twelve miles 
from Chilian, but the attack was gallantly repulsed. 
O'Higgins came to Mackenna's assistance with his 
division, and the royal army was roughly handled. 

A few days after the affair at Membrillar (March 29th) 
a force of one thousand men was dispatched from San- 
tiago under the Argentine officer, Manuel Blanco En- 
calada, to take Talca. This force was defeated at Can- 
cha-Rayada bj' Eiorreaga, and the capital was thus 
left almost wholly unprotected. 


Despite his reverses, General Gainza attempted to 
carry out his plan of marching directly upon Santiago, 
which had at this time neither army nor defences. 
Advancing by rapid marching, he crossed the river 
Maule on balsas, protected by the royalists from Talca. 
O'Higgins followed and encamped for the night on the 
opposite side of the river within sight of the royalist 
army. Leaving a considerable force at the encamp- 
ment to deceive the royalists, he crossed the river by 
a ford, and, securing an advantageous position in 
Quechereguas, prepared to attack the enemy early in 
the morning. Surprised at this manoeuvre, and twice 
repulsed, Gainza retired to Talca which was still held 
by Elorreaga, and gave up his plan of marching to the 
capital (April yth and 8th). This left O'Higgins free 
to open communications with Santiago and to cut off 
Gainza's line with Chilian. 

/ Carrera had been both liked and disliked. At times 
' he had been patriotic and brave; he was courteous and 
commanded respect. But his temper was passionate 
and tyrannical, and his brothers, much given to excess- 
es, exerted an influence over him not altogether of the 
best. For these reasons, he had fallen in the popular 
estimation, so that all eyes were now turned toward 
O'Higgins at this critical period, and well worthy of 
the trust imposed upon him, did he prove himself. 
But the fall of Talca, despite O'Higgins' partial suc- 
cesses, was sufficient to bring about new political 
changes; the Carrera party still had influence in San- 

The loss of Talca was attributed to the lack of cour- 
age in the members of the junta, who had taken away 
a large part of the garrison and retired to the capital 
upon the approach of the enemy from the south. This, 
it was alleged, had been done for their own personal 


security ; it was sufficient to cause a revolution in San- 
tiago and their deposition. In the critical condition 
of affairs, however, it was agreed by both parties that 
the junta was too large a governing body, and upon 
its deposition, Colonel Francisco de Lastra, governor 
of Valparaiso, was invested with the executive author- 
ity and given the title of supreme-director, in imita- 
tion of the same office which had been created in Buenos 
Ayres, March 7th. 

Colonel Lastra, having the respect of all parties and 
conscious of the danger which menaced the indepen- 
dent cause, was disposed to consider favorably propo- 
sitions for a compromise which were brought from the 
viceroy of Lima by Captain Hilliar of the British fri- 
gate "Phoebe," the latter offering to act as mediator. 
We may state here that England at this stage of the 
revolution in South America, was disposed to mediate 
between Spain and her colonies, because of the atti- 
tude of France toward the former. At first it had been 
to English interests to have the ports of South Amer- 
ica opened to her commerce, and, under Spanish rule 
the ports were nearly closed ; but it was now of greater 
importance that Spain should not be completely 
crushed. Lastra called a meeting of the principal cit- 
izens of the capital, and submitted Captain Hilliar's 
propositions; the decision arrived at was that the di- 
rector should propose terms to Gainza. 

This he did, appointing commissioners to proceed to 
Talca with Captain Hilliar, and the result was a cap- 
itulation, and an agreement entered into at Lircay on 
the 3rd of May, 1814. General Gainza was to embark 
with his troops for Peru within two months and leave 
all fortified places as they were ; the government of 
Chile agreed to exercise its authority in allegiance to 
Spain ; the viceroy of Peru should acknowledge the 


government of Chile and all changes which had been 
made ; Chile should obey the constitution and laws 
promulgated by the cortes of Spain, and send mem- 
bers to the cortes — for Chile, be it remembered, had 
not yet declared herself independent and her junta and 
supreme-director had exercised authority onl}' in the 
name of Ferdinand VII. Hostages were exchanged by 
O'Higgins and Gainza, and the treaty concluded. But 
it seemed to have been only a subterfuge on the part of 
the royalists to gain time and save Gainza. 

During this period, the public library at Santiago 
was founded, schools were opened in the different 
towns and the national institute, or university, was 
established. This last was formed by a union of the 
old college of San Felipe, the college of San Carlos, 
the Episcopal seminary and academy of San Luis. 
The institute was opened with enthusiastic and im 
pressive ceremonies. 

Carrera had induced printers to come to the country 
from the United States and had procured a press and 
printing materials. A paper was started, called "La 
Aurora," which advocated the revolutionary cause. This 
was conducted by Father Camilo Henriquez. Other 
writers also contributed to the revolutionary cause ; 
STich as Antonio Jos6 de Irizarri. a Guatemalian, Doc- 
tor Bernardo Vera, an Argentine and the poet of the 
revolution, Manuel Salas, and Juan Egana, who drew 
up the first draft of a constitution. 



Meanwhile the two Carreras, set at liberty by the 
treaty, quitted Chilian, August 23rd, 1814, and pro- 
ceeded to the capital. Their first efforts were directed 
toward gaining over the troops, for they were still pop- 
ular with the army at Santiago. This done, they arbi- 
trarily restored the old junta, of which Jos6 Miguel 
Carrera himself had been the chief, and abolished the 
office of supreme-director still filled by Don Francisco 
de Lastra. This revolution, effected by family influ- 
ence, force and corrupt measures, aroused the indigna- 
tion of the citizens of the capital. O'Higgins, still at 
Talca, was invited to come to Santiago with his troops, 
to restore order and the legal junta and enforce the 
fulfilment of the recent terms agreed upon with the 
viceroy, Abascal, which Carrera and his followers ridi- 
culed. He set out upon his mission, and met Carrera 
upon the plains of Maypo. Two armies in Chile en- 
listed in the same cause of achieving national inde- 
pendence, faced each other ready to shed patriotic 
blood, on the banks of the Maypo. There was an inde- 
cisive combat, and then both sides paused before be- 
ginning a battle. It can not be said to what extremes 



the civil war might have been carried, as both parties 
were in battle array, had not the intelligence arrived 
— a messenger with an official letter — that the viceroy 
of Peru had refused to ratify the recent compromise, 
and that an army of five hundred men under Colonel 
Mariano, the most able officer of Peru, was on the 
way to reinforce Gainza. 

' The imminent danger reunited the patriots, now in 
arms against each other, O'Higgins waving his com- 
mand and serving under his rival ; Carrera used every 
effort to recruit his army, and soon yielding to the 
solicitations of the anxious citizens, gave over the 
command of a portion of the patriot troops in the field 
to O'Higgins, who forthwith marched toward the south 
to meet the Spaniards advancing from Talca. He first 
encountered the enemy at the river Cachapoal, but was 
driven back by superior nnmbers. He then made a 
stand at Rancagua, where he was besieged for two days, 
Carrera being outside the town with the main army. 
On October ist and 2nd, 1814, the place was assailed, 
a desperate battle fought, and O'Higgins defeated, as 
Carrera afforded his rival no assistance. The enemy 
cut the aqueducts, which flooded the streets in which 
the patriots had barricaded themselves, and then set 
fire to the houses. The patriot army, in this division, 
numbered two thousand men and all perished but three 
hundred and nine. A part of the army formed itself 
into a phalanx and cut its way through the enemy's 
lines, then retreated in mad haste over the Andes 
toward Mendoza. Carrera was compelled to fall back 
to Santiago with 1,500 of his men, and was loudly de- 
nounced for the defeat. 

Great was the consternation throughout Chile ; Car- 
rera with six hundred of his troops fled across the 
mountains to Mendoza, followed by more than two 


thousand of the leading patriots. Thence he repaired 
with his brothers to Buenos Ayres and later, took pas- 
sage for the United States, where he hoped to obtain 
assistance for the waning patriot cause ; the refugee 
revolutionists at Mendoza applied to the government 
of Buenos Ayres for succor. O'Higgins and Mackenna 
also fled to Mendoza; there San Martin gathered to- 
gether the refugee patriots and espoused the cause of 
O'Higgins. This, perhaps, caused the Carreras to 
push on to Buenos Ayres. 

Osorio marched his victorious royalist army to Santi- 
ago and there restored the authority of Spain and the 
viceroy. In fact, the inhabitants of the capital, tired 
of the misrule of the Carreras, sent a deputation invit- 
ing him to come and restore order. 

At the end of October, Valparaiso and all the prin- 
cipal towns were occupied. Then Osorio soon threw 
off the mask. The leading citizens became the vic- 
tims of his vengeance; arrests, imprisonments and ban- 
ishments followed. More than one hundred of the 
principal patriots were banished to the desolate island 
of Juan Fernandez, of Robinson Crusoe fame, l}'ing 
three hundred and eighty miles from the Chilean coast. 
Among these were Doiia Rosario de Rosalis, who solic- 
ited and obtained permission to accompany her aged 
father to the island. For two years and a half, 1814 
to 1817, the viceroy maintained the Spanish authority 
in Chile, which he governed with the greatest rigor. 
Don Fernando de Abascal, the Peruvian viceroy,' was 
the ablest, the most resolute, of the Spanish leaders; 
he crushed the uprising of Pumacagua, the revolution 
in Upper Peru and the revolution in Chile. 

At first there was a large body of Chileans to hail 
this return to the royal power and authority of the 
viceroy with satisfaction, for the country had grown 


tired of the factional disputes and the arbitrary rule 
of the Carreras. But such men as Osorio's infamous 
lieutenant, San Bruno, Sergeant Villalobos and subse- 
quentl)', Marco del Ponte, who was sent out by Fer- 
dinand VII. to succeed Osorio as captain-general, 
soon prepared the Chileans for renewed efforts to accom- 
plish their independence. Don Marco del Ponte was 
the last of the Chilean viceroys, and his deceit, rapa- 
city and cruelty knew no bounds. Osorio reestablished 
the Royal Audience,renewed the cabildo and suppressed 
the public library and the National Institution, or uni- 
versity. Marco del Ponte established a tribunal which 
he called the Tribunal of Vigilance and Public Security, 
and placed over it the ferocious San Bruno. He also 
suspended the execution of the pardon the king had 
sent in favor of the exiles in Mendoza. Like Israel's 
children in bondage, the patriots of Chile looked for a 
deliverer, and he came from across the mountains. 
Buenos Ayres saw that to maintain her own indepen- 
dence in security, Chile and Peru must be free. She 
had enabled the provinces of Cujo, Cordovo, Santa F6, 
the Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Entre Rios (Paraguay), 
Tucuman and Rioja to free themselves from Spanish 
domination ; Chile had assisted her when Jonte had 
solicited aid, she would now listen to the supplica- 
tions of the exiled patriots at Mendoza. She was wag- 
ing a war against the royalists in Salta, Jujaj', Potosi 
and Upper Peru ; she would now create a diversion in 
Chile and by so doing diminish the Spanish strength 
in Upper Peru. The hero of San Lorenzo was given 
the matter in hand. 

Don Jos^ de San Martin was at this time governor 
of the province of Cujo and at Mendoza. He had ob- 
tained his military education in the war with France, 
having fought in the battle of Bailen. This "Hanni- 


bal of the Andes" was tall and well-formed; his whole 
appearance was soldierly; he had an olive complexion, 
black hair, wore large side-whiskers without moustache ; 
his eyes were large and black and full of fire ; his coun- 
tenance was expressive, his deportment gentlemanly 
and insinuating. He was a cautious, brave general, 
with a Napoleonic talent for organization. 

He was in command at Mendoza in 1814, when the 
Chilean fugitives fled there after the battle of Ranca- 
gua. In the dispute which had before sprung up 
between Carrera and O'Higgins or, primarily, between 
the Carreras and other factions, San Martin, as we 
have seen, had espoused the cause of the latter, per- 
haps because the Carreras had attempted to seize the 
government of Mendoza, and were unwilling to be 
second in command. He now collected the wreck of 
the Chilean army, and incorporated the patriot sol- 
diers with the troops of his own command, part of 
whom were drawn from the forces of General Belgrano 
in the upper provinces, and part raised in Mendoza. 
He succeeded in the latter part of 1816, in getting to- 
gether a formidable army of five thousand men, to 
which the title, "Liberating Army of the Andes," was 

General San Martin displayed his great ability as an 
organizer by his successful efforts in getting together 
his army and giving it a thorough course of discipline. 
His principal force was the cavalry, a branch of the 
service for which his gauchos, or Pampas men, were 
peculiarly well-fitted. He was a reticent man and 
rarely divulged his plans to his associates; wlien he 
was ready to act he usually proceeded without seeking 
counsel, relying upon his own judgment. That he had 
ulterior designs in this expedition, we may suppose; 
we discover his secret plans afterward when he declares 


himself Protector of Peru. He was not without secret 
personal ambition, but still he was a patriot and an 
able general. 

Before beginning his march, San Martin resorted to a 
ruse for diverting Marco del Ponte's attention, as the 
Spanish captain-general was watching him on the other 
side of the mountains. He went first to San Carlos and 
held a conference with the Pehuenche Indians, asking of 
them permission to pass through their territory by way 
of Planchon. His intention, however, was to cross the 
Andes by way of the Uspallata pass — the passes of Pu' 
taendo and Cuevas — ^deemed almost impassable, emerg- 
ing at Aconcagua, north of Santiago. This ruse caused 
Marco to concentrate a large body of his troops in 
Talca, opposite Planchon, and in Rancagua. To assure 
the success of his strategy, he sent Colonel Rodriguez 
with a force of cavalry, consisting principally of the 
Chileans, to the neigborhood of San Fernando. This 
band had for some time kept the Spaniards engaged 
in this vicinity, while San Martin was getting ready 
his expedition. They had several times captured towns, 
which they declared independent, led off royalists' 
horses, and defied the whole Spanish force. Rodriguez 
was a brave young soldier, allied to leading families of 
Santiago, and a favorite with the Carrera party. As the 
operations of the patriot forces were all in this quarter, 
the Spanish general was doubtless the more easily de- 
ceived as to San Martin's real objective point, so that 
only corps of defense were posted in the valley of Acon- 
cagua above Santiago. Then, too, General Freire 
commandant of Concepcion, and the guerrilla chief 
Neirie, kept the captain-general busy in the south. 

General San Martin led forward his cavalry by way 
of Putaendo, January 17th, 1817, taking command of 
the force himself. The infantry and artillery advanced 


by the usual route, passing Cuevas. It was such a 
march as Almagro undertook two hundred and eighty 
years before ; it was a Hannibal or a Bonaparte cross- 
ing the Alps. Each cavalryman had a sword, ahorse, 
a saddle, a poncho; each infantry soldier carried a 
musket, cartridge-pouch and poncho, besides provisions 
for the journey. The latter consisted of dried meat 
and parched corn. Thus the army was not incumbered 
with baggage, tents, stores or provisions. There were 
depots of provender established every twelve leagues. 
There were 7,359 mules for the workmen and cavalry, 
and 1,922 beef cattle. Fieldpieces were carried, slung 
between mules, or dragged on sledges made of hides. 
Derricks were used to hoist or lower them over precipi- 
tous places. 

T\i€ gauchos were soon short of provisions and this 
fact caused them to push forward with incredible exer- 
tion so that the rapidity with which they traversed the 
passes, here more than 13,000 feet above sea-level and 
covered with perpetual snow, is almost beyond belief. 
Three hundred miles over the giddy verges of yawning 
quebradas, they passed in thirteen days. 

The army, consisting cf three thousand infantr5', 
nine hundred and sixty cavalry, with staff and trains 
and workmen mounted on mules, reached the valley 
of Aconcagua on February 8th. The cavalry, which 
had come by one route, tarried at Putaendo to rest ; the 
infantry, coming another way, remained at the entrance 
to the valley. A junction of all the forces was soon 
after effected at Villa Nueva. 

On February 7th, a skimish took place at the foot of 
the cuesta of Chacabuco with the Spanish who were 
picketed there, and this advance force was com- 
pelled to fall back on the main body of the royalist 
army advancing from the south under General Maroto, 


a distinguished Spanish officer who had been sent by 
the viceroy of Peru to replace Osorio. On the 8th, 
Colonel Nicochea routed a body of royalist hussars. 
Great was the enthusiasm in the patriot army. The 
workmen brought fresh horses for the officers and men, 
and united themselves into a militia company. Women 
and children cheered the troops as they passed along, 
and thrust provisions into their hands. Aconcagua and 
Santa Rosa were occupied. A force of cavalry was 
dispatched under Colonel Nicochea by the pass of Ta- 
von to join the main body of troops when it should 
arrive on the other side of the cuesta. At night the 
army encamped upon the summit and on the following 
morning descended the rnountain toward the enemy 
which had taken up a well chosen position, with hills 
on each of the flanks, commanded by artillery. Marco 
had arrived with about one thousand reinforcements 
during the night, so that the royalist forces now num- 
bered two thousand men at this point, with about the 
same number stationed in other parts of Chile. 

The Spaniards had carelessly permitted the patriot 
army to come through the passes without taking the 
trouble to ascertain its strength. They took it for 
granted that only cavalry could traverse the mountains 
within the time spent by the army in crossing. De- 
ceived by this, they formed for battle, drawn up in a 
square. As the morning was foggy, it was some time 
before it was discovered that San Martin was upon 
them with his whole army. 

O'Higgins ordered a charge. The Spanish officers, 
discovering their mistake, sought to deploy their men 
into lines, but the enthusiastic patriot cavalry led on 
by Colonel Solar, dashed into their ranks and threw 
them into confusion. Hardly firing a musket, the roy- 
alists followed their fleeing commander in a total rout. 


It had been necessary to begin the action at once, for 
Maroto was advancing with reinforcements of 1,200 
troops. The victory was important; the cavalry de- 
tachment under Colonel Nicochea descended into the 
plain from the pass of Tavon and falling pellmell upon 
the royalists cut them down in their flight, which so 
demoralized the whole Spanish army that it refused to 
act when Marco del Ponte and Maroto had called a coun- 
cil of war outside the city of Rancagua. The officers fled 
to Valparaiso. There many of them, including Marco 
del Porite, were captured by the patriots ; Maroto effect- 
ed his escape. Marco del Ponte was sent to San Luis 
in the Pampas, where he remained many years. 

It is no wonder that San Martin and O'Higgins were 
surprised at their easy victory, and were led to believe 
that they should be met by the enemy in another more 
sanguinary field before arriving at the capital. That 
night they moved forward cautiously to Colina. There 
they remained three days preparing for the anticipated 
struggle. But there was no enemy before them ; the 
royalists had fled toward the Ma3'po, and Santiago had 
been abandoned. In time the remaining royalist troops 
were driven into Talcahuano, where they shut them- 
\selves up to await reinforcements from Peru, which 
did not arrive until the following year. 

On the 15th of February, 1817, San Martin, with 
two doubloons in his pocket, no military chest, no 
stores, no medicine or surgeons for his wounded sol- 
diers, entered the capital with his wild gauchos and 
refugees at his back. Some there are who say that the 
general was hailed as the Savior cif the country ; others 
affirm that he was greeted by few voices, that he was 
received in sullen silence by the natives, and looked 
upon as another invader by a people who had grown 
tired of patriot machinations. Perhaps both accounts 


are near the truth : the natives of Chile are wont either 
to shout vivas to the last conqueror, or to look with 
suspicion upon outside patriots ; more than all else, 
the common people, though desperate fighters, prefer 
not to be disturbed. To them one government seems 
as good as another. 

The Spaniards had been defeated because of their 
overweening confidence and imprudence, for Marco and 
Maroto commanded a far superior army to San Martin's, 
in point of veteran troops, officers, equipment and 

A junta was again formed by the leading citizens 
of Santiago. The office of supreme-director was offered 
to San Martin, but he refused it, having his eyes on 
Peru, where the viceroy, Abascal, still maintained his 
authority. The office was then conferred upon General 
Bernardo O'Higgins, the government taking about the 
form it had under Lastra, save that the revolution this 
time meant complete independence from Spain. The 
independence was declared and a provisional constitu- 
tion announced. Chile, with the exception of Concep- 
cion, Talcahuano and Valdivia, fell during the year 
completely under the authority of the patriots. 

One of the first acts of the new government was to 
dispatch a vessel to the island of Juan Fernandez to 
bring away the patriots banished there by Osorio. Then 
reprisals began upon the royalists. The infamous San 
Bruno and Villalobos were conducted to the middle of 
the plaza and shot ; the royalist bishop, Jos6 Santiago 
Rodriguez, was banished to Mendoza. Tlie property of 
royalist fugitives was confiscated, and those who re- 
mained in Chile were compelled to contribute a fund 
of ^400,000 for the patriot cause. 

O'Higgins began actively to organize an army to 
prosecute the war and dislodge the royalists from the 


southern provinces, who had maintained a stubborn 
resistance under the leadership of Colonel Jos6 Ordonez. 
A division was dispatched against them, under the 
intrepid Colonel Juan Gregorio de Las Heras, who 
defeated Ordonez in Curapalihue and compelled him to 
shut liimself up in Talcahuano. Receiving reinforce- 
ments, the royalist leader again attacked Las Heras 
on the small hill of Gavilan near Concepcion, but was 
again defeated. May 5th, 1817. O'Higgins soon 
after arrived and Ordonez was besieged on the small 
peninsulaof Talcahuano, where he fortified his position, 
and, the royalist fleet commanding the sea, he was able 
to hold out against the superior force which O'Higgins 
brought against him for a period of six months, when 
assistance arrived from Peru. 



The energetic Abascal was not long in dispatching 
reinforcements to Chile upon learning the disastrous 
rout at Chacabuco ; this he was now the better enabled 
to do for the reason that he had recently received 3,500 
veterans from Spain. This was in the latter part of 
November, 1817. 

Marco del Ponte and Maroto had proven themselves 
inferior generals, therefore. General Osorio was a second 
time appointed to the command of the royalist army in- 
tended for operations in Chile, an army which, with 
the garrison at Talcahuano, would number about six 
thousand men. 

Osorio landed in Talcahuano in January, 1818. Pre- 
vious to his landing, O'Higgins, following the plan of 
a French officer named Brayer, had made an ineffec- 
tual attempt to reduce the fortress, now, with the ex- 
ception of Valdivia, the last stronghold of the royal- 
ists in Chile, December 6th, 1817. This attempt was 
frustrated by Abascal, who sent to the assistance of 
the garrison 1,500 reinforcements; these succeeded in 
reaching the fortifications by sea, and the place being 
one of great natural strength, was thus enabled to with- 
stand the siege. O'Higgins, after sustaining a heavy 



loss, including five or six officers in an assault, led by 
the gallant Las Heras, had withdrawn his troops before 
the arrival of Osorio. 

San Martin had been making active preparations and 
getting together an army for the purpose of invading 
Peru, when Osorio landed at Talcahuano with his army 
pf 3,400 veterans. This was an unexpected move on 
the part of the viceroy, who doubtless intended by it, 
not only the stamping out of the revolution in Chile, 
but the protection of Peru from invasion by thus strik- 
ing a decisive blow at San Martin before he could get 
together an army and supplies. 

Osorio, confident of victory and holding his oppon- 
ents in some contempt, set out for the capital, march- 
ing rapidly through the province of Concepcion and 
advancing toward Talca. The two divisions of the 
patriot army then effected a junction in the latter 
end of February, San Martin being at Las Tablas, four 
leagues from Santiago, with four thousand troops, when 
Osorio landed. When the patriot forces had been 
united the army numbered between seven and ten thou- 
sand men. For two or three weeks nothing of import- 
ance occurred, save constant, harassing guerrilla war- 

On the i2th of February, 1818, the first anniversary 
of the battle of Chacabuco, O'Higgins formally de- 
clared the absolute independence of Chile, which 
had not hitherto been clearly manifest. This he did 
upon his retirement from the unsuccessful campaign 
in the south, and it was in the nature of a bold defiance 
of Osorio. In every city, two blank books were opened 
during a period of fifteen days. In one of these all the 
citizens signed who favored absolute independence ; in 
the other those signed who were of the contrary opin- 
ion. The first books were filled with names; the sec- 


ond, nobody signed. Having consulted public opinion 
in this novel manner, O'Higgins solemnly aiBrmed the 
act as declaratory of the complete independence of 

The royalist army advanced slowly toward the capi- 
tal, crossing the Maule in the direction of Talca. San 
Martin moved forward from San Fernando on the 13th 
of March with his whole army, which was superior to 
that of the Spaniards in point of numbers and in cav- 
alry, but inferior in discipline. Near the city of Talca, 
Osorio's van was furioush' attacked and driven back, 
the action being confined principally to the cavalry. 
This was on the i8th; on the igth there was a sharp 
skirmish at Cancha Rayada. Seeing the strength of 
the enemy, Osorio drew up his forces before the city 
and determined to attack San Martin in camp that 
night. About nine o'clock in the evening, while changes 
of position were being made in the patriot encampment 
at Cancha Rayada, the Spaniards, salh'ing forth from 
Talca under the intrepid Ordonez, made a sudden on- 
slaught, which was so furious and the discharges of 
cannon and muskets so lively and unexpected, that San 
Martin's army became panic-stricken, fired at each 
other as well as the enemy, and before fifteen minutes 
had elapsed was in total rout. O'Higgins bravely 
sought to rally the troops, though himself suffering with 
a wounded arm, but was unable to stop the flight of 
the demoralized arm}'', and was, therefore, obliged to 
follow the fugitives toward the capital. 

Monteagudo, San iMartin's advocate general of the 
army, was the first to reach the capital, on his way to 
Mendoza, and tell of the defeat. Great was the con- 
sternation. Patriots at once began to get together their 
effects for flight to Mendoza. The contents of the pub- 
lic treasury was packed ready to load upon mules; the 


streets of the capital were thronged with the equipages 
of those preparing to depart the country ; groups of 
women were everywhere wringing their hands in grief 
and terror. The greatest anxiety prevailed, as it was 
several days before intelligence came of the whereabouts 
of San Martin. He was at San Fernando and the right 
wing of the army, consisting of about three thousand 
men, was with him. Manuel Rodriguez, the dashing 
and enterprising young cavalry officer, then took 
it upon himself to check the flight of the patriots, 
called Hijos del Pais (Sons of the Land), assumed the 
direction of affairs for the time being and organized 
a better state of things. In an incredibly short time 
he had organized a regiment, called the Husares de la 
Muerte (Hussars of Death. ) 

Six days after the rout, O'Higgins entered the city 
badly wounded, and was entrusted again with the dic- 
tatorship. On the following day, San Martin arrived, 
accompanied by some of his officers. Fatigued and 
covered with dust his cry of "La Patria triunfa'' revived 
the spirits of the patriots. 

The wreck of the army which came pouring into 
the capital for several days was collected by the offi- 
cers and sent to an encampment outside the city at 
Molina. Ten days after the battle the brave Colonel 
Las Heras, who had led off the right wing from the 
rout and conducted it to San Fernando, arrived with 
three thousand of the troops. He had been enabled 
to save this division because of the fact that two divi- 
sions of Osorio's army approaching from different direc- 
tions had mistaken each other for the enemy and com- 
menced firing. This created so much confusion that 
General Osorio was prevented from following up his 
advantage. Indeed some of his army even retreated 
across the Maule. 


The patriots of Santiago seeing the necessity of ex- 
traordinary efforts subscribed mone}', plate and jewels 
for the cause ; 4,800 infantry and eight hundred cavalry, 
newly clothed and recovered from the recent disaster, 
were gathered together in a few days outside the cap- 
ital. The artillery had been lost at Cancha Rayada, 
but a few fieldpieces were secured, in the main, two 
big guns and a park of artillery. The army was ably 
officered; besides San Martin himself and O'Higgins, 
there were Balcarce, Alverado, Quintana, I^as Heras, 
Borgono, Martinez, the intrepid Nichochea, Blanco 
Encalada and others. There were four French officers, 
and O'Brien, Miller, Lowe and Lebas, Britons. The 
gallant Mackenna was no longer of the number, and 
General Brayer, the distinguished French officer who 
had commanded the cavalry, now resigned because of 
some dispute between him and San Martin. 

The patriot arm}^ moved about a league farther away 
from Santiago to the farm of Espejo, which was about 
three leagues from the capital, and there awaited the 
enemy, who was cautiously advancing. On the afternoon 
of the 3rd of April, 1818, Osorio crossed the Maypoand 
came to the plains, the flanks and rear of his army 
constantly harassed by parties of patriot cavalry. 
Skirmishing was kept up during the afternoon of the 
3rd and all day the 4th. On the 5th the royalist army 
took up a position on the brow of a hill; the famous 
Spanish Burgos regiment occupied the right wing, the 
Infantos of Don Carlos the left, the Peruvian and Con- 
cepcion troops the centre. Four squadrons of dragoons 
flanked the right, a body of lancers the left, with a 
battery placed on a hill still farther to the left. The 
royalist lines were about a mile in length, and con- 
fronted by the patriot ranks. The left of the patriot 
columns was commanded by General Alverado, the cen- 


ter by Balcarce, the right by Las Heras, the reserves by 
Quintana. Each army numbered not far from five thou- 
sand troops ; each was led by generals of consummate 
ability; but the royalists had the advantage in this, 
that they had just won an important victor}', which 
had reduced the fine patriot army to about one-half its 
original strength. This filled one army with enthusi- 
asm, the other with doubt and sombre forebodings. 

The battle began about eleven o'clock by a lively 
cannonading from the patriot artillery on the right. 
In an hour the action became general. Colonel Blanco 
Encalada commanded the artillery, and with this met 
the enemy's left as it moved down the hill. A charge 
was made upon the four fieldpieces at the left of the 
royalist lines ; these were captured and turned against 
the foe. 

The battle raged most fiercely about a farmhouse of 
the Espejo, which place was captured and retaken many 
times during the day. Until near the close of the day 
the advantage seemed to be with Osorio, the center 
and one wing of his army held the field and the defeat 
of the patriots seemed certain. 

On San Martin's left wing the patriots had been able 
to withstand the Burgos regiment for some time, but 
the regiment of negroes stationed there at last became 
confused ; four hundred of them were lying dead upon 
the field. The Burgos regiment now attempted to form 
itself into a square for a decisive charge; this broke 
the Spanish lines and threw them into momentary dis- 
order. Colonel O'Brien, a gallant Irishman, commanded 
here a troop of patriot horse-grenadiers. With^them 
he reinforced the reserves under General Quintana, 
which had been ordered to support this wing. Form- 
ing rapidly for a charge, O'Brien threw his men so 
furiously upon the forming regiment of the Burgos, that 


he dispersed it. This regiment was the flower of Oso- 
rio's army, and its defeat caused such confusion in the 
ranks, that the patriots were able to press their foe at 
all points. The Burgos troops fled to the Espejo farm- 
house; Las Heras soon overthrew the left, which also 
rushed to the Espejo. For a while the action was kept 
up in the center, but with both wings beaten back, this 
part of the royal army soon gave way and retreated 
with the rest. 

The victor}' was decisive ; half of Osorio's troops 
were killed and wounded and the rest taken prisoners ; 
the patriots lost upward of one thousand men. A 
stand was made for a time by some of the troops in 
the farmhouse, rallied by the brave Ordonez, but they 
were driven out and about five hundred of them killed 
in the court and adjoining vineyard. General Osorio 
effected his escape, and joined a party of officers and 
men who had fled to Concepcion, from which place 
they embarked for Peru. There were two hundred and 
eighty who escaped in this m^anner. 

/ This battle gave San Martin lasting renown. It was 
a brilliant, decisive victory, and established the inde- 
pendence of Chile ; not only that, it paved the way for 
the independence of Peru, for it broke the power Abas- 
cal had so long been able to maintain there. 

Five days after Maypo had been won, San Martin 
set out for Buenos A5'res, for the purpose of- concert- 
ing measures with that government for the invasion of 
Peru. Triumphal arches awaited him, and he was 
hailed with unfeigned appreciation. 

In the beginning of 1819, San Martin had returned to 
Mendoza, where he employed himself some time in 
equipping troops and organizing a formidable force 
with the view to beginning the long contemplated in- 
vasion of Peru, which was sought as the surest means 


of securing the emancipation of all Spanish-America. 
While thus engaged at Mendoza, he once set out to 
recross the plains to Buenos Ayres, but was obliged to 
return on account of a band of outlaws, headed by Jose 
Miguel Carrera, which at that time was scouring the 
Pampas. Carrera had raised a body of Montoneros > 
and with them had carried on a guerrilla war for several 
years in revenge for the death of his brothers, who had 
been condemned to death at Mendoza by Monteagudo 
a day or two after the battle of Maypo (April 8th). 
Once this bold restless leader had even captured Buenos 
Ayres. He was in time defeated and taken to Mendoza, 
where he was executed, September 5th, 1821, upon the 
spot where his younger brothers had met their fate 
some time before. In 1827, the bodies were disinterred 
and buried in Santiago with military honors. 

There were several political intrigues in both Chile 
and Buenos Ayres about this time, which caused San 
Martin to put aside his sword for a while and don citi- 
zen's clothes. But it was not his disposition to retire 
to private life while there were still worlds to conquer. 
It was not long after this that the energetic general 
received the command of the army in Chile and began 
the invasion of Peru. 

The execution of the younger Carrera brothers at 
Mendoza created considerable excitement for a time, 
as their family was still strong in Chile. Monteagudo 
was blamed for his severity. But the sensation fol- 
lowing this circumstance was hardly equal to that 
caused by the death of the brave Manuel Rodriguez, 
who had so greatly distinguished himself at San Fer- 
nando prior to San Martin's march over the mountains, 
and afterward in the capital after the rout of the pa- 
triot forces at Talca, A few days after the battle of 
Maypo he was placed under arrest, charged with enter- 


taining designs against the government of O'Higgins. 
He was sentenced to banishment, and while on his way 
to Valparaiso under guard, was shot by a villain named 
Navarro, who commanded the escort. The authorities, 
whether conniving at this plot or not, were suspected, 
and did not escape censure. 

The patriots, it would seem, were not slow in adopt- 
ing Marco del Ponte's methods of raising revenues, both 
before and after the battle of Maypo. Many of the old 
Spanish families were robbed and their property de- 
livered up to the public use. Just before the battle of 
Maypo, it is said that more than five millions of dollars 
worth of readily convertible property was seized by the 
patriot government to keep up the military organization, 
and that subsequent to the battle three millions of dol- 
lars worth was taken in the same way and for the same 
purpose. In these revolutionary times it is not to be 
wondered at that the chiefs resorted to this manner of 
supporting the army from the resources of their ene- 
mies at home. 

After the defeat of the royalists at Maypo, Colonel 
Sanchez remained in the south with a force of 1,500 
men; other forces which were stationed in Chilian and 
Concepcion made their way to Peru, embarking at Tal- 
cahuano. O'Higgins soon dispatched a division against 
Sanchez (1819) under command of Antonio Gonzalez 
Balcarce,the Argentine officer who had fought at Maypo. 
Colonel Ramon Freire occupied Concepcion with the 
vanguard while Balcarce compelled Sanchez to retreat 
to Los Angeles, where his force hotly pressed, was dis- 
persed though the Araucanian country. Sanchez after- 
ward embarked at Valdivia and made his way to Peru. 
Freire was made intendente of Concepcion and soon 
established the authority of the patriots in all thefron- 


tier towns of the south, where he began a policy of 
conciliation and clemency. 

General Freire went against Vicente Benavides and 
surprised him at a place called Cural6, near Santa 
Juana, May ist, 1819. Benavides, however, made his 
escape into the Araucanian country with twenty of his 

The career of this inhuman pirate was as romantic 
as it was despicable. He was a sergeant of grenadiers in 
the royal army at the time of the first Chilean revolu- 
tion, was taken prisoner at Membrillar but made his 
escape. Afterward he served the royalists until he was 
taken prisoner at the battle of Maypo. He was recog- 
nized, tried, and condemned to be shot. But he was 
only wounded, and, feigning death, madfe his escape. 

When San Martin arrived in Santiago preparatory 
to entering upon his Peruvian campaign, Benavides 
presented himself and offered his services for dissuad- 
ing the Indians and other designing persons south of 
the Biobio from joining the royalists. Receiving pass- 
ports, he soon after joined the Indians, was appointed 
their chief, and began a series of skirmishes and raids 
along the Biobio. At first he pretended to act under 
the sanction of Spanish authority, but upon the fall of 
the viceroy at Lima, he threw off the mask and declared 
to General Prieto' that he would continue the war 
against Chile to the last man, even though Spain her- 
self acknowledged its independence. 

He disregarded flags of truce, put his prisoners to 
death most barbarously, murdered unoffending settlers, 
burned and sacked cities, intrigued with the Carreras, 
captured British and American vessels, shot the cap- 
tains and imprisoned the crews, equipped a pirate ves- 
sel and sent it along the coast with instructions to spare 
no flag and to put insurgent crews to death. He was 


a high-handed freebooter, and, having gathered together 
three thousand men in the summer of 1821, even medi- 
tated the capture of Santiago and Valparaiso and the 
conquest of Chile. Colonel Joaquin Prieto was dis- 
patched against him in the latter part of 1821, and 
completely defeated him on the plains of Saldias near 
Chilian, October gth. He was then closely followed 
into Araucania by a force under Captain Manuel Bul- 
nes. His capital, Arauco, was finally taken and burned, 
on the first of February, 1822; the bandit himself was 
taken at Topocalraa where he had been obliged to put to 
shore in a boat for water, being at this time on his way 
to Peru with his wife and a few companions. Sentence 
was passed upon him February 21st; he was ordered 
dragged from the prison in a pannier tied to the tail 
of a mule, hanged and his head and hands cut off and 
placed upon high poles. 

Manuel Blanco Encalada. 



The patriots, having achieved the independence of 
Chile on the plains of Maypo, now made strenuous 
efforts to equip a navy. Captain Joseph Andrews sold 
to the government the "Wyndham," an East Indiaman. 
This craft was fitted out at Valparaiso as a sixty-four 
gun frigate, named "Lautaro" after the heroic young 
Araucanian chieftain, manned by four hundred English, 
American and Chilean seamen, and given in charge of 
Captain O'Brien, who had had some experience in 
naval affairs, having once served as a lieutenant in the 
English navy. A North American vessel had also been 
purchased about the time of San Martin's march over the 
Andes ; this was mounted with eighteen guns and called 
"Ciiacabuco. " Until the battle of Maypo this warship 
was employed in assisting vessels to run the blockade 
at the port of Valparaiso, in defiance of the two Span- 
ish men-of-war stationed there. 

Withthe"Lautaro" and "Chacabuco" Captain O'Brien 
having taken on board a land force under Miller, sought 
to raise the blockade. At the offing of the port he fell 
in with the Spanish frigate "Venganza" and brig "Pe- 
zuela. " O'Brien in the "Lautaro" bore down upon the 
"Venganza" and boarding her, was followed by thirty 


of his crew. The Spaniards ran up the rigging, or hid 
themselves in the hold, abandoning the ship to the 
bold enemy. But the two vessels not being lashed 
together, became separated, and the crew of the "Ven- 
ganza, " seeing how few of O'Brien's men were aboard, 
commenced a rapid firing. The brave commander fell, 
shot through the heart. The "Lautaro" returned to the 
attack and rescued the patriots on board the"Venganza, " 
but both the Spanish vessels, taking advantage of this 
incident, crowded sail and made their escape. It was 
not altogether a victory, but the effect was to rid the 
Chilean coast of the Spanish warships. 

The Chilean deputies in London had purchased the 
"Cumberland," another East Indiaman, for the use of 
the government. This was mounted with sixty-four 
guns and named "San Martin, " Captain Wilkinson being 
assigned as her commander. Mr. Higginson of North 
America, was first named as commodore of this little 
fleet, but being over sixt}' years of age he soon resigned 
and the government appointed General Blanco Enca- 
lada, who had been a Spanish midshipman, to the ex- 
alted office of admiral. 

Hoisting his flag upon the "San Martin," Commo- 
dore Encalada set sail for Concepcion, followed by the 
"Chacabuco" and "Lautaro," Captains Wilkinson, Wor- 
ster, Diaz and Morris all being on board. The Com- 
modore's plan was to intercept the Spanish frigate "Ma- 
ria Isabel, " or take her in the harbor of Concepcion, 
where she had put in with a transport soon after the 
battle of Maypo. Previous to this, Ferdinand VII. 
being again on the throne and fearing that Peru might 
soon follow the other Spanish-American provinces in 
declaring and obtaining her independence, dispatched 
an armj' of two thousand men from Spain in transports, 
convoyed by a battleship and two frigates. The war- 


ship, proving unseaworthy, liad been compelled to put 
back to Spain. The other vessels were scattered by a 
gale off Cape Horn ; two of the transports with mutin- 
ous crews, were taken to Buenos Ayres, one of the 
frigates, the "Maria Isabel," as we have seen, with one 
of the transports, put into the harbor of Concepcion. 
If the Chilean government could capture these vessels 
it would greatly augment their navy, as the frigate 
^carried forty-four guns. 

On the 28th of October, 1818, the "San Martin" ran 
alongside the "Maria Isabel" and gave her a broadside. 
The Spaniards aboard sought safety in flight and aban- 
doned the ship to its fate. The frigate went aground, 
but was floated and taken out of the port by the cap- 
tors. Four Spanish transports were in the bay and 
three others came in afterward ; these were all captured. 
The "Maria Isabel" was taken to Valparaiso where she 
was mounted with forty-eight guns and christened 
"O'Higgins. " 

About this time the "Galvarino, " mounting eighteen 
guns, was brought from England by Captain Guise and 
purchased ; two North American vessels, the "Araucano" 
and "Intrepid" were also added to the navy, and later, 
an American built corvette mounting twenty-six guns, 
the "Independencia, ' was purchased,so that the Chilean 
navy had become quite formidable. 

In November, 1818, Lord Thomas Cochrane, who had 
been invited by the government sometime before to 
take charge of the Chilean navy, arrived, and, his ap- 
pointment being confirmed, he began to equip and man 
the fleet so actively that by the following January it was 
ready to sail for Peru. For it was to prepare the way 
for San Martin's contemplated expedition, that all these 
active naval preparations had been made. 

On the 15th of January, iS-ig, Lord Cochrane directed 


his squadron toward Peru. Arriving in Callao bay, it 
was the admiral's intention to attack the fort and carry 
the town by a sudden descent upon it. A fog arose 
and the vessels of the fleet became separated, so that 
only Lord Cochrane in the "O'Higgins" entered the 
ba}' as far as the anchorage. The Spanish vessels, "Es- 
meralda'' and "Venganza, "with two other warships, were 
at anchor under the guns of the forts. Cochrane opened 
fire upon them, but the surprise was not successful and 
three hundred and sixty guns on shore and one hundred 
in the ships opened a brisk cannonading in reply. Un- 
able to retreat, because of the calm which prevailed in 
the bay, the "O'Higgins'' sustained the fire unsupported 
for two hours, when a favorable wind enabled her to 

Believing, from this nearly successful attack, that 
Lord Cochrane would succeed in a second attempt to 
take the port, the viceroy ordered ships dismantled and 
a double boom to be formed from their materials bar- 
ring the way to the anchorage. The admiral, however, 
contented himself for a while with blockading the har- 
bors and compelling the Spanish authorities at different 
places along the coast to furnish his ships with pro- 
visions. He captured the towns of Payta, Supd and 
other places, with detached parties landed from his 
boats, and seized property of the royalists to furnish 
his vessels with supplies. 

While conducting these operations along the coast, 
Commodore Blanco Encalada with the remainder of 
the fleet was left to maintain the blockade of Callao. 
Returning, Lord Cochrane found that the Chilean 
commander had raised the blockade and gone to 
Valparaiso. Encalada was arrested for this and a court- 
martial held, but he was honorably acquitted. Though 
invited by the Chilean government to command the 


fleet, Cochrane found that the authorities were slow to 
furnish him with necessary men and supplies, and dur- 
ing his whole brilliant career on the Pacific coast, he 
seemed to encounter much opposition to his plans and 
to be the object of much jealousy on the part of some 
of the Chilean officers, and even of San Martin himself. 
As many foreign officers had served in the Chilean army, 
and foreigners had been repeatedly honored, both in 
civil and rhilitary positions., we may suppose that Lord 
Cochrane's ideas of the campaign and San Martin's 
plans were sometimes at variance. 5an Martin wished 
to educate the Peruvians to the patriot cause, to win 
his way by mild measures so far as possible ■ Lord 
Cochrane wished to subdue rather than convert the 
Peruvian royalists. 

The year was occupied by the fleet in unimportant 
measures. Fireships were constructed and rockets 
prepared ; the latter being soldered with bell metal, 
burst at the first trial and were found to be of no value 
whatever. An expedition against Callao, with fire- 
ships and bell metal rockets, failed wholly of any sat- 
isfactory results, October 5th, 1819. The Spanish frig- 
ate "Prueba" arriving on the coast, Cochrane went 
in search of her to Arica, and not finding fier there, 
proceeded to Callao, having in the meantime dispatched 
two warships with a troop of soldiers under the com- 
mand of Colonels Charles and Miller to Pisco, which 
place was taken. The action, however, cost the life of 
Colonel Charles. Miller too was seriously wounded. 

Not finding the "Prueba" at Caiiao, Lord Cochrane 
went in search of her to Guayaquil. Proceeding up 
the Guayaquil river by night he captured two merchant- 
men, but the "Prueba" threw her guns and stores over- 
board and thus lightened, sailed up the river out of 
Cochrane's reach. 


Leaving Guayaquil on the 21st of December, Coch- 
rane sailed to Valdivia with the "O'Higgins" and re- 
connoitered the harbor and fortifications, with a view 
to making a subsequent attack upon the place, and, by 
capturing it, free Chile from the last stronghold of the 
royalists. Off the harbor he captured the Spanish brig, 
"Potrillo, " and then sailed for Concepcion to solicit men 
and supplies of General Freire, the commander of the 
place. Receiving there a detachrnent of two hundred 
and fifty troops he returned in February to Valdivia, 
with a force all told of three hundred and eighteen men, 
the "O'fiiggins," a brig, and a schooner as transport. 

On the 2nd, 3rd and 4th of February, 1820, Lord 
Cochrane accomplished the brilliant exploit of taking 
the strongly fortified city of Valdivia, an achievement 
which has seldom been surpassed for gallantry and cool 
judgment. One after another he possessed himself of 
the enemy's batteries and then of the town itself. 

Valdivia was situated upon a navigable river about 
fifteen miles from the sea. Nine forts defended the 
place, situated upon both sides of the river and extend- 
ing from the city to the anchorage. They mounted 
one hundred and eighteen cannons and were garrisoned 
by over one thousand men. 

The commander landed first at Aguada del Ingl6s, a 
strongly fortified point just outside the harbor, and at 
sunset disembarked his troops, the enemy in the mean- 
time collecting a considerable force behind precipices 
which tower above the beach at this point. These were 
driven back before they had time to give the alarm ; the 
Aguada del Inglds was taken and San Carlos, the next 
fort, stormed and captured, so rapidly that the gar- 
risons were sent flying in a boat toward the next fort 
in the line toward the city, called Chorocomago. The 
other forts on that side were opened to receive the fugi- 


tives, and in the confusion which ensued the victors en- 
tered pellmell close behind the royalists. Before mid- 
night the strongholds of Aguada del Tngl6s, San Car- 
los, Amargos, Chorocomago, and, finally, the last resort 
of the fugitives on that side, Corral Castle, were taken 
one after another. 

On the following morning Cochrane sailed into the 
bay under a heavy fire from the Spanish forts, on the 
side of the bay opposite those which had been captured 
during the night, and anchored before the fort of Niebla. 
Troops were dispatched at the same time from the op- 
posite side in boats, the intention being to land them 
in two divisions, one to storm forts Niebla and Riojo, 
the other to advance against fort Manzanera. The 
garrisons in all these forts, seeing the boats setting 
out, the flags of the patriots flying on the fortresses op- 
posite, and the "O'Higgins" prepared to open fire upon 
them, became panic-stricken and fled to the city. 

Cochrane followed the fugitives into the city, and 
meeting no opposition, planted the patriot flag in the 
plaza. His loss had been seven killed and nineteen 
wounded. The royalists lost ten privates and three 
officers killed, twenty-one wounded, and eighty-two 
taken prisoners, besides their cannon, ammunitions and 

In this action, Majors Miller and Beauchef and Cap- 
tain Erezcous especially distinguished themselves for 
gallantry. The victory was important, as Valdivia was 
a veritable Gibraltar in strength. Its forts mounted 
one hundred and twenty-eight guns and were garrisoned 
by over eight hundred men under the command of Col- 
onel Hoyos. There were altogether fifteen forts, whose 
guns commanded the anchorage from all directions. 
That these forts could all be taken one after another 
by a few companies of men seems almost incredible. 



It was fortunate for Chile in ttiese turbulent times 
that a man like Don Bernardo O'Higgins was at the 
head of affairs, otherwise the state might have been 
torn asunder by party feuds. Though hampered often 
in his efforts by the men for whom San Martin had se- 
cured departmental places, yet O'Higgins labored to 
introduce essential improvements into the affairs of 
state, to overcome prejudices, to open up a foreign 
commerce, to mitigate so far as possible the most fla- 
grant abuses. The disgraceful peculations carried on by 
some of San Martin's ministerial appointees, O'Hig- 
gins was obliged to overlook, for some of these minis- 
ters were quite as powerful and quite as secure in their 
positions, as was the director himself; notably, Rod- 
riguez, an intriguing fellow, Don Ignacio Zentano, 
minister of war, a pliable tool, Don Anselmo Cruz, of 
the finance department, imbecile, but crafty, and Don 
Joaquim Echeverria, who was at the head of the affairs 
of state and justice, a man of subterfuge and deceit. 
With such a ministry, we wonder that O'Higgins was 
able to keep the peace so long as he did, and make 
Chile, during his administration, the most respected 
abroad of all the South American states. 


Since the battle of Maypo, Chile had been making 
herculean efforts to aid San Martin in his long contem- 
plated invasion of Peru. For two years little had been 
accomplished, save the brilliant exploits of Blanco En- 
calada and Lord Cochrane at sea. Spanish war vessels 
had been secured and put in readiness, Valdivia had 
been taken \ these achievements cleared the way and 
enabled the exhausted republics of Chile and Buenos 
Ayres at last conjointly to prepare for the final denoue- 
ment in the struggle for South American independence. 
The government of Chile now became active, and tlie 
resources of the country were industriously called forth ; 
troops were collected and drilled ; the executive depart- 
ment was removed to Valparaiso to be able the more 
effectively to cooperate with San Martin and Lord Coch- 
rane, the former having repaired there with what troops 
and equipments he had been able to raise at Mendoza, 
the latter from Valdivia with the fleet. 

The difficulty attending this enterprise was stupen- 
dous, owing to the poverty of the country. But the 
unremitting efforts of San Martin and Lord Cochrane 
went far to remove all obstacles. The expedition was 
in readiness by the 15th of August, 1820. The navy 
of Chile was put to active use and transports hired 
for the occasion. On the i8th, the army marched into 
Valparaiso, and, superintended b5' General Las Heras, 
embarked from the arsenal. There were 4,400 men and 
a corps of supernumerary officers intended for the work 
of recruiting in Peru. At Coquimbo five hundred more 
troops were taken aboard. Fifteen thousand stands of 
arms, with ammunition, clothing and stores, were shipped 
for the purpose of equipping the patriots of Peru, who, 
it was expected, would revolt and come to San Mar- 
tin's standard. San Martin was named commander-in- 
chief of the troops, who were designated as the "United 


liberating army of Peru. " The fleet under Lord Coch- 
rane intended for the transportation of this army con- 
sisted of the seven or eight warships of the navy and 
from fifteen to twenty transports. 

On the 13th of August, the chiefs of the liberating 
army had issued a bulletin declaring the purposes of 
the expedition; that it was to redeem the land in which 
slavery had so long existed, and from whence the lat- 
est efforts to oppress the whole continent had been 
made; to decide whether or not the time had arrived 
when the influence of South America upon the rest of 
the world should be commensurate with its extent, its 
riches and its situation. 

As this expedition was a joint effort on the part of 
Chile and Buenos Ayres to aid the patriots of the north- 
ern state to throw off the Spanish yoke, and as the 
subsequent progress of the war is rather a part of the 
history of Peru than of Chile, we will give here only 
a brief account of the brilliant achievements of the lib- 
erating army after it had landed in Peru's territories; 

On the 2oth of August, the fleet sailed from Valpa- 
raiso, arriving at its objective point, Pisco, on the 7th 
of September. Four days after, the army, or a large 
portion of it, was landed, the Spanish troops hav- 
ing previously fallen back upon Lima, where the vice- 
roy intended to concentrate his forces. Colonel Are- 
nales was well acquainted with the country and marched 
a strong detachment of one thousand men into the vicin- 
ity of Lima, taking up a position east of the city. He 
was some time on the way, crossing the Andes by a 
circuitous route, and traversing a country filled with 
royalists. He encountered on the way a strong divi- 
sion of 1,800 of the royalist troops under General 
O'Reilly, which he cut to pieces and made prisoners. 

On the 2oth, an armistice was agreed upon between 


San Martin and the viceroy, while the liberating army 
was still in Pisco. Eight days were consumed in diplo- 
matic efforts made by the viceroy, Pezuela, to compro- 
mise in favor of retaining some of Spain's authority; 
but to none of these propositions would San Martin 
agree, nor would he consent to anything short of the 
independence of Peru. 

The army remained at Pisco until October 26th, 1820, 
when it was again embarked and arrived off Callao on the 
29th. Not deeming it advisable to disembark at Callao, 
which was strongly garrisoned, San Martin proceeded 
to Ancon, a port a few miles north of Callao, where 
he remained a few days. 

In the meantime Cochrane planned an attack upon 
the Spanish frigate "Esmeralda," lying in the harbor 
of Callao. The harbor was guarded by extensive bat- 
teries, and the anchorage by a boom made of spars 
chained together. The "Esmeralda'' was moored under 
the guns of the batteries within the boom and sur- 
rounded by gunboats. With two hundred and forty 
volunteers from the different ships, commanded in 
divisions by Captains Guise and Crosbie, the attacking 
force proceeded toward the warship in fourteen boats. 

At ten o'clock at night the expedition reached the 
line of gunboats. To the guard's challenge of "Who's 
there!" Cochrane presented a pistol and gave him the 
alternative of "silence or death." Pushing on, the frig- 
ate was reached and boarded on all sides by the men 
in the boats. The "Esmeralda's'' crew sprang up and 
defended the vessel obstinately for several moments, 
but were finally driven into the forecastle, where, after 
a short, stubborn resistance, they yielded, but only to 
jrally again upon the deck where a momentary stand 
was made. But finally the cables were cut, sailors 
mounted the rigging, and the ship was sailed out of 


the bay under a heavy fire from the batteries. Of the 
"Esmeralda's" crew one hundred and twenty were killed 
and wounded; the boarding force lost eleven killed and 
thirty wounded. This action gave the patriot fleet the 
undisputed mastery of the coast. San Martin named 
the "Esmeralda" "Valdivia," in honor of Cochrane, and 
thenceforth she became a Chilean vessel. 

Following this action, the troops at Ancon were 
again embarked and on the loth of November, landed 
at Huacho. San Martin's headquarters were then 
established at Huara, a place a few miles distant from 
Huacho and seventy-five miles north of Lima. Lord 
Cochrane's brilliant achievements had given so much 
popularity to the patriot cause, that, shortly afterward, 
December 3rd, the Numancia regiment of eight hun- 
dred men deserted the viceroy and joined San Martin's 


Guayaquil and Truxillo declared for the patriot cause, 
which practically gave independence to all lower Peru, 
save only the capital, and even in the latter the cause 
of the viceroy was daily losing ground. 

With the exception of an advance made to within 
three leagues of the capital, San Martin preferred to 
maintain an inactive and conciliatory policy for the 
following six months, to the great disgust of Lord 
Cochrane and some others of the more spirited officers. 
The port of Callao was blockaded, by which means the 
patriots hoped to reduce the inhabitants of the capital 
to submission by keeping supplies cut off; in the end 
this plan had the desired result. 

Satisfied that there would be no active military move- 
ments about the capital, Lord Cochrane toward the end 
of April, 1821, collected a small force and set sail in the 
"San Martin" for Arica. Here the authorities had time 
to remove the public treasures to Tacna, forty-five miles 


distant, before Colonel Miller, who commanded, could 
land with his force. However the colonel followed, cap- 
tured the town, and then went on to Moquegua, where he 
routed a body of Spanish troops at Mirab^. This course 
of operations was pursued by Lord Cochrane until news 
reached him of an armistice, which had been declared 
between San Martin and the viceroy, La Serna, on May 
24th; he then sailed for Callao, leaving Colonel Miller 
in command of the places which had been captured. 

The armistice, which continued two months, had 
been sought by the viceroy, and for the reason that the 
capital was reduced to extremities by a scarcity of pro- 
visions. No agreement was reached, as San Martin 
would consent to nothing short of complete indepen- 
dence, and it soon became apparent that the Spaniards 
were about to abandon the capital to the patriots and 
retire to the interior. On the 6th of July, 1821, the 
royalist authorities did quit the city and retired by way 
of Xauxa to Cuzco ; on the 12th, San Martin entered, 
his troops having taken possession the night before. 

On the 28th of July, 1821, the independence of Peru 
was proclaimed by San Martin, and "Viva La Patria!" 
"Viva La Libertad!" and "Viva San Martin!" were 
shouted by the people assembled in the great square 
to listen to San Martin, who spoke to them from an ele- 
vated stage. The same people were now shouting "Viva 
San Martin" who a day or two before had rushed out in 
a mad rout and fright, fearing that the general, if not 
"El Diablo," as they styled Lord Cochrane, was at 
least an invader who would sack the city. 

On the 3rd of August, San Martin assumed the reins 
of government, gave himself the title of "Protector of 
Peru" and issued a proclamation, declaring the supreme 
political and military authority vested provisionally in 
himself, while a new government was formed with Juan 


Garcia del Rio as secretary of state, Don Bernardo 
Monteagudo, minister of war, Don Hypolito Unanufe, 
minister of finance. 

Henceforth, San Martin held himself no longer an 
officer of Chile, ceased to transmit bulletins to Valpa- 
raiso, and conducted himself in all respects as though 
the recognized head of an independent state. From 
this time his operations in Peru can hardly be deemed 
a part of Chilean history. 

On the loth of September, the Spanish armj' under 
General Cantarac returned from the interior, and, march- 
ing past Lima, entered Callao. San Martin forebore to 
interfere with the royalist troops, believing that they 
would but hasten the fall of Callao by diminishing the 
provisions. This proved to be the outcome; after a 
short stay, Cantarac withdrew his troops, carrying off 
the treasure deposited in Callao castle and the strong- 
hold was surrendered to the patriots. 

The protector remained inactive at Lima until May 
of the following year, when he dispatched two expe- 
ditions against the royalists at different places and 
totally destroyed them. 

Next he directed his attention to obtaining posses- 
sion of Guayaquil, which, with its fine harbor, arsenal, 
dockyard and province, he desired to attach to Peru. 
General Bolivar, in Colombia, was also looking in that 
direction; he had successful h' invaded Quito and was 
now marching toward Guaj'aquil with the intention of 
occupying it. San Martin was hindered by difficulties 
at home, and was anticipated by General Sucre, who, 
acting for Bolivar, took possession of Gua5'aquil. San 
Martin determined to have an interview with Bolivar, 
but he got little satisfaction as the latter treated him 
with considerable hauteur. The chiefs were brother 


patriots and liberators, but even patriots may feel some 
degree of jealousy and a spirit of rivalry. 

While San Martin was absent on this diplomatic mis- 
sion, the people of Lima forcibly deposed Monteagudo. 
The wily minister, fearing the vengeance of the people, 
hastened aboard a vessel and was conveyed to Panama. 
The supreme delegate, Torre Tagle, who conducted the 
affairs of the government in the absence of San Mar- 
tin, supplied the place of Monteaguda with a tempo- 
rary junta ; this body immediately summoned a national 
congress, taking advantage, perhaps, of San Martin's 
absence. At any rate, the protector was deeply cha- 
grined when he returned from the north and found a 
congress holding secret sessions at the capital. Sur- 
rounded by difficulties, with a rival at the north, dis- 
affection among the patriots and intrigues among the 
royalists, San Martin, on the 20th of September, 1822, 
resigned his authority in an able and patriotic address. 
He perceived that his day was a thing of the past in 
Peru, and was politic enough to lay down his authority 
in time. He returned to Buenos Ayres, stopping a 
short time at Valparaiso. In 1823, he sailed for Eng- 
land. He died at Boulogne on the 17th of August, 
1850, aged seventy-two years. Peru's subsequent 
efforts to maintain her independence were not success- 
ful until General Bolivar achieved that result in the bat- 
tle of Xauxa, August 6th, 1824, and finally, in the de- 
cisive battle of Ayacucho, December gth, 1824. 




While the war was progressing in Peru several mat- 
ters worthy of notice were agitating the Chileans. 
There were several altercations between Lord Cochrane 
and the British naval commanders along the coast 
relative to the detention of alleged British vessels en- 
gaged in contraband trade. Chilean and Peruvian 
duties being enormously high, all manner of schemes 
were resorted to in order to smuggle in cargoes, chief 
among which was a system of licensing by which Brit- 
ish vessels were entered ostensibly as of British bot- 
toms, to escape the patriot navy, but with Spanish 
supercargoes to escape the tariff. 

Some of these vessels attempted to run the block- 
ades and were seized ; this raised a clamor against Lord 
Cochrane at Valparaiso by British mercantile agents. 
But his lordship continued to collect duties, and bid 
defiance to his detractors and the British naval offi- 
cers on the coast, who opposed him in favor of British 
commercial interests. 

Lord Cochrane also encountered considerable diffi- 
culty in his attempts to secure funds, first from San 
Martin and afterward from the Chilean government 

for the payment of his officers and men; and it was 



only after summary measures on his own part and 
threats of revolt on the part of his crews, that he was 
enabled to procure funds with which to meet the 

Another event of importance about this time was the 
assembling of congress in July, 1822. O'Higgins had 
been led to call this because of the machinations of 
the aristocracy and the obstructions of the senate which 
he had appointed. The supreme-director earnestly de- 
sired that the country, having achieved its indepen- 
dence, should have a more free and representative form 
of government. This the aristocracy opposed, and the 
ministry sympathized with them. O'Higgins urged 
the necessity of a legislative body, but met with oppo- 
sition, first on one pretext and then another. It was 
the beginning of the struggle between liberals and 
conservatives, and the director keenly felt the grow- 
ing difficulties of his position. 

To supply as far as possible the want of a congress, 
O'Higgins named five influential citizens to form a 
senate. He hoped that this body would second his 
views, but instead it soon began to oppose him at 
every turn, and sought to establish itself a perpetual 
power. To rid himself of the oligarchy the director 
appointed its members to foreign missions and other 
offices, and then summarily summoned a national con- 

The congress when assembled, employed the time at 
first in foolish, unimportant discussions. At length a 
new tariff schedule and constitution were submitted by 
the minister, Don Jos6 Antonio Rodriguez Aldea, and 
they occupied the legislative attention until October. 
The constitution gave to the supreme-director the 
powers of a dictator and caused much comment and 
considerable discontent. As the intention of the 


tariff law was to prevent smuggling, foreign agents in- 
veighed as loudly against it as they had against Coch- 
rane. From O'Higgins to Balmaceda foreign interests 
in Chile have ever been antagonistic to liberal, progres- 
sive measures, beneficial to Chile, and have sympa- 
thized with the oligarchical rule, with the classes 
against the masses. In this tariff measure, however, 
the wily Aldea evidently introduced certain features 
to further his own schemes and speculations; spec- 
ulations, which, in the course of two years, gave him 
a large fortune. He would buy up all. the tobacco and 
then increase the elastic duties, which were altered to 
suit occasions ; the same was done with spirits, sugar, 
and other necessary articles of consumption. 

These malfeasances aroused public indignation, but 
O'Higgins, imposed upon no doubt, indiscreetly kept 
the obnoxious Aldea in office. Disappointed in the 
measures of congress and provoked by the misdeeds 
of the minister, the Chileans began to show a spirit 
of discontent and a feeling of ill-will toward the gov- 
ernment. The devastating earthquake of November 
igth, 1822, probably increased the dissatisfaction, 
just as bad crops often affect political issues. Local 
dissatisfaction had for some time prevailed at Concep- 
cion in the south and Coquimbo in the north; in the 
former. General Freire, the military governor, had been 
refused pay and supplies for his soldiers, and the troops 
were destitute and their wages twelve months in ar- 
rears ; in the latter place, the Coquimbans were in 
want of means to carry on their local government and 
all the duty on copper shipped from their port was 
diverted to the treasury in Santiago; restrictions were 
also made which were considered to be against the 
interests of their trade and mining industries. 

General Freire took the initiative at Concepcion, 


assisted by the influential citizens of his district and 
the old Carrara partisans. The southern provinces 
were declared independent of the rest of Chile, the 
laws and constitution of O'Higgins's congress were 
denounced as illegal, for the reason that Concepcion 
had not been fairly represented ; the ministers were 
denounced as conspirators, plotting the ruin of the 
country. A local congress was assembled which coun- 
tenanced the measures of the influential citizens. An 
English emissary was dispatched to Coquimbo with a 
full account of the proceedings which had taken place 
in the south, and bearing an invitation to the Coquim- 
bans to join the movement; another Englishman was 
sent to Santiago to intrigue with the numerous mal- 
contents in that city. 

The governor of Coquimbo was deposed and an old 
Carrera partisan put in that ofifice ; the province was 
declared independent and the national congress de- 
nounced as an illegal body. It is worth)' of remark, 
however, that it was expressly declared that these 
measures were not directed against the supreme-direc- 
tor, but only against his ministers and congress, O'Hig- 
gins had been Freire's benefactor and hoped that he 
would be able to put down the revolt with little trou- 
ble and without a resort to arms. But he overesti- 
mated his popularity. 

Freire advanced with troops from the southern cities 
beyohd the river Maule, and the Coquimbans took up 
arms in his favor, proceeding toward the capital with 
a considerable force raised in the north. In Decem- 
ber, 1822, the northern force came to Illapel and at 
the beginning of the following year they occupied 
Aconcagua and Quillota without opposition, 

On the 28th of January, 1823, a movement took place 
in the capital. The supreme-director was waited upon 

iq8 a history of chile 

: by a committee from the disaffected party, headed by 
General Guzman, and asked to resign his authority 
into its hands. This he refused to do, but signified 
his willingness to resign to any proper and competent 
authority. He was then asked to yield his authority 
to a junta composed of Don Agustin Eyzaguirre, Don 
Fernando Errazuriz and Don Jos6 Miguel Infante. 
This he did on condition that the new junta should 
without delay summon a new national congress, to 
which they should resign their temporary executive 
authority; and if after six months the difficulties which 
had separated the disaffected parties from the main 
government should not be removed, the functions of 
the junta should entirel)' cease and their power revert 
to the people. This treat}' was signed by O'Higgins 
and by Don Mariano Egana, who represented the peo- 
ple of Santiago. Three citizens were to determine the 
power of the junta, according to the usual South Amer- 
ican method of having one body watch and prescribe 
rules for another; thereupon the junta appointed Don 
Marian Egana as minister of state and marine, and 
Don Agustin Vial, minister of finance and war. 

The junta summoned a congress. It was at this 
time that both O'Higgins and San Martin prepared to 
quit the capital, the former going to Valparaiso to 
embark for Peru, the latter to ^lendoza. Lord Coch- 
rane had departed for England on the i6th of January, 
the government owing him some S6o,ooo on account of 
prize money, according to his claim. 

When General O'Higgins reached Valparaiso, Gen- 
eral Freire arrived there on board the "Independencia"' 
which came conveying two transports bearing 1,500 
men. The force was landed and O'Higgins taken into 
custody, but he was soon released by the request of 
leading citizens and went on his way. Freire then 


marched his troops toward Santiago and issued a pro- 
clamation, disavowing all intentions of placing him- 
self at the head of the government and pointing out 
what patriotic measures, in his opinion, should be 
adopted. He was as modest as he was ambitious; he 
encamped with his army at Maypo and kept himself 
out of the city; he refused and even fled when congress 
sent a messenger offering him the office of supreme- 
director; but a more urgent request had the desired 
- effect. He was as coy as a maiden wishing to be wooed. 
He became supreme-director. 

The prosecution of the war had not prevented O'Hig- 
gins attending to other interests of the young republic. 
He restored the public library in Santiago and the 
national university which had been suppressed by the 
royalists; he created a military academy, prohibited the 
unhealthy practice of burying the dead in the churches, 
founded the first cemeteries, constructed markets and 
boulevards (J>aseos), particularly the paseos in the ca- 
nada of Santiago, which until then were filled with rub- 
bish. He gave freedom of commerce which led to a 
new impetus in trade, protected foreigners and pro- 
moted agricultural interests. The ancient Maypo canal 
was completed, and the water obtained from this for 
irrigating purposes made green fields of the sterile 
plains. Don Domingo Eyzaguirre engaged actively 
in promoting the completion of this work and after- 
ward founded a town upon the plain which he called 
Bernardo in honor of O'Higgins. 

O'Higgins managed fairly well the slender means at 
his disposal, for the revenues of the state were small 
and inadequate. In the last year of his administration- 
it was found necessary to negotiate a loan in London 
of $5,000,000 and Don Antonio Jos6 de Irizarri was 
sent there for that purpose. He obtained the money 


and thus began Chile's foreign debt. In effect, Ber- 
nardo O'Higgins was absolute king of Chile, governing 
without a constitution, laws or congress, though he 
himself desired the formation of a federation with a 
constitution. Despite his splendid services to the 
state bis. dictatorial position retarded the organization 
of a constitutional government. There was opposition 
to this centralized form of government, but while the 
war lasted, O'Higgins was able to keep the power, 
aided by the active influence of San Martin, the 
army, and intriguers who do not reflect much credit 
upon their superiors. The Carreras and Manuel Rod- 
riguez fell victims to these intrigues, but in the end 
the advocates of constitutional and representative gov- 
ernment forced O'Higgins to abdicate. 

General O'Higgins was given an estate by the Peru- 
vian government ; there he passed the remainder of 
his days, dying at Lima in 1842, eight years before 
San Martin died in France. 

:X \0 




General Freire was renowned and brave as a soldier, 
courteous as a gentleman, well-meaning as a patriot, 
liberal as a statesman, but he succeeded no better than 
O'Higgins in the trying position of supreme-director. 
A general overhauling of the ministry and an investiga- 
tion of Rodriguez' robberies took place ; reforms were 
the order of the day. But as is usual in these recurring 
spasms of public reform, nothing practical was accom- 
plished, and affairs under the new liberal government 
were soon in as disordered a condition as under the 
old. The public soon discovered that the new order 
of patriotism effected only a change of men ; pecula- 
tions, procrastinations, and bad faith still continued in 
the public offices as during the old regime. 

Freire adopted the tactics San Martin used in Peru ; 
he disclaimed personal responsibility ; he refused to 
act personally upon troublesome questions and re- 
ferred everything to congress. Congress was as little 
responsible, for it held its sittings only during a few 
weeks of the year, and did little else than discuss ques- 


tions of etiquette when it was in session. A new tariff 
schedule was constructed, but was soon found to be 
quite as obnoxious as the old system. Toward the end 
of the year 1823, a new constitution was promulgated 
in which it was sought to formulate a representative 
government without representation, in other words 
to keep the power in the hands of the oligarchs, and 
all public offices and officers were to be under the sur- 
veillance of an aristocratic committee, or of the aristo- 
cratic senate. The duties of the director, ministers, 
senators, representatives and other officers, were mi- 
nutely defined and due guards placed over the official 
lives of each, while public morals were carefully looked 
after in the declaration that, "habits, exercises, duties, 
public instruction, rituals, and pleasures, were to be 
transformed into laws, laws into customs and customs 
into civic virtues, and morals." 

The constitution passed in 1823, was similiar to this, 
but somewhat less anomalous. The effect and inten- 
tion was to perpetuate the power of juntas, of the oli- 
garchical senate, of the rule of aristocrats. The re- 
result was general dissatisfaction, which was greatly 
augmented by the failure of an expedition, which Freire 
directed in person, against the island of Chilo^ to drive 
the Spaniards from the archipelago. Great preparations 
were made for the expedition, both the military and 
naval forces being brought into active service. General 
Freire took the command, January, 1824, leaving the 
government in charge of Don Fernando Errazuriz. He 
landed without opposition on the island with a force of 
2,500 men, but instead of advancing at once upon the 
two principal towns, he divided his forces and sent for- 
ward one-half against Castro, while the other half pre- 
pared to advance upon San Carlos. The first division, 
commanded by Colonel Beauchef, routed the roj'alists 


at Mocopulli, but afterward fell into an ambush, became 
panic stricken, and fell back in confusion upon the oth- 
er division. This defeat, with the constant rains pre- 
vailing, demoralized the whole arm}', which soon em- 
barked and returned home, June, 1824, having suffered 
heavy losses. 

So great was the di«;satisfaction and demoralization 
prevailing at this time, that the British consul-general, 
Mr. Nugent, did not think it advisable to recognize 
the independence and present government of Chile, 
though he had been sent out for that very purpose. He 
foresaw plainly enough that the country was on the eve 
of another revolution. 

During this time two Spanish men-of-war had ap- 
peared at the island of Chilo^, having arrived there soon 
after Freire's departure. It was not until near the 
middle of the year 1824, that the government at San- 
tiago gained information of this, and then the news 
occasioned considerable commotion. General Freire 
feared an attack upon Valparaiso, and to provide 
against it as best he could, dispatched a force to that 
port. He wished to overhaul the old war ships in the 
port for defensive purposes, but the senate refused to 
vote the funds. This occasioned a split between the 
director and the senate, so that he dissolved that body, 
and set aside the new constitution. 

Having made himself, in effect, dictator, Freire now 
ordered the war vessels to be refitted ; this required 
several months and the pay of the sailors was in ar- 
rears, so that they refused to do anything until they 
were paid. Taxes were levied, licenses granted, and 
a sufficient revenue raised to pay the men a portion of 
the amounts due them and complete the equipment, 
the total expense being about ^100,000. Satisfied with 
this, the fleet put to sea toward the end of the year 



1S24, under the command of General Blanco Encalada, 
in search of the Spanish vessels, which seemed to have 
had no other reason for staying several months at Chilo6 
than that their crews were sick. As soon as their men 
were well they went on to Peru. 

Director O'Higgins had sent to Rome the patri- 
otic canon, Don Josd Ignacio Cienfuegos, to arrange 
certain ecclesiastical matters and to undertake the work 
of reuniting the different elements of the Romish 
church in Chile. He returned in the first part of the 
year 1824, at the time General Freire was absent on 
his expedition to Chilo^, and was accompanied by the 
apostolic vicar, Don Juan Muzi. This person came 
with full authority from the Pope to act in the pre- 
mises, bringing with him a secretary, and was accom- 
panied by the Roman canon, Mastai Ferreti, who some 
time after became Pope Pius IX. 

These eminent prelates were received in Chile with 
some apprehension, as it was reported and generally 
believed that they served secretly the interests of 
the king of Spain and the sovereigns of the Holy Alli- 
ance, who had great influence with the Pope, and that 
they desired to see a return of the American colonies 
to their former allegiance to the mother country. The 
vicar associated much with the bishop of Santiago, Don 
Jose Santiago Rodriguez, a pronounced royalist, and 
with others whose sympathies were with the defeated 
cause of the king. This caused the patriots to look 
upon him askance and month after month passed, find- 
ing the government and the vicar more and more out 
of sympathy, until at last there came a decree from the 
government removing Rodriguez from the bishopric 
and installing the patriotic Cienfuegos in the office. 
Persisting in his opposition, Rodriguez was some time 
after banished from the country and went to Spain. 


Other decrees followed with a view to regulating eccle- 
siastical matters, some convents were suppressed, cer- 
tain religious functions were prohibited and a consid- 
erable amount of church property was converted to the 
use of the state. Failing in his mission, Muzi asked 
for his passports and embarked for Rome, after a resi- 
dence of eight months in the country. 

One of the most pressing difficulties with which Freire 
had to deal, was the depleted condition of the public 
treasury. He had come into office chiefly because of 
the dissatisfaction which prevailed by reason of the 
condition of financial affairs under O'Higgins' admin- 
istration. Yet even during O'Higgins' six years of rule 
the resources of the state had been sufficient to balance 
the expenditures, while very soon under Freire, 1S24, 
the expenditures amounted to two and one-half mil- 
lions of dollars, the revenues to but little over a mil- 

In this trying situation dangerous expedients were, 
perforce, resorted to, one of which was the confiscation 
of monasterial property throughout the state, and the 
application of it to the service of the government. 
Again, the old monopolies of staples, once sold to pri- 
vate corporations by the government, the estancos, were 
resorted to. The interest on the public debt due 
in London amounted to about ^400,000 a year. To 
discharge this, the Freire government sold to a com- 
pany of merchants, landholders and British agents, 
Portales heading the company, the sole right to import 
tobacco, to grow it, and to sell it for a period of twenty 
years. At the end of that time they were to pay off 
the whole debt ; the government meanwhile was to fos- 
ter the monopoly by a grant of a half million dollars. 
A subsequent congress ratified this agreement with the 
clause left out by which the company agreed to dis- 


charge the principal of the debt at the end of twenty 
years. Perhaps the reason why that important clause 
was omitted, may be found in the fact that influential 
persons in the capital held stock. The company was 
intolerable to the people and occasioned so much dis- 
satisfaction that it soon came to fear the results and 
refused to discharge the obligation. 

In the following year excitement ran so high that an 
attempt was made to assassinate two deputies, Don 
Joaquim Campino and Don Bernardo Vera, both warm 
friends of Freire. An investigation revealed the fact 
that several deputies were deep in the plot; this led 
the government to a determination to avert, if possi- 
ble, the gathering storm. A proposition was made to 
congress that it should dissolve and place the supreme 
authority in the hands of the director. 

On the i6th of May, 1825, congress did as it was 
recommended to do, dissolved. An exposition was 
made by the majority of the legislative body, number- 
ing nineteen delegates, of the causes which had led to 
is dissolution. It cited riotous acts which had occurred 
on the nights of the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th of the 
month, when armed citizens had appeared at the bar 
of the house shouting tumultuously, while others out- 
side were proclaiming the omnipotence of the people 
and clamoring for the removal of a member who had 
offended them in a recent speech. These things they de- 
clared were the flashes preceding the blow, anarchy was 
fully exhibited, the sanctuary of the law had been pro- 
faned, the majesty of the people violated in the persons 
of their representatives. The house, they maintained, 
had resolved to meet in secret session, but its deliber- 
ations were further interrupted by the people ; it had 
adjourned until 10 o'clock the following day, but the 
disorder still prevailed. On the last day of the session 


there were such scenes that these delegates declared, 
"We may be permitted, in honor of the country, to 
pass silently the occurrences which took place within 
the house that day. They were such that the under- 
signed, abandoning all hope of a central assembly, de- 
clared their absolute separation, and retired to com- 
municate it to their constituents, and resolved unani- 
mously to notify the executive, recommending to him 
the public peace, so greatly disturbed." They closed 
their exposition by expressing regret that they had 
passed no important laws during their sitting. 

On the 6th of July, Freire issued a convocatoria, call- 
ing a congress for September 5th. This was intended 
to be a general constituent congress composed of pub- 
lic deputies freely elected by each district, on the basis 
of one deputy to each i5,o"'oo of population. Six days 
afterward the director issued a proclamation to the 
people setting forth the urgent circumstances which 
had led him again to convoke a general congress. 
Europe had recognized the independence of Mexico, 
Colombia and Buenos Ayres, it was desirable that 
Chile should be so recognized ; the new governments 
of South America had extended an invitation to assist 
and prepare a form looking to a general South Ameri- 
can assembly, the purpose of which was to form a grand 
pact, or union, of all the states ; the government was 
embarrassed by the lack of a code and was without 
authority to establish principles or a policy adapted 
to the institutions. The director declared that he had 
no other interest at heart save that of the greatest good 
of the country, and from motives of delicacy announced 
that he would withdraw, during the period of the elec- 
tion, all the governors dependent on the directorial 
nomination, in order that the slightest influence on 
the part of the government should not be exercised. 


However, when congress convened it was a mere as- 
sembly of the province of Santiago; hardly a week had 
elapsed before it attempted to assume the whole author- 
ity of the government. On the 13th of September, a pop- 
ular movement had taken place at Valparaiso, the pur- 
pose being to pass resolutions censuring some of the 
measures of the minister of revenue in respect to that 
port. The government, as a matter of precaution, and 
to reestablish order and stop the spread of the demon- 
stration, stationed a body of one hundred cavalry on 
the road near Valparaiso to await news and observe 
the result. The Santiago representatives, who were 
in sympathy with the movement in Valparaiso and had 
received secret communications from there, gave orders 
to the government that no force should be sent out. 
Some altercations took place, when the Santiago rep- 
resentatives demanded to know whether or not they 
were recognized by the executive as the congress. The 
director replied that they v.ere not, and that he would 
not obey resolutions which they might pass on general 

After protracted discussions the representatives de- 
cided that on the morning of the 7th of October, the 
magistrates resident in the capital should take an oath 
of recognition and obedience to them as the only au- 
thorized national congress. The director then decided 
to resign his position and quit the capital until the 
matter could be settled. This he did, withdrawing a 
distance of five leagues, accompanied by a body of cav- 
alry. The representatives then named Don Juan Fran- 
cisco Sanchez supreme-director of the nation. But a 
majority of the inhabitants of the city adhered to the 
cause of Freire and issued an address on the 8th, entreat- 
ing him to return and dissolve the assembly of repre- 
sentatives, who unlawfully styled themselves the con- 


gress. At the same time, they withdrew the power of 
the seven Santiago representatives and subjected their 
conduct to the consideration of a commission appointed 
for that purpose, consisting of eight distinguished citi- 
zens. Freire was asked to take necessary steps for the 
public tranquillity and to secure the persons causing 
trouble and anarchy. 

A circular was addressed to the people by the govern- 
ment, setting forth the disturbances as a reason for 
dissolving the false congress. A measure of security 
was promulgated, banishing eleven individuals, distin- 
guished citizens of Santiago, who had been prominent 
in fomenting the disturbances, and also giving immi- 
grants who had lately landed from San Juan, disaf- 
fected chiefs, twenty-four hours to leave Chile. Other 
ministers were nominated to all the departments of pub- 
lic business, Campino, foreign affairs, Novoa, war and 
marine, Benevente, revenue; and the director gave as- 
surances that another and constituent congress should 
be soon assembled. 

On the i2th, the director named in a public decree 
a body, called the "Consulting Council," composed of 
the ministers of the government, the president of the 
supreme court of justice, the chief of the court of 
appeals, and others, who should sit twice a week and 
aid him in expediting the serious affairs of state, and 
agree upon means for the best management of his office. 

Disorganization had been general and parties had 
now become more sharply defined. The liberal party, 
arising originall}' from the reaction against the dicta- 
torial policy of General Bernardo O'Higgins, formed 
now diverse factions, such as the federalists, who advo- 
cated, with Don Jose Miguel Infante as their spokes- 
man, a federal form of government with the provinces 
as states, and the pipiolas, who were followers and 


admirers of General Pinto. Opposed to the liberals 
were various factions of the conservatives, clericals, 
and the O'Higginistas, who dreamed of some day being 
able to reinstate the illustrious exile in power. Con- 
servatives were nick-named Pelucones, because that 
party was composed chiefly of old and venerable per- 
sons who wore pelucas, or perukes. 

It was not long before there was a revolt of royalists 
in the island of Chilo6. Freire with three thousand 
men, defeated these royalists in the battles of Pudeto 
and Bella-Vista. The island of Chilo6, like Callao, 
had long held out in favor of the roj'alists, but on the 
fifteenth of January, 1826, it capitulated, upon the 
stipulation being made that it should be received into 
the republic of Chile as a province and on equal terms 
with the other provinces, and that the officers and 
troops of the Spanish army, commanded by General 
Antonio Quintanilla, might remain in Chile so long as 
they should desire to do so ; prisoners on both sides 
were set free. Callao surrendered to the patriots about 
the same time. There was a strong sentiment on the 
island in favor of the ex-director, O'Higgms. It was 
claimed in Chile that the many disturbances on the 
island had been instigated by exiled Chileans residing 
in Lima, and by the advice of Bolivar, for the purpose 
of establishing in Chile a strong centralized govern- 
ment such as Bolivar was seeking to establish in the 
northern provinces. Certain it was, that most of the 
troops in the revolts were blacks from Peru led by 
Peruvian officers. No doubt there was a strong party 
in Chile at this time in sympathy with the movement, 
while on the other hand, there was a strong feeling of 
jealousy entertained by another parrty against Bolivar. 

On July 4th, 1826, congress met and continued 
in session for the uncommon period of one year. It 


received Freire's message and with it his resignation, 
then appointed Blanco Encalada as provisional di- 
rector, but after two months Encalada resigned in dis- 
gust and Freire was reinstated, not, however, until after 
the vice president, Don Augustin Eyzaguirre, had made 
a futile attempt to guide the ship of state for a short 

Congress decided to adopt the federal system, as op- 
posed to the junta system of the Santiago oligarchs, a 
system which had been attempted by the congresses of 
1823 and 1824, but so far without giving satisfaction. It 
divided Chile into eight provinces, as the probable 
members of the future confederacy, Coquimbo, Acon- 
cagua, Santiago, Colchagua, Maule, Concepcion, Val- 
paraiso and Chilo6. It established provincial assem- 
blies in the provinces, whose business it should be to 
ratify the new constitution. It soon became apparent, 
however, that these assemblies were determined to pro- 
ceed upon the principle of self-interest and to usurp 
authority which did not rightfully belong to them. 
They interposed objections and gave opinions in ad- 
vance as to what should and what should not go into 
the constitution. The assembly of Concepcion met 
late in 1826, prepared a memorial to the general con- 
gress, strongly representing the total unfitness of the 
federal system for Chile, and favored the idea of a 
centralized form of government ; Chile was a nation, 
not a confederacy of states, it should, therefore, have 
one, not many assemblies. Later, on the 15th of March, 
1827, they again addressed congress to the effect that 
their delegates were instructed to oppose every scheme 
for a federal system, as tending against national unity. 
Coquimbo followed with similar measures, when con- 
gress refused to listen to further petitions of the kind, 
as they were clearly in the line of usurpations of au- 


thority by the provincial assemblies, as those bodies 
had been created to act only upon such matters as 
might be presented to them by congress. Congress 
was in the anomalous position of having created states 
for the purpose of forming a confederacy and then hav» 
ing its children dictate terms to it. 

Santiago went so far as to vote in its assembly that 
no law passed by congress should be binding upon that 
province without its consent ; the Colchagua assembly 
took possession of the national funds in that province 
and appropriated them according to its own judgment. 
It was apparent to congress that it must dissolve the 
provincial assemblies ; yet this could hardly be done 
and carry out the federal idea. 

Following its plan of a federation, congress changed 
the title of the supreme-director to that of president, 
and created the office of vice president. Friere became, 
as a matter of course, president; Francisco Anibal Pinto, 
vice president. But this was not for long. Surrounded 
by difficulties and seeing no prospect of better things, 
Freire on the and of May, resigned the presidenc}'. 
His resignation was referred by congress to a com- 
mittee, and on the 4th, the committee reported. As 
the report was considered to be too general, it was sent 
back to the committee and the next day was reported 
more specifically; first, they voted to accept the pres- 
ident's resignation, second, that the vice president 
should act as the executive, third that the president of 
the legislative body should signify to General Freire 
their sentiments of regret. The result was comm.uni- 
cated to the president, with the accompanying request 
that he should continue to act until the authority could 
be regularly committed to the vice president. 

Pinto was next communicated with and notified that 
he should fill the office made vacant by Freire's resig- 


nation. On the 7th, Pinto sent a note to congress, 
resigning as vice president and giving his reasons for 
so doing, the chief reason being that the country was 
destitute of any laws. His resignation was not accepted, 
and the president of the house, Elizande, was sent to 
him with the request that he should appear in the leg- 
islative hall and take the oath of office as president. 
We can not be quite sure whether General Pinto was 
sincere in his resignation, or whether he was merely 
coquetting, as General Freire had once done. 

On the following day. May 8th, General Pinto 
was introduced at the bar of the house. He acceded 
to the request ot congress, took the oath and made a 
short address, in which he pointed out that bad laws 
were the cause of the disorders and asked congress to 
pass better ones forthwith; to which address Elizande 
made a fitting reply. Don Jose Miguel Solar was made 
minister of the interior and foreign relations, (afterward 
Don Carlos Rodriguez succeeded him,) Don Ventura 
Blanco of the treasury, Don Jose Manuel Borgono, of 
war and marine. 

General Pinto was an officer of distinction as well as 
a lawyer. He had served in the war of the revolution 
in South America, not only in Chile but also in the 
Argentine Republic and in Peru. He had served as 
minister under Freire and had traveled extensively in 
Europe. In short, next to Freire, he was the most 
illustrious citizen of the young republic. He held very 
decided views of political and social reforms, and was 
for that reason supported by the liberals, but was ob- 
jectionable to the conservatives. 

The last act of this notable congress was to appoint 
a national committee consisting of eight persons, who 
were authorized to approve or reject all propositions 
which the executive might submit, discharging the 


duties of a council for the government and a provi- 
sional legislative body ad interim. It was also author- 
ized to draw up the plan of a new constitution on the 
basis of such general principles as might be agreed 
upon by the cabildos and provincial assemblies. 

There had been trouble meanwhile with the old ene- 
mies of Chile, the Araucanian Indians. They were 
incited to war by Mariloan, Pincheira, and other old 
royalists, who, when the patriots had come into power, 
had taken refuge with the Indians, maintaining after- 
ward on the frontiers a desultory war of robbery and 

Being now hard-pressed (1828) by the Chilean forces 
under General Borgono and Colonel Beauchef, many 
of these Spanish refugees living with the Indians made 
overtures with the government of Chile for a return. 
Pincheira and many of his followers escaped; the Chi- 
leans recaptured many of the stolen cattle and set free 
about three hundred captives. 

In 1827, Chile had dispatched two war frigates to 
assist Buenos Ayres in her war with Brazil. One of 
these was wrecked off Cape Horn and all on board per- 
ished ; the other put back to Chile, so that the expe- 
dition came to naught. 

Considerable excitement followed an affair in a Val- 
paraiso theatre in the latter part of 1827. A British 
officer struck a Chilean, and soldiers were called in. 
One of them touched the officer with a bayonet, when 
the latter drew his pistol and shot him dead. All the 
British officers were arrested. Sir John Sinclair, the 
British admiral, and Mr. Nugent, consul-general, ap- 
plied to the government for the release of the offi- 
cers. The authorities were slow in giving up the pris- 
oners and the admiral landed his marines. Then the 
British subjects were all released, save the one who 


shot the soldier; he was retained for trial, but was 
released subsequently. Feeling for a time ran high. 

On the 5th of April a decree was promulgated mak- 
ing Valparaiso the capital of the maritime depart- 
ment, and the port at which foreign men-of-war should 
receive and answer salutes. 

Congress was inaugurated August 15th, 1828. It 
assembled first in Santiago but soon retired to Valpa- 
raiso. In time a new constitution was adopted which 
it was hoped would give satisfaction and bring stabil- 
ity to the government. It was a liberal constitution 
and unsatisfactory to the conservative party. 

In July of the following year, 1829, General Pinto 
resigned, but two months afterward resumed his office, 
having been reelected in the general elections, which 
also returned the congress. 

The new assembly passed diverse laws bearing upon 
social and political reforms, but the passions of lead- 
ers and party spirit became more irritated and aggres- 
sive and made it almost impossible to carry on the 
government in the regular way. The pelucones, or con- 
servatives, accused the president and congress of abuses 
and irregularities, and, unwilling to submit to the 
successes of the pipiolas, or liberals, began to conspire 
against them. Pinto divined the gathering storm and 
a month and a half after his reelection, resigned his 
office into the hands of the president of the senate, Don 
Francisco Ramon Vicuna, in the midst of general dis- 
order, November 2nd, 1829, 





There were rapid changes in the government before 
the conservatives came into power in 1830. Six pres- 
idents were elected one after another and one provi- 
sional junta, consisting of three members, was formed. 
General Pinto had been called to the presidency with 
the congratulations of every peace-loving, well-disposed 
person in Chile, and it was hoped that there would be 
an end to party dissensions. Pinto was in favor of 
making Valparaiso a strongly fortified place, of lessen- 
ing the duties, storage and port charges, and doing 
away with transit duty. But turbulent times followed. 
The province of Concepcion undertook to separate itself 
from the general government, disorders prevailed, rob- 
beries were of daily occurrence, blood was shed, and 
foreigners fled to Valparaiso. 

In 1829, General Prieto started a revolt on the Arau- 
canian frontier with the army which was stationed 
tViere under his command. He marched upon the cap- 
ital where the conservatives organized a provisional 
junta to conduct the government, disregarding the au- 
thority of Francisco Vicuna, who had been acting as 
president from the time of Pinto's resignation. Vicuiia 


went to Valparaiso and thence to Coquimbo, where he 
confided to General Lastra the command of the regular 

Lastra and Prieto met at Ochagavia, two leagues 
from the capital, and some indecisive skirmishing took 
place. Then the two generals held a conference and 
agreed to lay down arms and to recognize Freire as 
the head of the government. With this agreement the 
conservatives would not comply, and, after a few days, 
Prieto occupied Santiago with his troops and his party 
proclaimed another junta composed of three of their 
own adherents, December 22nd, 1829. 

This conservative junta invited the provinces to send 
delegates to the capital to form a congress. Having 
assembled they named as provisional president Don 
Francisco Ruiz Tagle. Tagle resigned office after a 
month and a half and his place was filled by Don Tomas 
Ovalle, the vice president, March 31st, 1830. Six days 
after, Ovalle named as his minister, Don Diego Por- 
tales, who had become the leader in the conservative 
reaction. The new government soon began to perse- 
cute the liberals and congress declared the proceedings 
of the former congress null and void. 

The changes of government were so rapid that a 
Chilean paper in January of the year 1830, pictures 
the situation as follows: "We believe that the day is 
not far distant when the inquiry of every morning will 
be 'Who is governor to-day?'" 

While the fighting and plundering continued, busi- 
ness was almost at a standstill and merchants susj 
pended payments. A paper dated in May of 1830, 
stated that the cities of Chile were being plundered by 
contending generals. In the disturbances, the house 
of the French consul was stripped. It was, in fact, a 
time of general Avolt throughout South America. One 


dictator even went so far as to offer a reward of §2,000 
for General Bolivar's head. 

The conservatives having obtained political ascend- 
ency in Chile, the liberals called upon General Freire 
to lead them, for their enemies had broken faith and 
were persecuting them. Civil war followed ; two thou- 
sand men were killed or wounded for party sake. The 
decisive battle of Lircay was fought, April 17th, 1830, 
in which the liberals were led by- Freire, the conserva- 
tives by Prieto. Freire embarked at Valparaiso and 
came to Constitucion, from which place he advanced 
toward Talca. Prieto marched against him. The lib- 
erals, after great losses, were compelled to quit the 
field utterly defeated. In the battle the valiant Col- 
onel Tupper, an Englishman, fell ; Colonel Viel, a 
French officer, escaped, but was captured near Illapel. 
Freire was banished from the country and retired to 
Peru. From that time the conservatives appeared to 
be strongly intrenched in power. Ovalle died on the 
2ist of March, 1831, and General Prieto was named 
by congress as provisional president until the new elec- 

General Prieto was elected to the presidency in the 
early part of 1831, and took his seat September iBth. 
At the same time the energetic Diego Portales was 
elected vice president. 

The civil war brought to a close, the government 
dispatched General Bulnes against the Pincheiras, who 
had been ravaging the districts of Chilian, Maule and 
Colchagua. These desperadoes had enlisted the Pe- 
huenche Indians with them and in the fastnesses of 
the lofty Cordillera felt themselves secure. Bulnes 
penetrated to their camp by Lake Epulauquen, took 
them by surprise and utterly destroyed them. 

Another attempt was soon made to draft a new con- 


stitution, that promulgated in 1828, being found unsat- 
isfactory. This was accomplished May 25th, 1833, after 
two years of animated discussions ; it was a conserva- 
tive constitution, a "Pelucone" document, and gave the 
president extensive powers, the powers of a dictator in 
fact, but still made him a creature of the oligarchy. 
This constitution, as amended at different times and 
particularly in 1874, is the organic law of Chile at the 
present time. It was drawn by Don Mariano Egana, 
a distinguished jurist. The liberals viewed with cha- 
grin the successes of their opponents. 

Three years after the new constitution had been 
adopted, there was another attempt to overthrow the 
conservative government. Ex-president Freire had 
been banished to Peru ; there he watched the course of 
political events in Chile until he believed the time ripe 
for a successful revolution. He then hired two war- 
ships, the "Monteaguado" and "General Orbegoso, " 
manned them with deserters and Chilean refugees, about 
eighty in number, and on the 7th of July, 1836, set sail 
for the island of Chiio6, which he expected to make 
a safe base for future operations and from which he 
could cooperate with the revolutionists on the main- 
land. He intended to have touched at the island of 
Juan Fernandez and have taken with him the Chileans 
banished thither by the Chilean government, but there 
was a mutiny aboard the "Monteaguado" which frus- 
trated his plans. The crew of that ship imprisoned the 
officers and took the vessel into Valparaiso harbor, 
where they turned it over to the Chilean authorities. 

The government at Santiago now took active steps 
to counteract Freire's plans and prevent a revolution. 
Excitement ran high and business was almost entirely 
suspended. An embargo was laid on Valparaiso. The 
harbor to that port was protected by gunboats, troops 


were dispatched south, and the naval forces put into 
requisition and sent in search of Freire, who was sup- 
posed to be making his way to Chilo6. 

These active measures doubtless prevented the revo- 
lution, which was fully expected in Chile at this time. 
Freire was seized after landing at Chilo6 and the re- 
bellion quickly suppressed. In the meantime, busi- 
ness had suffered greatly and many vessels had been 
detained in Chilean ports by the embargo. 

This futile attempt of Freire was the last the old 
veteran made to recover and reestablish liberal ascend- 
ency in Chile. The pelucones were now firmly estab- 
lished in the government. Freire was again banished, 
but eventually returned to Chile, where he lived apart 
from politics and died about the middle of the century. 
It was not forgotten by Chile that Freire had obtained 
his warships and complement of men and stores in 
Peru, when he made this last attempt to overthrow 
the conservative power. It was generally thought that 
Peru had given him secret aid. There were other griev- 
ances as well. Peru and Bolivia had formed a confed- 
eracy under the leadership of General Andres Santa 
Cruz, the president of Bolivia. The confederacy was 
formed of Upper and Lower Peru and Bolivia, each 
with a separate congress and president, but with Santa 
Cruz at the head. This naturally may have caused 
feelings of jealousy on the part of Chile. 

In Peru affairs had been for some time in a turbulent 
condition. The ambitious Santa Cruz of Bolivia had 
long since conceived the idea of uniting Peru and 
Bolivia in a confederacy, with himself as the head. 
Generals Gamarra and Salaverry in Peru were heading 
a revolt against the president, Orbegoso, and were on 
the eve of being successful, when the latter ratified a 
treaty with Santa Cruz, in June 1835, by which the 


Bolivian president agreed to enter Peru with an army 
to restore order, Orbegoso, on his part, promising to 
convoke an assembly to further . Santa Cruz' scheme 
for a confederacy. Santa Cruz threw an army of 5,000 
men into Peru and defeated Ganiarra at Yanacocha 
near Cuzco, August 13th, 1835, and Salaverry in the 
battle of Socabaya near Arequipa, February 6th, 1836. 

Following the battle of Socabaya, the revolutionary 
leaders, Salaverry, Fernandini, Solar, Cardena, Rivos, 
Carrillo, Valdivia, Moya, and Picoaga, were condemned 
and villainously shot in the public square of Arequipa. 
This bloody affair, perpetrated despite the fact that 
General Miller, in receiving the surrender of the revo- 
lutionary chiefs, had guaranteed safety to their persons, 
turned the Salaverry-Gamarra faction of the Peruvians 
still more bitterly against the self-styled protector,Santa 
Cruz ; and, though repressed, the revolutionists bided 
their time. Gamarra had escaped the massacre, with 
such officers as La Fuente, Torrico, San Roman, Eles- 
puru and others and now watched for an opportunity 
to strike an effective blow. Santa Cruz entered Lima 
in October 1836, and proclaimed the confederation of 
North and South Peru and Bolivia. 

The government of Chile, being at this time in the 
hands of the wealthy pelucones, found a pretext for 
war with Peru in the Freire affair, and in the further 
fact that the town of Arica had been made a free port 
by the confederacy, which consideration caused vessels 
to pass the ports of Chile; further it was argued that ad- 
vantages were given to vessels by Peru which had not 
touched at any port in Chile, over those which did call 
at Chilean ports. Portales was the man to take prompt 
action, but his action can hardly be justified. Avail- 
ing himself of the disordered condition of affairs in Peru, 
he dispatched the two war vessels, the "Aquiles" and 


"Colocolo, " to Callao harbor. Garrido commanded 
them, and he was as prompt as Portales: he immedi- 
ately seized the three Peruvian warships lying un- 
manned in the harbor. This bloodless victory and 
capture of a nation's fleet occurred on August 21st, 

1836. On the nth of November following, Chile de- 
clared war, but took no active steps until September 
of the following year. At that time General Blanco 
Encalada sailed from Valparaiso with eight warships, 
twenty transports, and 3,500 troops. 

He landed at Islay and on the 12th of October 
marched to Arequipa. In this desert city he was cooped 
up by Santa Cruz's able commander. General Cerdena, 
who, with an^army of six thousand men, was able to 
cut off Blanco Encalada's supplies. This forced the 
latter to capitulate on the 17th of November. The 
treaty of Paucarpata was signed, the Chileans agreeing 
not to renew the war and to return the Peruvian fleet. 

This treaty was made in good faith and Chile should 
have abided by it. But she did not; she immediately 
began preparations for a renewal of the contest. The 
war, however, was unpopular with the liberals ; a mu- 
tiny broke out, men and oificers allying themselves 
with the liberals and denouncing the war with Peru. 
The mutiny was suppressed, but it resulted in the death 
of Portales, who was shot by the mutineers, June 6th, 

1837. , He was reviewing the army stationed at Quil- 
lota under the command of Colonel Vidaurre. By order 
of their leader the troops seized the minister, declar- 
ing that they rose in rebellion against the conservatives 
because they were opposed to foreign war and were in 
favor of reestablishing a liberal government. The 
revolutionists then marched toward the capital but 
were met and defeated at a place called the Hill of the 
Baron by militia troops commanded by General Blanco 


Encalada. During the progress of the combat an offi- 
cer named Florin, who was guarding Portales, com- 
pelled him to descend from his carriage when he shot 
him. Vidaurre and the other principal leaders of the 
riot were apprehended and shot. 

A second expedition sailed from Valparaiso in July 
destined for Ancon, where it landed, August 6th. Gen- 
erals Bulnes and Santa Cruz commanded the army num- 
bering about six thousand men. This was reinforced by 
disaffected Peruvians, under Gamarra, and then the 
Chileans advanced upon Lima. The Peruvian presi- 
dent, Orbegoso, was defeated at Portada de la Guia. 
General Bulnes was declared general-in-chief of the 
allies and the Peruvian general, Gamarra, director- 
general of the war. Santa Cruz, who had been some- 
what embarrassed by the defection of his ally, Orbe- 
goso, pushed forward toward the capital, while Bulnes 
retreated to Callejon de Huaylas. That the Peruvians 
did not instantly overwhelm the invaders is not strange, 
since there were now three factions of them contend- 
ing for supremacy, the Santa Cruz, Orbegoso and Ga- 
marra adherents, all determined to rule or ruin. 

After considerable manceuvering, the destruction of 
the fleet of the confederacy at Casma by Robert Sirrtp- 
son, one of Lord Cochrane's old officers, and one severe 
skirmish on January 6th, 1838, the armies met at Yun- 
gay, January 20th. Here a sanguinary battle was fought, 
resulting in a complete victory for the allied Chilean 
and Peruvian armies, though they lost seven hundred 
men in killed and wounded. The confederation was 
broken up, and Gamarra, through Chilean influence, 
was made provisional president of Peru. Santa Cruz 
retired from the country and went abroad. 

Prieto and Portales had been successful in the war 
against Peru and Bolivia, they had administered the 


government with marked ability, but their pelucone 
policy was as retrograde and illiberal as could well be 
imagined in a nation professing to be a republic. Still, 
as the conservatives claim for this administration, many 
substantial institutions were built up. A constitution, 
such as it was, they succeeded in establishing. Liter- 
ature was fostered, and Chile at this time became the 
home of several celebrated scholars. Such men as de 
Mora the poet, Bello the writer on international juris- 
prudence, Claudio Gay the naturalist, and Gorbea the 
mathematician, are a glory to the nation. 

Don Jose Joaquin de Mora was a distinguished Span- 
ish poet and litterateur, who visited various American 
countries, writing and teaching. President Pinto gave 
decided assistance and protection to the school de 
Mora established, the Liceo de Mora. In opposition to 
de Mora the pelucones founded the college of Santiago, 
giving it in charge of Don Andres Bello, a Venezuelan 
patriot and an old friend of Bolivar. He came from 
Europe in 1829, and established himself in Chile, becom- 
ing the highest literary authority in Spanish America^ 
For thirty-six years he lived in Chile, occupied with 
jurisprudence, philosophy and literature. Until his 
death he was at the head of the university; he wrote 
several notable works. Though holding public ofifice at 
different times he held aloof from party strife. 

Claudio Gay came from France, having been engaged 
as professor for the college of Santiago. The young 
naturalist undertook many scientific excursions, ob- 
served closely the natural history of Chile, collected 
insects, birds, plants, etc, and inaugurated a movement 
which resulted in the establishment of the public mu- 
seum of natural history. He examined the archives of 
the nation and, returning to Europe, wrote and pub- 


lished at the cost of the state, his important history of 
Chile, " Historia fisica i politica de Chile." 

Don Andres Gorbea, the Spanish mathematician, 
was for thirty years professor of the exact sciences in 
the university of Santiago. He had gone there from 
London with the Chilean minister, Don Mariano Egana. 

It was at the close of President Prieto's administra- 
tion, 1841, that William Wheelwright, an American, 
began to run steamers between Valparaiso and Callao, 
the first in the Pacific. An English company was 
formed which afterward put the two steamers, the 
"Chile" and the "Peru," on the line between Valpa- 
raiso and Callao, and later still ran them to Panama. 
Wheelright also projected the railroad from Caldera 
to Copiapo, which was the first line constructed in 
South America, and undertook other important works 
that have made his name celebrated in both Chile and 
Argentina. The Chileans have honored his memory 
with a fine statue in Valparaiso. 

After the expatriation of the bishop, Rodriguez, the 
apostolic vicar, Don Manuel Vicufia, governed for a 
time the diocese of Santiago. He was humane and 
charitable. The distinguished patriot priest, Jos6 Ig- 
nacio Cienfuegos, was made bishop of Concepcion. At 
the close of Prieto's administration an archbishopric 
was established in Santiago and bishops appointed for 
La Serena and Ancud; this was done by special decrees 
of Pope Gregory XVI. Vicuna was made first arch- 
bishop in 1841, but died after two years. The dean, 
Don Jos6 Alejo Ej'zaguirre, succeeded Vicuna and held 
the office one year when he resigned. Don Rafael Val- 
entine Valdivieso, a lawyer, was, in 1848, consecrated 
as archbishop and held the office for the long term of 
thirty years. The bishoprics of La Serena and Ancud 
were not long maintained. 


In the last year of Prieto's administration Chile had 
become an attractive market for European wares. Dur- 
ing the month of January, 1840, alone, seventy foreign 
vessels entered Valparaiso with goods. Prices in con- 
sequence declined. American flour, sugar, domestics, 
English goods of all kinds, declined in price to nearly 
home cost. The market was soon overstocked, a ben- 
efit to the Chilean consumers, though a matter of much 
complaint among the foreign merchants and tradesmen. 

The president's message to congress on July 26th, 
1840, gave the revenues of Chile for the closing j'ear 
at ^2,289,108, expenditures Ji, 700,000. This was a 
good showing for the finances, and ^200,000 was remit- 
ted to London to pay interest on foreign bonds. New 
customhouses were erected at Valparaiso during the 
year at a cost of Jioo,ooo, 




General Manuel Bulnes was naturally the hero of 
Chile after having defeated Santa Cruz at Yungay. 
Chile adores her military heroes and cherishes their 
memories with national pride. Bulnes had fought at 
Maypo, at Ochagavia, at Lircay, and also against Bena- 
vides and the Pincheiras. General Prieto, the hero of 
Lircay, had been sufficiently honored by two terms in 
the presidency, he was now succeeded by General Bul- 
nes, who was a pelucone and a military hero of the old 
school, like his predecessor. He was a man of good 
judgment and made up in natural qualifications what 
he lacked in high birth and education. 

The new president was inducted into his high office 
in September, 1841, and immediately honored his asso- 
ciate in the late war, General Cruz, with the war port- 
folio. He formed his cabinet by naming leaders of 
different factions and parties for the different depart- 
ments; Don Manuel Montt was made minister of pub- 
lic instruction and justice, Don Manuel Renjifo, of 
foreign affairs. 

With such men at the head of the government mil- 
itarism and peluconism were paramount, although Bul- 
nes began his administration by declaring a general 


amnesty toward political offenders and inviting exiles 
to return. The policy of the administration was pelu- 
cone so far as liberal and republican sentiments were 
concerned. Although the government was at first con- 
ciliatory it soon began persecutions and became as ret- 
rograde and oppressive as under Prieto. 

Prieto had encouraged literature of a kind bearing 
the aristocratic stamp and Bulnes continued the policy. 
The new universit}' at Santiago was inaugurated by 
Minister Montt in 1843. Don Andres Bello, the author 
of a well known work on the law of nations, was in- 
stalled as first rector. The members of this state 
institution were authorized to prepare a national his- 
tory; Bello was intrusted with the task of writing a 
civil code, a work of which Chile stood much in need. 
Schools were also established for teaching the differ- 
ent branches, such as agriculture, navigation, art and 

Literary periodicals appeared at this time and pro- 
moted a new zeal for literary and educational affairs; 
religious matters came to be discussed with much 
warmth, for there were outspoken sceptics who were 
not backward in expressing their ideas; considerable 
attention was given to art, particularly after the arrival 
of the celebrated French painter, Monvoisin ; a new 
impetus was given to theatrical matters by the intro- 
duction of lyric operas. Argentine exiles, escaping 
from the tyrann}' of Rosas, contributed with their pens 
to the literary awakening. One of these, Don Domingo 
Faustino Sarmiento, became in time the principal of 
the normal school, which was established in Santiago 
for the purpose of preparing competent teachers for 
educational work. 

The school of arts, when established, was given in 
charge of a Frenchman, Jariez. The Neapolitan painter, 


Cicarelli, was also invited to come to Chile at the 
time the academy of music was founded. Extensive 
buildings were erected for educational purposes, a naval 
school was started, a school of agriculture founded, 
and a department of education created in the govern- 
ment. A Frenchman, Pissis, was given in charge the 
work of preparing a topographical chart of Chile and 
making a geological survey. These commendable 
efforts were chiefly due to the zeal of Manuel Montt. 

It was at this time that German colonists were first 
induced to settle in Valdivia. 

The discovery of gold in California opened a' market 
for Chilean wheat and flour and gave a new impetus 
to commerce and agriculture. Wheat began to be grown 
extensively for the Californian and Australian markets 
and brought exorbitantly high prices. The mines of 
Copiapo began to yield their inexhaustible wealth, the 
Chaiiarcillo mine having been discovered some years 
before by Juan Godoi. Prosperity brought a large in- 
crease in the public revenues and the future of Chile 
seemed bright. But California and Australia began to 
grow wheat, and the prices of minerals steadily de- 
clined. Seven or eight years later a financial panic 
ensued which brought Chile to the verge of bankruptcy. 

A colony was established in 1843, on the Straits of 
Magellan, for the purpose of occupying the bleak and 
uninhabited countries of the south and promoting the 
interests of navigation. This colony, Punta Arenas, 
was some years later, 1851, the scene of Cambiaso's re- 
bellion — a fierce fellow, an officer of the garrison, who 
perpetrated most horrible cruelties for which he paid 
the penalty on the gallows in Ancud. 

The foreign debt was consolidated and found to be 
something over eight millions of dollars. Interest had 
not been promptly met; this was now capitalized, and 


afterward paid promptly for several years. At this time 
the internal debt was about four millions of dollars. 

General Bulnes' administration was firm during his 
first term, and gave stability to Chilean institutions. 
It is barren of military incidents for the reason that 
the country enjoyed peace, and now began, after the 
first formative dissensions during the time the young 
republic was learning self-government, to become pros- 
perous under a constitution and more stable laws. 
People began to turn their thoughts to other matters 
than war. 

In 1846, General Bulnes was elected president for a 
second term and again sought to carry out his plan of 
conciliation. His minister. Vial, gave some assurances 
to the liberals, who had been outspoken in their oppo- 
sition. These reform tendencies alarmed the pelucones. 
Josd Joaquin Perez, Antonio Garcia Reyes and Man- 
uel Antonio Tocornal, were taken into the cabinet. 
They were moderate conservatives. But they were 
soon obliged to give up their places to conservatives 
more conservative. The liberals had a majority in the 
congress of 1849, and an agitated session was the result. 
The government influence, however, and the want of 
discipline and harmony in the ranks of the opposition 
soon caused the liberal majority to disappear. But the 
conservatives were well aware of their own waning in- 
fluence with the people, and to hold power again re- 
sorted to violent repressions and prepared to elect as 
Bulnes' successor a president who would make no com- 
promises. That man was Manuel Montt, and he was 
ably seconded in his presidential candidacy by Don 
Antonio Varas of the ministry. To oppose the combi- 
nation favoring the interests of Montt, the liberals 
formed a society in Santiago called La Igualdad (The 
Equality), the leading spirit of which was Don Fran- 


Cisco Bilbao. One night while the society was hold- 
ing a meeting a party of administration sympathizers 
entered the room and dispersed the members. 

In 1851, Don Manuel Montt, Bulnes' able minister, 
of justice and public instruction, was elected president, 
but not without strong opposition. The liberals, en- 
raged at the treatment they had received, determined 
to make a strong fight to regain ascendency and nomi- 
nated as their candidate General Jos6 Maria de la Cruz, 
who had fought with General Bulnes at Yungay and 
had been his late minister of war. The efforts which 
the contending parties made to win in the forthcoming 
elections led to a revolt and armed conflicts, nearly 
amounting, in fact, to a revolution. The first clash 
came in April, the liberal forces being commanded by 
Colonel Urriola. There was a severe conflict with the 
government forces at Santiago during Holy Week, in 
which Colonel Urriola lost his life and between two 
and three hundred were killed and as many more 
wounded before the insurrection was put down, April 

In September the revolution broke out afresh, first 
in Coquimbo. afterward in Concepcion, headed by Gen- 
eral Jos6 Maria de la Cruz in person, the defeated 
liberal candidate. There were several unimportant 
combats, in which the revolutionists were usually vic- 
torious. But government money was freely used and 
intrigues were rife. Extraordinary powers were given 
to the president and General Bulnes was assigned the 
command of the government forces. The commerce 
and industries of the country were paralyzed and suf- 
fered untold injuries in these wars of the factions. For 
more than two months the struggle continued, then 
came the decisive battle of Loncomilla on December 
8th, 1851. It was a hard fought, bloody struggle. 


Cruz was defeated, and afterward, in a conference with 
Bulnes, he and his troops laid down their arms. The 
revolution was crushed, but in this factional strife 
more than four thousand men yielded up their lives. 
This formidable revolt shows well the strength and 
energy of the liberals at this time, and the government 
wisely granted a general amnesty to the defeated in- 

Under President Montt the country made considera- 
ble material advancement. In May, 1851, a new tariff 
had been adopted by which differential duties on goods 
were abolished. This measure gave great satisfaction 
to one class of the people, the consumers, if it did not 
tend to improve the revenues. The new civil code 
which Bello was to prepare was soon given to Chile; 
tribunals of commerce were organized; a discount and 
deposit bank was established at Valparaiso ; later, Jan- 
uary ist, 1856, a bank was founded to loan money on 
real estate. A law was passed, with the assent of the 
church, to convert church tithes into a tax; a law was 
also passed to reorganize municipal institutions. Money 
was now for the first time coined on the decimal plan, the 
Spanish S5'stem being discarded. A bill was introduced 
in 1854, to readmit the Jesuits, and Capuchines were 
invited to establish missions among the Araucanians. 
Treaties of commerce were concluded with France, 
with Sardinia, and with the United States, Great 
Britain and the Argentine Republic. Public libraries 
were established and schools multiplied. The tele- 
graph was introduced. A railway between Valparaiso 
and Santiago was projected, the government subscrib- 
ing $2,000,000 for the purpose; gas was introduced 
into the cities, the extensive coal mines of Lota and 
Coronel were opened, Puerto Montt was founded, and 
other colonies of Germans were induced to settle in 


the southern provinces. A political alliance, for mu- 
tual protection against attacks from abroad, was formed 
with Peru and Ecuador in 1856, Costa Rica soon after 
joining it. 

President Montt was elected to a second term in 
1856; the elections for congress in 1858 were also carried 
by the government, though opposed by both the con- 
servative and liberal parties. But Manuel Montt, with 
his favorite minister Varas, who was to him what Por- 
tales had been to Prieto, governed Chile with pitiless 
severity. All attempts to introduce more progressive 
political institutions than such as tended to improve 
Chile for aristocrats, were summarily suppressed, while 
many leading liberals were driven from the country. 
Montt and Varas were the apostles of government by 
the classes, and they openly defied congress when con- 
gress was not in harmony with them. They formed'a 
new party in Chilean politics, the Montt-Varistas, be- 
lieving in aristocratic government, though allied at 
times with both the conservatives and the liberals. 

Against this iron government insurrections at last 
broke out in several places. The government's meas- 
ures of repression, made more odious by a law which 
placed the cities largely under the political control of 
the government, gave great dissatisfaction. 

For a time the clergy and the president had acted 
in harmon}', but a question arose which in the end ar- 
rayed the church against him. The expulsion of a sac- 
ristan from the cathedral gave rise to a dispute which 
caused two leading prelates, suspended by ecclesias- 
tical autliority, to have recourse to the supreme court. 
The court gave a decision which the archbishop dis- 
credited and with which he would not comply. This 
was the venerable Valdivieso. The government was 
enraged and would have banished the archbishop, per- 


haps, but the latter left for Europe of his own accord. 
This caused a rupture between the clergy and the gov- 
ernment and the former was joined by the pelucones, 
dissatisfied now with the president they had elected. 

There were many citizens imprisoned or banished 
for political offenses, which the opposition now sought 
to have returned to civil rights. Some of the pelucones 
joined with the liberals and passed a general am- 
nesty law through congress, in spite of the protests 
of the government. This still farther separated the 
pelucones from the government. A new ministry was 
formed with Salvador, San Fuentes, and other leading 
liberals, as members, and for a time the agitation 
subsided. But at the end of three months the new 
ministers resigned and the opposition became pro- 

The subsequent elections which soon followed (1858),- 
increased the political ferment. For a time liberals 
and conservatives laid aside their ancient differences 
and united in opposition to the government. The pres- 
ident determined upon more stringent and repressive 
measures ; newspapers were suppressed, meetings dis- 
persed and leaders apprehended. The liberals insisted 
upon a revision of the constitution, making it more 
democratic in some of its provisions. A meeting was 
called in the capital, having for its object the forma- 
tion of a club to agitate the question of constitutional 
revision. The government prohibited the meeting and 
apprehended those who assembled in pursuance of the 
call, December 12th. A state of siege was declared and 
repressive measures were more strenuously enforced. 
The result was a revolution, fomented by the liberals 
and abetted by many of the old pelucones. Copiapo, 
Talca, Talcahuano, San Felipe and Putaendo joined the 
revolutionists. The government had the army and the 


resources of the nation with which to combat the op- 
position. Talca was taken, also San Felipe, which was 
sacked by the government's troops. The revolution in 
the south was soon suppressed. 

For four months, during the year 1859, the civil war 
raged in the north with fury. Five thousand men fell, 
victims to party strife. Pedro Leon Gallo, a young, 
rich and popular leader, commanded the liberal forces. 
He occupied Copiapo, where he raised an army of one 
thousand men and defeated the government forces under 
Colonel Silva Chavez in the battle of Los Loros, March 
14th, 1859. Then he entered and occupied Coquimbo 
and La Serena. By these successes he gained consid- 
erable popularity for the revolutionary cause. Another 
attempt was soon made by the opposition to organize 
in the south. One thousand men attacked Chilian, 
but were repulsed. This crushed the rebellion in the 
south and enabled the government to dispatch addi- 
tional troops to the north. 

In the following month, April 29th, another battle 
was fought, that of Cerro Grande, at La Serena. Gen- 
eral Juan Vidaurre commanded the government troops, 
an army of four thousand men ; Gallo led the liberals, 
numbering not over two thousand. Gallo was defeated 
and his troops routed and dispersed. The leader, with 
seven hundred of his men, crossed the Cordillera to 
San Juan ; Le Serena and Copiapo were then occupied 
without resistance. 

In September there was an outbreak at Valparaiso, 
but this, after considerable bloodshed, was suppressed ; 
the intendente, General Vidaurre, the hero of Cerro 
Grande, was killed in the riot September i8th. Then 
followed a general banishment of leading liberals, such 
as Gallo, 'N'icufia Mackenna, Santa Maria and many 
Others. Some retired to Peru ; others went to Europe 


and there patiently awaited the time when there should 
be a change of the government before they could hope 
to return in safety to their native soil. A law, called 
the law of civil responsibility, was passed after much 
opposition, and by its terms citizens taking part in riots 
and revolutions must answer with their persons and 
their property for damage caused. So long, therefore, 
as Montt was at the head of the government, political 
refugees dared not show their faces in Chile. 

Congress passed the new civil code drawn by Bello, 
which had long been under consideration, toward the 
close of Montt's administration; also commercial and 
penal laws, and rules for court proceedings. Educa- 
tional matters still continued to occupy the attention 
of the government, public works were completed and 
new undertakings essaj'ed. A companj', in coopera- 
tion with the government, pushed forward a railroad 
toward the south as far as Rancagua. To complete 
the railroad between Valparaiso and Santiago, the gov- 
ernment obtained a loan in Europe of $7,000,000. The 
revolution retarded the work so that the line was not 
completed until 1863. 

Varas had some time before resigned from the min- 
istry, but it was well known that his counsels still pre- 
vailed with the administration. The names of Montt 
and Varas go down to posterity together, both eulo- 
gized and condemned. Naturally the party of the ad- 
ministration wished Montt's successor to be the able 
ex-minister. But it was forseen that his canvass would 
meet with stubborn resistance and might result in de- 
feat, or even in a new revolution. Varas, therefore, re- 
fused to be the official candidate and Jos6 Joaquin 
Perez was selected in his place. Having lived some 
years apart from politics, Perez would arouse few an- 
tagonisms and for that reason was at this time an avail- 
able candidate. 





Don ]os6 Joaquin Perez succeeded Montt as presi- 
dent. He was a diplomatic statesman who had studied 
politics in Europe and was not committed to strong 
views. The civil rebellion which had been but recently 
put down at the cost of so much blood, had quelled, 
but had by no means annihilated, the liberal party. 
Perez found it strong enough, clamorous for political 
and constitutional reforms and opposed to the iron 
rule of Manuel Montt and his party of nationals, who 
were only a little less conservative than the pelucones. 
There were also the advanced liberals — the radicals, or 
"reds, " as they were called — under the leadership of 
Gallo and the Matta brothers. Perez entrusted power 
to a coalition of the moderate liberals and conserva- 
tives, aiming by this to effect a fusion of those ele- 
ments. This soon led to an alliance between the Montt- 
Varistas and the "reds." 

The new president had been almost unanimously 
elected, receiving two hundred and fourteen out of two 
hundred and sixteen of the electoral votes.* Two votes 

*The electoral college in Spanish-American countries is usually dominated by 
the president and party in power. The electors are chosen by the people by bal- 



were absent, but would, it is said, have been cast for 
him had they been present. The electors had been 
chosen on June 5th ; on July 25th, they met and bal- 
loted, and on August the 30th, the assembled chambers 
opened the returns and made formal announcement of 
the result. On September i8th, 1861, the president- 
elect took his seat. 

Senor Perez belonged to one of the first families of 
Chile, and began his political career in 1829, as secre- 
tary of legation in France. He had been sent as a 
special envoy to Buenos Ayres to effect an alliance with 
Rosas when Chile was at war with Bolivia, and had 
since that time been in the state council, minister of 
finance, of the interior, of foreign affairs, president of 
the chamber of deputies and of the senate. Preceding 
his election to the presidency, he had been some time 
out of active politics. His political training had well 
qualified him for the difficult position in which he was 
now placed. 

He formed his cabinet partly of conservatives, partly 
of moderate liberals. He had barely been installed in 
office when he proposed to the chambers a general law 
of amnesty toward the late liberal leaders, which was 
adopted unanimously on October 8th, 1861. 

This conciliatory policy, however, met with the usual 
result of all such attempts; the statesman who tries to 
conciliate is generally regarded with distrust, if indeed, 
he does not come to be cordially hated by all factions. 

lot, but the fact that there are property and educational qualifications reduces the 
number of voters in comparison with the population, so that elections are more 
easily controlled. Thus it happens that the governmen t can usually carry any elec- 
tion, and the opposition, unless strong, makes but a slight showing, or none at all. 
Unless the party out of power feels confident of being able to develop consider- 
able strength it refrains from voting and the electors are chosen almost unani- 
mously by the party in power. It is this which so frequently causes revolutions 
in Spanish-American states. A party in power can rarely be defeated in any other 
manner. New laws have been passed from time to time intended to remedy the 
defect, but so long as the voting population continues to be limited, so long will 
aspiring leaders precipitate revolutions, for the ballot can at no time be said to 
represent the will of the people. 


The president's policy was now attacked by all parties, 
but the most savagely by the nationals, or Montt- 
Varistas, and this led in June to a change in his cabinet. 
The new cabinet, appointed on June 20th, 1862, was 
also composed of liberals and conservatives. Manuel 
Tocornal was made minister of the interior and of 
foreign affairs, Victorino Lastarria, of finance, Miguel 
Guemes, of justice, Marcas Maturano, of the war and 
navy departments. Two years later Tocornal and Las- 
tarria were succeeded by Alvaro Covarrubias and Ale- 
jandro Reyes. 

One of the first acts of President Perez' adminis- 
tration was an attempt to open negotiations with the 
Araucanians, for the purpose of bringing the Indians 
of the southern provinces into closer relations with the 
government. The governor of Nacimiento was charged 
with this undertaking. The Indians, however, stub- 
bornly refused to negotiate. Their head toqui, Guen- 
tecol, wrote President Perez a haughty letter, and the 
chiefs of the nation refused to meet commissioners in 
a council 

A singular turn was now given to the affair. Living 
among the Indians was a Frenchman, M. de Tounens, 
who induced them to believe him capable of defending 
them against the Chileans. They elected him head 
toqui, or king, with the title of Aurelie Antoine I. and 
framed a constitution. 

King Aurelie caused considerable amusement in Chile 
for a time, but his majesty soon gave the government 
so much uneasiness that it was found expedient to de- 
vise means to rid the country of him. A plan was ar- 
ranged in 1862, and the king was seized by disguised 
Chilean policemen, who mounted him upon a horse and 
compelled him to go with them, though his loyal sub- 


jects were in hot pursuit. His majesty was afterward 
confined in prison. 

Congress assembled in June, and the president's mes- 
sage noted reforms, and made numerous promises. 
Some difficulty was experienced over the ownership of 
some guano fields lately discovered off the coast of Me- 
jillones. By the law of 1842, the government claimed 
the discoveries as public property. Subsequently it 
granted licenses to load vessels under certain restric- 
tions, which tended to allay public dissatisfaction. 

At the beginning of the year 1863, a claim was pre- 
sented by the British representive for ^50,000 damages 
on account of the loss of an arm by a young man named 
Whitehead, who had had some difficulty with a sentry 
during the late revolution. The attempt to enforce the 
claim excited the greatest indignation, and the British 
merchants of Valparaiso met to the number of four 
hundred, and denounced it as most unjust. Then the 
English government consented to modify the claim. 

At the latter end of the year 1863, December 8th, a 
sad calamity occurred in a Jesuit church at the capital, 
which for a time caused great excitement. There was 
an evening service, and the huge cathedral, crowded 
with over three thousand persons, was brilliantly lighted 
and covered from floor to ceiling with ornamental de- 
signs of gauze, canvas and pasteboard. The decora- 
tions caught fire and the whole interior was instantly 
in a blaze, the flames enwrapping the people, who were 
unable to escape, as there was but one door and it 
was soon blocked up. In a few minutes two thousand 
people had perished, though on the outside every effort 
was made to rescue them. 

This terrible calamity caused the government to issue 
an order that the church should be razed to the earth, 
and a legislative act was passed to the effect that no 


illumination should be henceforth permitted. It also 
led to the formation of an effective fire brigade. 

In the year 1863, President Perez opened the rail- 
way between Valparaiso and the capital, a road which 
had cost ^12,000,000. A railway was also put in oper- 
ation at Coquimbo, and a telegraph to Panama was 
projected. Montt had let the contract for the comple- 
tion of the Santiago- Valparaiso line to Henry Meiggs, 
an American, and he had finished the work in two years. 

The Chilean legislature took an active interest in 
the dispute between Spain and Peru, and there was 
considerable discussion at this time of the advisability 
of aiding Peru. Congress went so far as to prohibit 
Spanish war vessels from coaling in Chilean ports, and 
in view of the possibility of trouble with Spain, in- 
creased the estimates for the ensuing year by $2,000,000, 
the greater part of which was intended for the navy. 

The government adopted active measures to aid col- 
onization and appointed a commission, which met on 
the 25th of December, and formulated plans for induc- 
ing foreign immigration. A German colony at Puer- 
to Montt had become so flourishing that they now had 
a town of over 15,000 population; beside this a num- 
ber of other settlements of foreigners had sprung up 
in the south. 

About this time, March 7th, 1864, the engineer, Du- 
rois made his famous report in favor of the practica- 
bility of constructing a railway over the Andes by way 
of the Uspallata pass. He estimated that it could be 
built in four years and at a cost of $8,000,000. The 
Uspallata pass is thirteen thousand feet above the sea, 
yet this railroad has been built over it. 

In the month of July, 1865, an exciting debate was 
begun in the Chilean congress respecting the amend- 
ment of the fifth article of the constitution, which read 


as follows : "The religion of the republic of Chile is 
the Roman Catholic, to the exclusion of the public 
exercise of any other. " The debates terminated in a 
manner highly gratifying to the liberal party, notwith- 
standing the full strength of the clerical party was 
marshalled in opposition. The law as amended, permits 
worship by other denominations within buildings be- 
longing to private persons or organizations, and further 
permits dissenters to establish and sustain private 
schools for the instruction of their children in the doc- 
trines of their faith. As a matter of fact, the liberal 
elements of Chile have made the republic as religiously, 
socially and politically free as any republican living 
there could wish ; and this evolution has been accom- 
plished though at every step opposed by most bitter 

The Peruvian government had become involved in a 
serious difficulty with Spain in the spring of 1864. The 
Spanish government had sent an envoy, Seiior Eusebio 
Mazarredo, to Peru to arrange certain diplomatic ques- 
tions arising out of the killing of two persons and the 
wounding of four others at Talambo, in a difficulty be- 
tween Peruvians and some Basque colonists who had 
a short time before arrived from Spain. The matter 
was under adjudication in the Peruvian courts, which 
are proverbially slow, when this interference was made. 
Senor Mazarredo insisted upon being recognized as 
"royal commissary," a peculiar title not very satisfac- 
torily explained, and the Peruvian government would 
treat with him only as "confidential agent." This en- 
raged Mazarredo, and forthwith he seized upon the 
Chincha guano islands, April- 14th, 1864, claimed 
S3, 000, 000 indemnification, and took other high-handed 
measures, in conjunction with Admiral Pinzon of the 
Spanish fleet, to insult the government and retaliate 


upon the Peruvians, whose independence he declared 
had never been recognized, although Spain had tardily 
signed a treaty of recognition with Peru in 1853. 

The active sympathy which Chile manifested for 
Peru in this difficulty with Spain, the Spanish Admiral 
Pereja afterward declared to be a breach of interna- 
tional comity. Considerable diplomatic discussion had 
taken place and in May an arrangement of the matter 
had been reached with San Salvador de Tavira, Span- 
ish Charge d' Affaires in Chile, who deemed an explan- 
atory note which the Chilean government transmitted 
to him as a sufficient amende honorable. The home gov- 
ernment, however, recalled its representative on July 
25th, 1865, and disapproved of his conduct. In Sep- 
tember Admiral Pereja, who had succeeded Pinzon in 
the command of the Spanish fleet, sailed into Valpa- 
raiso harbor (September 17th, 1865), and notified the 
government of the non-approval of Tavira's settlement 
of the affair, and demanded immediate reparation, 
threatening to begin hostilities in case of a refusal. He 
formulated his complaints, which were to the effect that 
Chile had not made reparation, or sufficient apology, 
for certain insulting cries and threats uttered against 
Spain in front of the house occupied by the Spanish 
legation, that the publication of the paper called the 
"San Martin" had been allowed, and that it had con- 
stantly filled its columns with abuse of Spain, and 
further, that the Peruvian war steamer "Lerzundi" was 
allowed to coal and enlist men in Valparaiso, while 
coal was refused Spanish vessels. 

Satisfactory explanations were demanded within four 
days for each of the grievances above enumerated and 
a salute of twenty-one guns by the Chilean forts to the 
Spanish flag. Otherwise, the admiral declared that he 
would feel himself bound to use force and to obtain 


indemnification. The minister of foreign affairs replied 
at length to this as he had previously done to Senor 
Tavira, disclaiming that the riot before the Spanish 
legation was an insult to the Spanish flag, declar- 
ing that the paper "San Martin" had been publicly re- 
buked by the president, and that with respect to the 
coaling of the Peruvian vessels, the decree had been 
issued at a time when no state of open hostilities was 
supposed to exist between Spain and Peru, while, on 
the other hand, such a state did certainly exist when 
the Spanish vessels were refused the privilege, so that 
coal was then contraband. The minister closed by 
peremptorily refusing the proposal for the humiliating 
salute of the Spanish flag. 

Pereja then issued a second ultimatum, September 
22nd, declaring that unless his demands were complied 
with all diplomatic relations would be severed by the 
24th, and that he would afterward seek indemnification 
with the force at his command. To this Chile replied 
that she would hold Spain responsible for all damage 
sustained by her if such a course were pursued. Efforts 
were made by the foreign diplomatic corps in Santiago 
to dissuade Pereja from the course he was about to take, 
but without avail, as his intentions evidently were to 
provoke a quarrel. Then the Chilean congress pre- 
pared for war. A war loan of $20,000,000 was author- 
ized, and powers granted the president for raising 
troops and obtaining war vessels. Agents were dis- 
patched to the United States and to Europe to pro- 
cure munitions of war. 

Admiral Pereja's fleet consisted of seven vessels in 
the ports of Chile, carrying altogether one hundred 
and sixty-seven guns, and one, the ironclad frigate 
"Numancia, " of forty guns at Callao. With these he 
undertook to blockade some forty ports, but yielding 


subsequently to the remonstrances of the diplomatic 
corps against the legality of the blockade the admiral 
soon confined it to six. He failed even to enforce a 
blockade against six ports and reduced the number to 
four, viz : Caldera, Coquimbo, Valparaiso and Talca- 

On November 26th, the Chilean war steamer, "Es- 
meralda," captured the Spanish gunboat "Covadonga" 
off Papudo after an engagement of thirty minutes, in 
which two Spaniards were killed and fourteen wounded. 
About one hundred and sixteen prisoners were taken, 
including six or seven officers. Don Juan Williams Ro- 
bolledo,the commander of the "Esmeralda," was reward- 
ed for his bravery by promotion. A Spanish launch 
mounting one gun, was also captured about this time by 
the "Independencia, " a Chilean tug steamer m'ounting 
two guns. These two boats, the "Esmeralda" and "Inde- 
pendencia," constituted at this time Chile's entire fleet. 

These disasters so discouraged Admiral Pereja that 
he committed suicide, November 28th, and was suc- 
ceeded by Commodore Mendez Nunez, of the "Numau- 
cia. " Nunez immediately raised the blockade of all 
the ports, except those of Valparaiso, and Caldera; 
against these he attempted to make it effective. 

A few days after this on December 5th, Senor Santa 
Maria, who had been sent to Peru to conclude an offen- 
sive and defensive treaty with that nation against Spain, 
accomplished the result and the treaty was formally 
ratified by the Chilean congress on January 14th, 1866. 
President Pezet of Peru had been temporizing with the 
Spaniards; he was now supplanted by Prado in the 
presidency, and the latter formally declared war be- 
tween Peru and Spain. Sometime after Ecuador and 
Bolivia entered the alliance. 

The Spaniards had thus far accomplished little in 


their offensive operations along the Chilean coast, ex- 
cept the capture of eight or ten merchant prizes. So 
soon as the treaty between Chile and Peru had been 
signed the fleets of the two republics united near the 
island of Chilo6, where they sought a place of safety, 
not being able to cope with their powerful adversaries. 

Near the north end of the island in the harbor of 
San Carlos, an engagement took place, February 7th, 
between six of the small vessels of the allied squadron, 
assisted by the shore batteries, and two vessels of the 
Spanish fleet, the "Villa de Madrid" and "Blanca."' 
After two hours of long-range cannonading, the latter 
vessels withdrew to Valparaiso. No great damage was 
sustained by either side. 

Considerable diplomatic effort was made in March 
to bring about peace, the American minister, Kilpat- 
rick,and Commodore Rodgersof the United States navj', 
usingtheir best efforts toward that end. Chile demanded 
an unconditional abandonment of the war ; Admiral Nu- 
nez insisted upon certain requirements, to the effect that 
Chile should disclaim any intention to insult Spain, 
that she should give up the "Covadonga" in exchange 
for the twelve prizes captured by the Spaniards, and 
that there should be reciprocal salutes. Chile refused, 
and Nunez proceeded to carry out a threat he had pre- 
viously made to bombard Valparaiso, in case the Chi- 
leans did not accede to his terms. 

Valparaiso was defenseless and the foreign residents 
and ministers protested earnestly against the barbar- 
ous measure, but Nunez carried his threat into execu- 
tion, perhaps by direction of his government. On the 
31st of March, 1866, he bombarded the city for three 
and one-half hours, sparing nothing within range of 
his guns. Over ten millions of dollars worth of pro- 
perty was destro5'ed, nine millions of which belonged 


to foreigners. A manifesto was prepared by all the 
consuls resident in Valparaiso and transmitted to their 
respective home governments; in this the bombardment 
was severely denounced. 

The blockade of Valparaiso was raised on the 14th 
of April, and the Spanish fleet sailed north to begin 
the blockade of Callao. On the 2nd of May an action 
took place between the fleet and the Callao batteries 
which resulted in the repulse of the attack. The Span- 
ish fleet retired to the island of San Lorenzo just out- 
side the harbor. Nufiez was wounded in the engage- 
ment and afterward died of his wound. Galvez, the 
Peruvian minister of war, was killed in a magazine 
explosion, during the attack. Soon after the war was 
abandoned and the Spanish fleet withdrew, but it was 
a long time before the matter was settled on a peace 

The Chilean government now issued a decree order- 
ing all Spanish residents in the republic to quit the 
country or take out naturalization papers ; this resulted 
in a large number of Spaniards becoming citizens. 
Those who were not willing to submit to the decree 
retired to Buenos Ayres. 

The presidential election of this year was not marked 
by any unusual circumstance, and resulted in the re- 
election of President Perez by a majority of two-thirds 
of the electors. The radicals of the liberal party and 
the nationals, or Montt-Varistas, sought to create an 
effective opposition by charging that the president and 
his war minister, Fredrico Errazuriz, had not brought 
the war with Spain to a satisfactory conclusion, for the 
matter was in abeyance a long time afterward ; that 
ships which had been purchased in the United States 
for the war had been sold to merchants at a great sac- 
rifice when actual hostilities had ceased'; that the for- 


tifications constructed in Valparaiso had largely in- 
creased the war debt, which amounted to over $20,000,- 
000. These were the arguments, and they Were vigor- 
ously combated by the coalition of conservatives and 
moderate liberals which supported the government, 
and with so much effect that the candidate of the na- 
tionals, the old hero Bulnes, was easily defeated. 

In January, the United States minister, General Kil- 
patrick, sought to bring about peace by prevailing upon 
Chile to submit her controversy with Spain to the me- 
diation of the United States. Chile would consent 
only under certain conditions and the matter was 
soon abandoned. Spain, she maintained, had acted in 
a manner wholly imjustifiable in occupying the Chin- 
cha islands on the 14th of April, 1864, and in blockad- 
ing the ports of Chile on the 25th of September, 1865; 
Chile would not, therefore, renounce the reparation 
which she claimed Spain should make her. Hostilities 
were not resumed, and so far as Chile was concerned, 
the war only existed on paper from that time. Urged 
at last in i86g, by Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador, Chile 
consented to submit the whole matter according to a 
plan previously suggested by the United States, namel}', 
that plenipotentiaries from all the belligerent nations 
should meet in Washington U. S. A. and compromise 
their differences, the president of the United States 
acting as mediator. So the war, which was begun with- 
out reason, ended with no satisfactory results to any 
of the nations engaged in it. A treaty of armistice 
and of indefinite truce was signed in Washington on 
April nth, 1871, that being as near as they could come 
to an agreement. The final treaty of peace between 
Spain and Peru was not signed until 1879. On the 
14th of August of that year an agreement was reached 
at Paris. In the thirteen years in which the matter 


had been kept in abeyance it had died a natural death, 
and there was in the end merely an abandonment of 
the whole controversy. 

During the years 1866, 1867 and 1868, the govern- 
ment of Chile made strenuous efforts to occupy and 
colonize the country in the south. Settlements were 
established, and steadily increased during those years. 
Lands were granted free to colonists, and foreign im- 
migrants locating upon them were made citizens of 
Chile without other or further steps at naturalization. 
A contract was entered into with Godeffroy and Son 
in Germany to send out emigrants of good character, 
such as were approved by the Chilean consul at Ham- 
burg, who upon their arrival were to be assigned lands 
in Arauco. The colonists were to be furnished free 
passage, the government agreeing to pay forty dollars 
for the transportation of each adult and twenty dollars 
for each child under twelve. The contract was to con- 
tinue for a period of four years, the government agree- 
ing to pay for the passage of one hundred families the 
first year, one hundred and fifty the second, two hun- 
dred the third and three hundred the fourth, with the 
privilege given to Godeffroy and Son to increase the 
number twenty-five per cent, if they should choose to 
do so. 

The Chilean government had at some time prior to 
this contracted for two corvettes in England, the "Cba- 
cabuco" and "O'Higgins. " Pending the settlement of 
the dispute with Spain these vessels were held. Early 
in the year 1868, arrangements were made by the Chil- 
ean representative in London for the departure of these 
warships, consent being given by him for England to 
turn over to Spain two ironclads, which had been in 
like manner constructed for the Spanish government 


and detained by the English pending the termination 
of the war in the Pacific. 

During the year 1868, the Araucanian Indians caused 
considerable trouble in the southern provinces. In an 
attack, April 25th, upon a small outpost of Chilean 
troops, the latter were repulsed after several hours of 
hard fighting and compelled to retreat, leaving twenty- 
five of their number dead and wounded upon the field, 
among whom were several officers. 

It was feared that the frontier settlements would 
suffer from incursions, and to protect them a body of 
1,400 troops, with a park of artillery, was dispatched 
south under the command of Colonel San Martin. 
During the following year, the government troops acted 
upon the defensive. Despite their vigilance, the Indi- 
ans made several successful inroads ; about two thou- 
sand of them crossed the river Malleco and robbed, 
murdered and plundered the surrounding villages. 
Their object appeared to have been to steal cattle, and 
in this they were quite successful. But the Chilean 
troops retaliated ; a party of eight hundred of them 
penetrated the Indian territories and drove off a great 
number of their cattle and sheep. 

The severe southern winter set in and the troops were 
compelled to remain inactive. The Indians took ad- 
vantage of this and again began hostilities among the 
settlements. But in the latter part of the year,some 
of the chiefs were induced to visit Santiago, where 
they were received with marked attentions and made 
to understand the power with which thev were hope- 
lessly contending. They were urged to preserve peace, 
and given to understand, by the present of a huge orna- 
mented warclub, what they might expect if thev con- 
tinued their depredations. The Indians were impressed 
with the futility of contending longer against such 


vastly superior numbers and resources, and promised 
peace. Congress, however, knowing these Indians of 
old, took the precaution to vote ^25,000 to fortify forts 
among the stubborn savages. A year had barely passed 
before the Indians were again on the warpath, and con- 
gress voted ^5,000,000 and two thousand men to put 
an end to the guerrilla warfare. In October, 1870, the 
Indians were defeated and clamored for peace. A line 
of forts was built on the Malleco river to protect the 
new cities of the south, which now began to grow into 

Congress, during the year 1868, was occupied princi- 
pally with the question of electoral reform, and in an 
attempt to impeach the supreme court, of which ex- 
President Montt was the president. The charges were 
for high crimes and misdemeanors in the administra- 
tion of justice. San Fuentes presented the matter by 
motion to the chamber of deputies in August, and it 
was decided by a vote of forty-two to sixteen to begin 
impeachment proceedings. The trial created the great- 
est excitement, the moderate liberals, in the main, sym- 
pathizing with the court. It was not until the follow- 
ing year that the long pending question was settled 
and the court exonerated, the accusations being de- 
clared unfounded. 

Among the reformatory measures passed by this 
congress was the amendment of the constitution pro- 
hibiting a president from being reelected ; the law of 
civil responsibility for political treasons was repealed ; 
imprisonment for debt was abolished. 

In the matter of electoral reforms the liberals con- 
tended earnestly for an extension of the franchise to 
all voters who could read and write. In his message 
at the opening of the congress in June, President Perez 
expressed his approval of the measures which had been 


proposed and recommended them to the consideration 
of the chambers. The measures were opposed by the 
clericals and conservatives and the discussions pro- 
longed into the following year, when the radical-liberal 
press made strenuous efforts to bring about the reforms ; 
but it was decided by a majority in congress that only 
those who possessed a certain amount of property, or 
practiced some profession, in addition to being able to 
read and write, should vote. Numerous meetings were 
held by the progressionists, who had formed many re- 
form clubs in Santiago and other cities, and a pro- 
gramme setting forth their views was adopted. In sub- 
stance this was : "That individual liberty should be se- 
curely guaranteed, that local governments should be 
invested with that complete independence necessary for 
the thorough exercise of their prerogatives, that the 
different branches of government should be independent 
of each other, that all persons should be equal before 
the law and that all special privileges should be abol- 
ished." Pledges were made to use every effort to ac- 
complish something toward a realization of these re- 
sults in the forthcoming elections of 1870. 

As will be seen, the main object of the struggle was 
to bring about a liberal reaction and to reduce the 
enormous public patronage in the hands of the presi- 
dent. It was a movement away from the oligarchy 
and toward democracy, and meant, in the event of the 
adoption of these progressive principles, the extension 
of the franchise to 200,000 voters, where it was only 
exercised before by 30,000. These popular movements 
induced the government, which had been upheld by a 
coalition of conservatives and moderate liberals, to re- 
cede from its too conservative policy and to place 
some of the leading radical liberals in the offices of pre- 
fects and governors of provinces, hoping thereby to 


avert the gathering storm. Because of this timely con- 
sideration, the government was in the main successful 
in the April elections of the following year, 1870. A 
vastly superior class of men took seats as deputies, 
thirty of whom were of the opposition. 

On the 13th of May, 1868, the first steamer sailed 
from Valparaiso bound for Europe by way of the Straits, 
on the line which the government had subsidized with 
$60,000 a year and the promise of an increase subse- 
quently to ^100,000 a year. This line put Chile in di- 
rect communication with Europe. 

In 1856, a treaty had been entered into with the Ar- 
gentine Republic, doing away with all duties on the 
overland trade between the republics. This Chile now 
abolished, in accordance with a notice she had pre- 
viously given the Argentine government in 1867. The 
Chilean press generally censured this abolition of the 
treaty, as prejudicial to the commercial interests of 
both republics. 

In May, i86g, an agricultural exhibition was held in 
Santiago, at which all the South American states had 
exhibits. This exhibition did much to introduce labor- 
saving machinery and blooded stock into Chile, and 
stimulated new ideas in agricultural methods. The fair 
was in every way a success, and gives as much of an 
indication of the progressive and enterprising spirit of 
the Chileans at this time, as the active railroad build- 
ing which went on through all the latter years of Pres- 
ident Perez' administration. 

During the first term of Perez' administration, the 
southern railroads had been pushed as far as San Fer- 
nando. Afterward this line was carried farther to Curi- 
co. A line was begun between Chilian and Talcahuano 
and another from San Felipe to Llai-Llai. A telegraph 
line was also completed to the frontier. 


During this period the new university building in 
Santiago was completed ; also the new customhouses 
in Valparaiso. In the latter city the construction of a 
mole was begun in the harbor and other improvements 

Much was done at this time to promote education 
of a more primary nature than had been undertaken 
before. Lyceums were established in all the capitals 
of the provinces, and in them certain studies were made 
obligatory, such as the different branches of the sci- 
ences. There was soon almost a revolution in the 
methods and studies of both the public and private 



The year 1871, was signalized by a very active pres- 
idential election. The more radical wing of the liberal 
party, so long out of power and unsuccessful in all its 
attempts at regaining the ascendency lost with Freire, 
made a determined effort at the polls. This party had 
been active in the last year of Perez' administration, 
so much so that the president had felt compelled to 
make several important concessions ; legislative reforms, 
too, had been fostered until the clericals and conser- 
vatives were now thoroughly aroused. The struggle 
was of unusual significance, as the liberal party com- 
prised much of the wealth and intelligence of Chile, 
and boldly announced in its platform several reforms, 
notably the determination to curb the power of the 
clergy, secure freedom of religious worship and ere long 
a separation of church and state, a struggle which has 
at different times agitated all the South American na- 
tions. They named as their candidate Don Jos6 To- 
mis Urmeneta ; the conservatives put up Don Fred- 
erico Errazuriz. 

The enormous patronage in the hands of the govern- 
ment enabled the conservatives and moderate liberals 
to elect their candidate, for the government employed 
all the means at its disposal in Senor Errdzuriz' inter- 


est, and to this the liberals unhesitatingly attributed 
his success. The elections passed off quietly in San- 
tiago and Valparaiso, but the same could not be said 
of the outside towns. 

President Errazuriz when elected was in the prime 
of life, and had had a long and varied experience in 
public affairs. He had, in fact, served as the head of 
nearly every cabinet office ; he had been minister of 
foreign affairs, of the interior, of justice and of war, 
and member of both branches of the legislative body. 
He was in every way qualified for the chief executive 

He formed a ministry of conservatives and moderate 
liberals, but the same aggressiveness on the part of 
the liberals which had caused Perez to recede somewhat 
from his first policy, soon began to embarrass Erra- 
zuriz. The question of the abolition of ecclesiastical 
tribunals and the trying of the clergy by the civil and 
the criminal laws of the country, soon came to the front 
and like Banquo's ghost would not down. Again the 
government thinking to gain liberal support, decreed 
that space should be reserved in the Catholic ceme- 
teries — or rather public cemeteries — for the interment 
of dissenters, who should be permitted burial accord- 
ing to the rites of their respective denominations. This 
measure was loudly denounced in certain quarters, as 
being unconstitutional in that it deprived the church 
of a part of her property and gave it to her declared 
enemies, an argument which it would seem ought to 
have had considerable force. 

The new criminal code so bitterly opposed by the 
clericals, did not finally pass congress before the end 
of the year 1873. It provided that the clergy should 
be amenable to the civil authorities, and further, that 
all sects might worship in churches erected by private 


enterprise. The clerical party sent in a remonstrance 
signed by the archbishop of Santiago, Don Rafael Val- 
entine Valdivieso, and two of his bishops, and consider- 
able discord followed. The clericals had attempted to 
override the law in Brazil, they now in Chile thundered 
archiepiscopal excommunications at those voting for 
the amendments, as well as at the magistrates who 
should undertake to enforce the new lavvf. 

The congress of 1872, passed other reformatory meas- 
ures than those connected with the church question. A 
bill for legalizing civil marriage was introduced, but 
conservative opposition prevented it from becoming 
at this time a law ; a law urging further efforts to in- 
duce foreign immigration was passed and a bill to 
abolish flogging for crimes introduced. Bills were also 
introduced for a new assessment of landed property, 
for the abolition of the tobacco monopoly, and for a 
repeal of the duty levied on foreign coal. 

For the purpose of promoting the education of the 
people, the government took an active interest in es- 
tablishing circulating libraries in a number of the towns. 
It had at first acted with the conservatives in these 
matters and opposed all the reforms tending to lower 
the level of educational requirements. But this caused 
such opposition by the liberals that the president 
receded from his first position. It was an era of dis- 
cussions, of zeal for education and for reforms, of the 
beginning of democracy in its true sense. These ques- 
tions tended, however, to separate the parties more and 
more. The president in this even went so far as to 
declare that the teaching of the Roman Catholic relig- 
ion in the colleges was not obligatory with the sons of 

The various reformatory and ecclesiastical questions 
which were discussed at the time separated the moder- 


ate liberals from the conservatives and the coalition 
between them, which had existed since the j'ear 1858, 
came to an end. The president sought to conciliate 
the conservatives, but, failing in this, soon found him- 
self acting with the liberals. The clergy, aroused by 
the ecclesiastical questions now formed a separate party 
called the ultramontane, or Roman party, as in Europe, 
because of their staunch adherence to the interests of 
the Papal See. 

One important reform of the electoral laws was at- 
tempted. Up to this time the municipalities were in- 
struments of the president in the matter of the elec- 
tions. He had the appointment of the officers and they 
had the naming of the qualified voters for the lists. 
One vote was sufficient to carry the election and elect, 
in effect, all the municipal officers and the deputies 
and senators of the department or province. The new 
law sought, contained provisions giving to the minority 
a fair proportional representation, also declaring that 
the municipal offices should be filled by the party 
casting the most votes in the municipality. The meas- 
ure proposed counted a majority in congress, but the 
president opposed it. In the end a compromise was 
proposed by the president which was accepted by the 
radicals. This was, that majorities should elect the 
deputies ; majorities should have two-thirds, minorities 
one-third, of the municipal offices ; the election of sen- 
ators and presidential electors should be in accordance 
with the old law. The law was approved in this form 
and put into operation in the year following. The ac- 
cepting of this compromise by the radicals brought 
them again into union with the liberals. 

This was a time of beginnings of great national im- 
provements. The projection of the transandine line 
which should connect Santiago and Buenos Ayres, was 


a notable feature in the year 1872. Important conces- 
sions were made by congress in other matters than rail- 
roads. In 1871, the exclusive privilege was granted 
for introducing a new method of illumination by means 
of purified naptha. In the following year congress con- 
ceded to Senor Ramirez, discoverer of guano at Magel- 
lan's Straits, the right to remove three thousand tons of 
it within a year, from the islands of Santa Magdalena 
and Quarto Maiter, he paying §8,000 for the privilege. 
This discovery of the valuable fertilizer at the Straits 
revived an old question, that of the true boundary be- 
tween Chile and the Argentine Republic, first broached 
in 1843, when Chile had established a colony in the 
south. The Argentine press took up the discussion 
and clamored for that government to examine the basis 
of Chile's claim more thoroughly than had been done 
and to take prompt and active steps in the matter. 

This long pending dispute with the Argentine Re- 
public over the boundary of Patagonia, was continued 
through the years 1872, 1873, 1874, and 1875. The 
question had continued to be for a long time a cause 
of much irritation between the republics. In 1856 a 
treaty had been entered into by the terms of which it 
was agreed that the two countries should recognize the 
limits as they existed at the time of their separation 
from Spain in 1810. The Chileans claimed to Cape 
Horn on the south, and to the Andes on the east. In 
1873, the Argentine government, urged thereto by the 
press, commissioned Dr. Quevada, director of the na- 
tional library, to proceed to Spain and unearth such 
ancient documents as had any bearing upon the ques- 
tion. His researches were published in eight volumes, 
and it appeared that he made out a case in favor of 
Argentina, so far at least as the boundaries during the 
colonial period were concerned. During the year 1875, 


the Argentine legislature established a line of sailing 
vessels between Buenos Ayres and the coasts of Pata- 
gonia, which were to touch at the settlements on the 
Chubet river and those south of the river Santa Cruz, 
and granted ten square leagues of territory to the com- 

The Chilean niinister objected, and claimed that his 
government would not consent that the disputed terri- 
tory south of the Santa Cruz should be invaded. This 
called forth an elaborate presentation of the matter in 
the reply made by the Argentine minister of foreign 
affairs, and the dispute seemed to be as far as ever 
from an amicable settlement. 

As a matter of fact, the Argentines had tacitly 
acquiesced in Chile's claims for so many 3-ears that 
some of their own papers now even admitted that they 
had forfeited whatever original rights they may have 
had. bj' their silence and previous unconcern. The 
matter was not finally arranged until October 23rd, 1881. 

At the same time, the question of the disputed 
boundary between Chile and Bolivia was revived by 
the discovery of the rich Caracoles mines, in 1870, and 
to this the president referred in his opening address 
to congress in 1872. The question was for a long time 
pending in a ver}' troublesome way. In February, 1873, 
Peru and Bolivia entered into a secret treaty, guaran- 
teeing to- each other mutual protection and the integ- 
rity of their respective territories. The treaty was, in 
effect, an alliance against Chile. It was intended to 
be a secret treaty, but the Chileans soon learned of it, 
and immediately began to take measures to protect their 
interests in the north. A treaty with Bolivia had been 
adopted in 1866, which we shall hereafter notice more 
particularly. In November, 1872, Senor Frias, an 
Argentine, was appointed as a sort of umpire in the 


dispute, but no satisfactory arrangement was reached 
until 1874. In the beginning of that year Don Carlos 
Walker Martinez began to press the matter upon the 
Bolivians and by August 6th, had arranged through 
Senor Frias a new treaty, by the terms of which Chile 
withdrew her claims to half of the port duties to which 
she was entitled under the treaty of 1866, and, waiving 
her claim to the extreme northern boundary — title to 
whichshehad rather ambiguously maintained — obtained 
in lieu thereof, for the industries which she had estab- 
lished upon the disputed territory, freedom from duties 
for a term of twenty-five years. The questions, how- 
ever, were by no means satisfactorily settled. 

On March 25th, 1871, there had occurred an earth- 
quake which destroyed considerable propertj' in San- 
tiago and Valparaiso ; another in July of the year 1873, 
caused some loss of life and property in the same cities. 

By the year 1874, the coal fields in the south had 
become quite important; this was fortunate, as Chile 
had long felt the want of this very necessary article. 
Importations of foreign coal declined during the year 
twenty-five per cent, while exportations of the same 
increased fifty per cent over 1873. 

In the latter part of this year, November 2nd, 1874, 
the president was authorized by congress to contract a 
loan of $9,500,000, of which $4,500,000 should be ap- 
plied to the liquidation of the seven per cent loan ob- 
tained in London in 1867, and $5,000,000 should be 
used to convert high interest bearing bonds, which con- 
gress had previously authorized, into a foreign debt. 
Chile's credit ranked high, and the scheme was both 
to obtain loans at lower rates of interest and to con- 
vert the home debt into a foreign loan so as to bring 
gold and silver into circulation, there being at this 
time an overissue of paper. 


At the close of President Errazuriz' administration 
the population of Chile was 2,068,447. In 1865, it was 
1,819,223, an increase of 249,228 in ten years. There 
were at this time, 1875, 26,528 foreigners resident in 
the country. Railway building had gone on actively 
and there were now six hundred and nineteen miles in 
operation, three hundred and ninety-three miles of 
which belonged to the state, with one hundred and 
ninety-three miles more in process of construction. 
Curico, Talca, Chilian, Angol and Talcahuano, were 
now united with the capital by rail. There were 1,650 
miles of telegraph, and on February 3rd, 1875, the first 
dispatches direct from Liverpool and London were re- 
ceived at Valparaiso by way of Buenos Ayres. These 
figures give a general idea of the material advancement 
of the country and indicate how thoroughly alive were 
the people to modern enterprises. 

The continued agitation of matters religious, the 
passing of the new penal code by which the clergy were 
made amenable to the civil courts, electoral, educational 
and other questions, had separated President Errazuriz 
and the moderate liberals from the clericals and con- 
servatives. The building of railroads and active push- 
ing forward of public works had created recurring de- 
ficits in the annual budgets, and the affairs of state 
were in a very unsatisfactory condition at the close of 
the administration. The condition of the revenues, 
it may be said, was in part due to commercial stagna- 
tion ; a financial crisis was feared, and in truth was at 

President Errizuriz was an able and conscientious 
executive, but he was placed in the trying position of 
undertaking to deal with the old and the new, of try- 
ing to reconcile and harmonize interests which could 
not be harmonized. 




President Errazuriz had brought disaster into the 
ranks of the conservatives,* in much the same manner 
as Perez had, with the conservatives, initiated a reac- 
tion against the oppression of the Montt-Varistas. Don 
Frederico Errazuriz had mounted the presidential chair 
upon the backs of the conservatives, yet he soon came 
to be more liberal in sentiment than conservative, and 
sought to curry favor with all parties, with both liber- 
als and Montt-Varistas, who had previously united 
sufficiently to urge together one or two advanced laws 
and political reforms. The favorite leader of the lib- 
erals in the approaching election was Don Benja- 
min Vicuna Mackenna, who was especially popular in 
the southern provinces. He was nominated, and his 
address at the time was a stirring keynote for the cam- 
paign. He favored religious freedom in the fullest 
sense; amenability of the ecclesiastical functionaries 
to the law; reform of the national guard ; civil marriage 
complete in law ; the rapid development of Arauco by 
means of railroads and colonization; the opening up 
of the province of Valdivia; railways over the Andes; 
the establishment of a college of agriculture; local ad- 
ministration with greater autonomy ; increase of com- 
mon schools ; abolition of monopolies held by the gov- 

* "Acordo romper con ErrSzuriz que se estraviaba." — C. Walker Martinez. 



ernment, such as the tobacco estanco, and other radical 

The moderate liberals were not in favor of Mackenna 
and a split in the party seemed imminent. To avoid 
this, liberals and radicals called a convention of nota- 
bles and sought to harmonize their diverse interests 
and opinions and agree upon a candidate. When the 
convention met it was found that sentiment was pretty 
equally divided between Don Anibal Pinto and Don 
Miguel Luis Amunategui, while Mackenna and his 
friends refused to recognize the convention and sought 
to turn popular opinion against the convention and its 
attempt. This caused the first effort in naming a can- 
didate in convention to be a failure. But another was 
soon made; about one thousand leading citizens as- 
sembled at Santiago and a vote being cast, Pinto 
received the majority and was recognized as the candi- 
date without further opposition. In politics he was 
a liberal ; he had been intendente of Concepcion and 
minister of war and marine under Errazuriz. 

Pinto was favored by Errazuriz, and his election was, 
therefore, assured. As this was a foregone conclusion, 
as soon as the government had indicated its choice, 
the elections passed off quietly, the opposition simply 
refraining from voting. The undercurrent of liberalism 
and reform had set in, and no sooner had the discus- 
sions of the religious questions relating to the ceme- 
teries begun than the radical liberals joined Pinto, 
even those who had been before pledged to the support 
of Mackenna, finding the new president in full sym- 
pathy with them. 

President-elect Pinto was inaugurated September 
i8th, 1876, and immediately selected the following 
cabinet : Interior, Don Jos6 V. Lastarria ; foreign af- 
fairs, Don Jos6 Alfonso ; finance, Don Rafael Sotomayor ; 


justice, public worship and public instruction, Don 
Miguel Luis Amunitegui j war and navy, Don Belisa- 
rio Prat. The cabinet officers were several times 
changed during the next five years; in 1878, Prat was 
in the interior ; Alfonso, foreign affairs ; Santa Maria, 
(a most pronounced liberal), justice; Cornelio Saave- 
dra war and navy ; finance, vacant. Santa Maria was 
about the only one who remained in the cabinet through- 
out the administration. 

The later ministry favored, more than the first cab- 
inet had, the early settlement of the dispute with the 
Argentine Republic over the Patagonian boundary, 
which question had created considerable popular ex- 
citement about this time. Don Barros Araiia had been 
sent to Buenos Ayres as envoy and had entered into an 
agreement with the Argentines to submit the dispute 
to arbitration upon the question as to whether the-dis- 
puted territory belonged to Buenos Ayres or to Chile, 
at the time independence from Spain was declared in 
1810. This was not satisfactory to the Chileans, as 
they based their claim more upon the long acquiescence 
of the Argentines in their claim, subsequent to that 
date, than they did upon the question of actual pos- 
session in the colonial period. The minister of for- 
eign affairs at Santiago declared the act of Senor Araiia 
to be unauthorized, and congress passed a vote of cen- 
sure upon the plenipotentiary. Subsequently it was 
agreed between the two republics that the question 
should be submitted to arbitration, and this to be con- 
ducted in accordance with the treaty of 1856, both gov- 
ernments in the meantime to prevent armed conflict 
and refrain from sending war vessels to the coasts or 
rivers of the disputed territories. 

The troublesome question was not finally settled 
until the 23rd day of October, 1881, when a treaty was 


signed between the republics, by the terms of which 
the watershed of the Cordillera was fixed as the bound- 
ary on the east of Chile, and that on the south at a line 
nearly coincident with the 52nd parallel. More, par- 
ticularly, the southern boundary was fixed at a line 
extending from Point Dungenness along the land to 
Mt. Dinero, thence west to the point of intersection of 
the seventieth meridian and the fifty-second parallel 
of south latitude ; thence westward along that parallel 
to the dividing line of the watershed of the Andes. 
The regions lying north of said line were to belong to 
the Argentine Republic, those south to Chile. The 
island of Tierra del Fuego was divided, as well as the 
outlying islands. The Straits of Magellan were made 
neutral forever, navigation of the same being declared 
free to all nations with no forts ever to be erected there. 
The revenue questions, which had given President 
Errazuriz so much trouble during the last year of his 
administration, were still of paramount interest. In 

1876, the receipts had more than met expenditures; in 

1877, there was a deficit of over two millions of dollars. 
For a few years trade had been against Chile, owing 
to failures of wheat crops and heavy depreciations in 
copper. At this juncture the government authorized 
the banks to suspend specie payments until August 
31st, 1879, and guaranteed their emission of paper 
money to the amount of $15,600,000, which was de- 
clared to be redeemable in coin on August 31, 1879. 

It was estimated that there were not to exceed $5,000,- 
000 of bullion and coin in the countr}', and knowledge 
of this fact caused a depression and a feeling of inse- 
curity in commercial and financial circles, notwith- 
standing the fact that the government was cutting down 
expenses in every direction. 

The cutting down of custom duties was a serious 


matter for the government, as the revenues were de- 
rived almost wholly from that source and from the 
tobacco monopoly; income and real estate taxation 
had long been vehemently opposed by the landed pro- 

The country scarcely had had time to recover from 
the effects of the issue of paper money of 1878, before 
the government found it necessary to resort to a further 
emission of ^6,000,000. This was in the spring of 
1879, and was made necessary on account of the ex- 
traordinary expenses incurred in the beginning of the 
war with Bolivia and Peru. Negotiations were again 
opened with the banks, but they were afraid of this 
second issue and refused to undertake it, whereupon the 
government determined upon issuing the full amount 
itself. This was well received by the patriotic Chile- 
ans, wlio were prepared to make great sacrifices to 
carry on the war. The government arranged with -the 
foreign creditors to suspend payments to the sinking 
fund, and paid maturing interest upon the loans prompt- 
ly. This preserved the national credit, and satisfied 
the bondholders. 

The failure of crops and decline in the price of cop- 
per in 1877, had caused a decrease of about $15,000,000 
in the value of exports. In this grave emergency, the 
capitalists in Santiago and Valparaiso petitioned con- 
gress to levy an income tax. The revenues, despite 
the war, soon began to improve. In 1880, the receipts 
(ordinary) were $27,693,087, the expenditures (ordi- 
nary) $24,777,360, so that there was a surplus of 
nearly three millions where before there had been a 
deficit of a million. These items do not include war 
expenses, which at this time amounted to about two 
millions a month. In his message in June, 1881, Pres- 
ident Pinto estimated the total receipts for the year at 


;?43,992,584, and approximated the total expenses (ordi- 
nary and extraordinary) at ^43,123,829. The guano 
beds and Tarapaca nitrate fields had yielded enormous 
profits to the government and from these sources the 
credit of the republic had been maintained at home 
and abroad. In the preceding August, 1880, the senate 
had authorized a further paper money emission of 
(j;i2, 000,000 for the year, and this, like the preceding 
issues, was well received by the people. The unpopular 
-tobacco esianco, a relic of Spanish t)'ranny, had been 
annulled, and thus this profitable but unjust source of 
revenue was cut off. But the Atacama desert more than 
counterbalanced this. From 1843 to 1875, $89,131,706 
worth of silver had been mined there. Of minerals of 
all kinds including nitrates, there had been in the 
thirty-two 3'ears the enormous sum of §240, 000,000 
taken from that arid province. Verily it was a desert 
worth fighting for; it was yielding $10,000,000 a year. 

At the close of 1875, there were 595 miles of rail- 
road in operation in Chile and 2,559 miles of telegraph ; 
in 1876, there were 940 miles of railroad and 2,650 of tel- 
egraph ; in 1877, 1,265 miles of railroad, and 4,800 of 
telegraph. In 1876, the national debt was ^10,929,600 
home, $40,689,000 foreign, being a total of $51,618,600. 
Of this the government had put $35,000,000 into rail- 
roads, which were owned and controlled by the state. 
At this time from five thousand to six thousand ves- 
sels entered and cleared Chilean ports annually, and 
the exports and imports averaged from thirty-seven to 
forty millions of dollars each, with imports somewhat 
in excess of exports. 

With the exception of the Argentine Republic, Chile 
was at this time making larger appropriations for school 
purposes than any other of the Spanish-American re- 
publics. In 1875, expenditures for this purpose amount- 


ed to $2,035,412, and this represents about the sum 
Chile now began to spend annually upon schools. In 
the same year there were two hundred and ninety-eight 
university degrees conferred; there were 1,359 primary 
schools, eight hundred and eighteen public and five 
hundred and forty-one private, with an average atten- 
dance of 65,875 pupils. In 1877, Pinto's active minis- 
ter of public instruction, Amunategui, addressed a cir- 
cular letter to the professors of the Normal schools 
recommending the establishment of evening schools for 
adults; also, that such classes be established in the 
provincial lyceums. This was a very popular measure 
and received hearty support. Within the year there 
were established forty-seven night schools, supported 
by the government, with an average attendance of four 
thousand adults, eager to learn the primary branches. 
The disputes in respect to church questions contin- 
ued through President Pinto's administration with una- 
bated zeal and acrimony. In 1877, a conflict arose 
over the appointment of a successor to the archbishop 
of Santiago, Don Rafael Valentine Valdivieso, who 
died June gth, 1878. A majority of the clergy, the 
ultramontane sect-ion, opposed Don Francisco de Paulo 
Taforo as successor in the See, he being the govern- 
ment's choice. The government was determined that 
church dignitaries should thereafter be named by the 
civil authorities, if the state continued to pay the ec- 
clesiastical officials of Santiago. Hence the conflict. 
The government supported Seiior Taforo; the ultra- 
montane clergy did not. The matter was agitated for 
several years ; an apostolic delegate, Senor Celestino 
del Frate, Bishop of Himeria, was sent out from Rome 
to report upon the trouble and was expelled hy Santa 
Maria. Feeling ran high, but in the end reformatory 
measures were carried and the government won the 


battle, January, 1883. In all the South American re- 
publics, and in Mexico as well, questions similar to 
this have been brought up by the advanced parties and 
settled along lines of progress. 

There were also at this time renewed discussions of 
the civil marriage law, particularly as to the hardships 
which protestants under the existing laws encountered 
in marrying the beautiful Chilean ladies. As the law 
stood, a protestant wishing to marry a catholic woman 
in Chile, was obliged to execute a bond under oath, 
stating that the sons as well as the daughters born in 
wedlock should be educated in the catholic religion ; 
also, that he would abstain from any attempt to pre- 
judice the catholic belief of the sons and daughters; 
that in selecting masters or schools for his children, 
if his wife, or (in the event of her death), if the parish 
priest should decide that the measures he might wish 
to adopt would endanger the catholic faith of his chil- 
dren while they were under twenty-five years of age, 
he would desist from such measures. He was also 
obliged to bind himself not to name at his death a 
tutor or guardian for his said sons and daughters who 
was not a catholic. The lady on her part was required 
to give two hundred dollars to the hospital for fallen 
women, as though she were counted as one with them 
and scarcely less in disgrace. She must also promise 
under oath to educate the children in the catholic 
faith, and to convert, if possible, her heretical consort. 
It seems incredible that there should have been a 
strong party in Chile opposed to reforms in such mat- 
ters as these. 

The trouble with the Araucanian Indians was not set- 
tled by Pinto. In 1877, an uprising had been feared 
and troops were again sent to the frontier. Brigands, 


also, infested the interior, and caused considerable 
trouble before they could be suppressed. 

Before proceeding to the elections of 1881, which re- 
sulted in the choice of Santa Maria as President Pinto's 
successor, and brought about the triumph of the lib- 
eral party, it will be interesting for us to turn our at- 
tention to the Tarapaca desert and the Peruvian capi- 
tal, where Chilean arms were at this time achieving 
glory and conquering new provinces. 



Man}' of the cases reported in the law books have 
to do with the boundaries between estates, so likewise 
most of the wars of history have to do with the terri- 
torial boundaries between tribes and nations. Maps, 
as well as politics, have been made on battlefields. To 
make a map Chile, Peru and Bolivia exhausted their 
resources in a devastating war, and that, too, the map 
of a desert. 

Still, it was an important and rich desert. Sooner 
or later the question was bound to arise ; sooner or 
later supremacy must be fought for and established 
among the Pacific coast republics. Pizarro and Alma- 
gro had once fought over this boundary; then it was 
the riches of Cuzco which was the direct cause of the 
strife ; now it was the riches of what was then a forbid- 
ding desert which led to war. With the exception 
of some silver mines near Iquique there was a three 
hundred miles strip of territory long considered worth- 
less, hence the boundary in which three states were 
mutually interested was never very definitely fixed. 

True, when the South American republics started upon 



their career of independence, the boundaries were fixed 
according to the respective limits of provinces as they 
existed in 1810. But those were by no means definite. 
A boundary was established between Chile and Peru 
in 1628, in which the northern limits of Chile were 
fixed at El Paposo in 25" 2' south latitude. In 1776, 
when Buenos Ayres was formed into an independent 
viceroyalty, Bolivia, then Charcos, was included in it, 
with the boundaries as defined by an old law. This 
declared the Chilean boundary to be at El Paposo, the 
first inhabited place to the southward of the desert, 
and at this point the old maps of Chile fixed her north- 
ern boundary. But the limit, established in 1628, can 
hardly be said to have been very definite. 

Chile early claimed the twenty-third parallel and 
Bolivia conceded the twenty-fourth, on August loth, 
i866, the republics then being allied in a war against 
Spain. In the treaty it was further stipulated that Chile 
should receive one-half the customs between the twenty- 
third and twenty-fourth parallels, as Chilean citizens 
were largely interested in that region; also, that Chi- 
lean citizens should be allowed to mine and export the 
products of this district without tax or hindrance from 
Bolivia. In return, Bolivia was to have the same 
rights in the territory claimed bj' Chile between the 
twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth parallels. To enable 
Chile to obtain her share of the customs, she was al- 
lowed to have a representative in the custom-house at 

In 1870, Bolivia made a further concession; in con- 
sideration of a sura of ^10,000 she granted the right to 
a company to work the nitrate deposits north of 24° 
south, construct a mole at Antofagasta and build a road 
to Caracoles, where rich silver mines had been discov- 
ered. The company was English and Chilean, employ- 



ing principally Chilean labor. In short, it was Chi- 
lean and foreign capital and energy combined which 
developed the wealth of the nitrate regions. The Bo- 
livian Indians and half-breeds contented themselves 
with selling water and vegetables about the oficinas. 
Bolivia may have been cheated in her arrangements 
with Chile, but it was not until after she had discov- 
ered that Chileans could produce wealth from her des- 
erts that she thought of rescinding her treaty contracts. 
In 1873, February 6th, Bolivia and Peru entered into 
a secret agreement, the object of which was declared 
to be the mutual guarantee of the independence, sov- 
ereignty and territorial integrity of the two countries, 
and mutual defence against exterior aggression. The 
exterior aggression was anticipated from Chile. 

On August 6th, 1874, another treaty was signed with 
Bolivia, by which Chile agreed to withdraw her claim 
to half the duties in Bolivian ports on condition that 
all Chilean industries established on Bolivian territory 
should be free from duty for twenty-five years. There 
was also a further waiver on the part of Chile of her 
claims to the territory between the twenty-third and 
twenty-fourth parallels. The Bolivian congress on Feb- 
ruary 14th, 1878, almost four years after the treaty had 
been made, concluded that it would ratify the treaty 
on condition that a tax of ten cents per quintal (hun- 
dred-pound weight) on all nitrates should be paid. 
Being remonstrated with for a breach of the treat}', 
Bolivia refused to remit the tax and declared that ni- 
trates in the hands of exporters would be seized if the 
levy were not paid. 

Chile then sent her fleet to protect the property of 
her citizens. The ports of Antofagasta, Cobija and 
Tocapilla were blockaded. 

On the 24th of January, 1879, the Chilean govern- 


ment ordered the occupation of Antofagasta, and on the 
14th of February, Colonel Sotomayor with a body of 
men, estimated at from two to five hundred, took pos- 
session of the port. On the i6th of February, Soto- 
mayor was sent to protect the mining interests at Cara- 
coles. Then the Bolivian president, General Hilarion 
Daza, declared war, March ist, expelled some Chilean 
residents from the country and confiscated their pro- 

On the 23rd of the month, a skirmish occurred at 
the village of Calama on the banks of the river Loa, 
between Sotomayor's force, amounting now to six hun- 
dred men, and aparty of one hundred and thirty-five 
Bolivians commanded by Dr. Ladislao Cabrera. The 
latter had posted his men on the road at a point com- 
manding, from an advantageous position on the heights, 
the ford which Sotomayor must pass. For three hours 
the little party of Bolivians fought their superior foes, 
but at length gave way and retreated toward Potosi. 
The Bolivians lost twenty killed and thirty prisoners, 
the Chileans twelve killed and wounded. 

Peru now offered her services as a mediator and sent 
envoys to the Bolivian and Chilean capitals. But in 
view of the fact that the Chileans knew of the secret 
treaty of 1873, between Bolivia and Peru, the latter's 
offer of mediation was not fruitful of results. Besides, 
Chile had another grievance with Peru, for the latter 
had, in 1875, passed a law intended to monopolize the 
Tarapaca nitrate beds. True, TarapacA was Peruvian 
territory, but this law was inimical to Chilean inter- 
ests in that region and to Chilean capital invested in 
the Tarapacd nitrate works. 

The Peruvian envoy to Santiago, Senor Lavalle, had 
required, as a basis of arbitration, that the Chilean 
troops should evacuate Antofagasta; that there should 


be a neutral administration of affairs in the port under 
the guarantee of the three republics ; that the customs 
of the territory should be applied first to the local ad- 
ministration, then that the rest should be divided be- 
tween Bolivia and Chile. 

Chile demanded that preparations for war on the part 
of Peru should cease, that the secret treaty of 1873 be 
annulled, that neutrality be declared. These require- 
ments were declined. Chile, therefore, on the 5th of 
April, 1879, declared war and Peru became one of the 
belligerents, expelling many Chilean residents from her 

Prior to the breaking out of war, the Chilean regular 
army numbered about 2,500 men, one-fifth being cav- 
alry, one-fifth artillery, three-fifths infantr}'. These 
regulars were recruited from the Indians, and were a 
fine body of men, excellently disciplined, well- officered 
and equipped with the best modern weapons. The 
national guards, or militia, numbered twenty-five thou- 
sand, and this force was raised to fifty-five thousand 
when war was declared. 

The standing army of Peru numbered anywhere from 
nine thousand to thirteen thousand men, the troops 
being stationed in and around Lima. The soldiers 
were principall}' of Indian descent, with quite a large 
number of negroes. After the declaration of war this 
army was increased to forty thousand men. 

The Bolivian regular army was about the same in 
size as the Chilean, but the government possessed only 
1,500 stands of Remingtons, the most of the troops 
being armed with old flintlock muskets. The Bolivian 
army was composed almost exclusively of Aymara In- 
dians, brave, sturdy fellows and excellent soldiers. 

More important, however, than the armies was the 
command of the sea, and here Chile had the advan- 


tage. Fully alive to the importance of having a good 
navy, the Chilean government early sent her officers 
abroad to examine warships and gain experience in the 
foreign service. She also purchased the best modern 
ironclads, two of them of English build, together with 
a splendid corvette. At the breaking out of war her 
navy consisted of the "Almirante Cochrane" and "Blanco 
Encalada, " ironclads, well armored and carrying heavy 
machine guns; the corvettes "Chacabuco" and "O'Hig- 
gins, " the ''Magallanes, "the "Abtao," the "Covadonga, " 
the "Esmeralda," and ten steam transports. The "Ma- 
gallanes" carried one large and two small guns ; the 
"Abtao, " "Covadonga" and "Esmeralda" were old boats, 
but each had from two to three heavy artillery pieces, 
besides as many more small guns. 

Bolivia was without a navy ; Peru had few good iron- 
clads of the latest make. The "Huascar" and "Inde- 
pendencia" were ironclads built in 1865 and 1866, but 
were barely able to cope with the "Almirante Cochrane" 
and "Blanco Encalada." There were two antiquated 
monitors, the "Atahualpa" and "Manco Capac, " used 
principally for the defence of Callao and Arica, and 
two wooden corvettes, the "Union" and "Pilcomayo. " 
This comprised the Peruvian navy, unless we may in- 
clude the "Chalaco" and "Limina, " armed transports. 

Chile, as will be seen, made up in energy, discipline, 
effective guns, good ironclads, and in good officers, 
what she lacked in numerical strength. It was due to 
her energy and enterprise that the Atacama desert had 
become a source of enormous wealth; it was due to 
the same enterprise that she began a war against two 
strong, but somewhat lazy rivals. Perhaps she was 
aggressive, perhaps she coveted the nitrate territories, 
but England, animated by the same spirit, has colo- 
nized and enriched the world while being herself 


enriched. The principle, however, stands better in 
evolution than in ethics. 

The war having been opened between Chile and Bo- 
livia in the Atacama desert, Peru dispatched a force of 
three thousand men under Colonel Valverde to Iquique. 
Here the army of the south began to form and General 
Jos6 Buendia was soon sent to take command of it. 

In April, the Chileans began to collect their army at 
Antofagasta, placing it under the command of General 
Erasmo Escala. On the 5th of the month. Admiral 
Juan Williams Robelledo established a blockade of 
Iquique and warned all neutral vessels in the harbor to 
leave before the 15th. Seven days afterward the Chil- 
ean corvette "Magallanes" fell in with the "Union" and 
"Pilcomayo"' near the mouth of the river Loa. An 
engagement took place which lasted about an hour, 
when the "Magallanes" succeeded in making her escape. 
The "Union" was injured and returned to the dock at 
Callao. Following this action the Chilean vessels vis- 
ited different ports, destroyed coal-boats, the apparatus 
for loading guano, and demolished piers, having first 
ordered off the vessels that were loading. At Mollendo, 
on the i8th of April, the "Cochrane" and "Chacabuco" 
sent in a boat to communicate with the authorities; 
this being fired at, the ships opened a cannonade upon 
the railway station and customhouse, without, how- 
ever, doing very serious damage. 

On the same day, April i8th, the "Blanco Encalada" 
and "O'Higgins" bombarded Pisagua. There was a 
large quantity of coal stored at this place for the use 
of the railroad. Boats sent in by the Chileans to de- 
stroy the launches were fired upon and several of the 
crews killed. A shell set fire to the town and more 
than a million dollars worth of property was destroyed. 
The only persons killed were a woman and a China- 


man. As a large part ol the property in the town be- 
longed to neutral foreigners, there does not appear to 
be much to say by way of justification of this reckless 

After the affair at Pisagua the Chilean squadron re- 
turned to Iquique. The troops in the town found it 
difiScult to obtain water, as the blockaders forbade the 
use of the condensers. The only other recourse was 
to obtain it from Arica in water-boats and this was a 
hazardous undertaking. An attempt was made to defy 
the enemy and to use the condensers, but the smoke 
Trom a chimney betrayed the disobedience of the order 
and caused a number of heavy shells to be fired toward 
the spot. 



During the latter part of April and the first half of 
May, the belligerents made active preparations for the 
impending struggle. "The Arm}' of the South," as the 
Peruvian-Bolivian troops of the Tarapaca region were 
called, assembled in Tacna, a short distance from the 
port of Arica. General Prado, the president of Peru, 
on the i6th, quitted Callao to take the command of 
the army, and sailed south with the fleet, consisting 
of the "Huascar, " commanded by Miguel Grau, and 
the "Independencia, " Captain Moore ; also the "Oroya," 
"Limiiia ' and "Chalaco. " The "Manco Capac" and 
"Atahualpa" remained at Callao. The vessels carried 
several regiments of soldiers, a large quantity of stores, 
arms and munitions of war. The president was ac- 
companied by a large staff and a bodyguard of young 
Peruvians from the best families of the capital. 

President Prado was landed at Arica and assumed 
the command of the allied armies. President Daza, of 
Bolivia, having previously arrived at Tacna with four 
thousand reinforcements. 

Captain Grau received information at Arica that Ad- 
miral Robelledo had sailed from Iquique in the "Blanco 
Encalada" to reconnoitre off Callao, leaving only the 

small vessels, the "Esmeralda" and "Covadonga, " to 



maintain the blockade. He at once proceeded to 
Iquique with the "Huascar" and "Independencia, " 
where on the 21st of May, he began an attack upon 
the Chilean corvette and ironclad. 

The action began at 8 a. m., the "Huascar" being 
pitted against the wooden corvette "Esmeralda" and 
the "Independencia" against the "Covadonga" gunboat. 
The Chilean transport "Lamar," at that time in the 
port, was successful in getting out of the way. For 
an hour a brisk cannonading was kept up, when the 
"Covadonga" attempted to escape toward the south, 
but was closely followed by the "Independencia." A 
desultory firing was kept up between the racing ships. 
Captain Condell of the "Covadonga" led close in along 
shore in his efforts to escape the pursuing "Indepen- 
dencia, " passing shoals and often close upon the break- 
ers. The "Independencia" drew more water than the 
wooden vessel, and in attempting to follow it, in order 
that the little craft might be rammed out of the water, 
as the gunners of the ironclad could not hit it, the 
"Independencia" ran upon a rock at Punta Gruesco 
and stuck fast, the helmsman being at the time shot 
by a "Covadonga" rifleman. Getting astern of her un- 
fortunate antagonist, the "Covadonga" opened a delib- 
erate fire, and kept it up until the appearance of the 
"Huascar. " The "Independencia" became a total wreck 
and the loss to the Peruvian cause was incalculable, 
for it left them only one effective ironclad with which 
to cope with the superior Chilean navy. 

Meanwhile the "Huascar" and "Esmeralda," were en- 
gaged in a desperate battle. For two hours a cannon- 
ading was kept up, when the "Huascar' attempted to 
ram her adversary, but was unable to do so effectively, 
as the "Esmeralda" had crept into shallow water near 
the shore and Captain Grau was afraid to approach for 


fear of striking submerged torpedoes. A battery on 
the shore opened fire and obliged the "Esmeralda" to 
come out. At the same time a shell from one of the 
"Huascar's" three hundred-pounders burst in her engine 
room, killing the engineers and disabling the engine. 

As the "Esmeralda" had sustained the fire of her an- 
tagonist for over four hours, with little damage save 
the bursting of the shell in the engine room. Captain 
Grau determined to ram her. The "Huascar's" engines 
were reversed too soon and the intended blow was with- 
out effect, but as the two vessels came together Cap- 
tain Prat leaped upon the "Huascar's" deck, sword in 
hand and followed by only one man, Sergeant Aldea. 
At the foot of the turret he was pierced by a musket 
ball, having first himself killed a signal officer. Aldea 
also died heroically. Lieutenant Uribe then assumed 
the command of the "Esmeralda." 

Grau made a second attempt to ram and struck the 
"Esmeralda," but inflicted only slight damage. Lieu- 
tenant Serrano boarded the "Huascar" with a company 
of men, but they shared the fate of their heroic com- 
mander. A third time the "Huascar" rammed, and this 
time with better result; the "Esmeralda" was struck 
squarely on her starboard side and went down with 
colors flying. From one hundred and twenty to one 
hundred and fifty of her officers and crew were lost, 
about fifty or sixty saving themselves by clinging to 
wreckage until they were picked up by the "Huascar's" 

This naval action, though resulting in the loss of the 
"Independencia" to the Peruvians, raised the blockade 
of-Iquique, and enabled General Prado to throw about 
four thousand troops into the town. 

Captain Grau proceeded south to Antofagasta where 
he exchanged shots with the "Covadonga, " which lay 


inside the reef, protected by batteries. A shot from 
one of the latter did the "Huascar" considerable dam- 
age. She then turned north and on the way encount- 
ered the "Blanco Encalada" and "Magallanes, " both of 
which gave chase. The "Huascar" made her escape 
and reached Callao, where Captain Grau was feted and 
promoted to the rank of rear-admiral. 

Having taken aboard a better crew oi seamen, among 
them several experienced gunners, and having thor- 
oughly overhauled his ship, Grau sailed toward the 
south and spent the month of July in harassing the 
Chileans along the coast, being able to keep out of the 
way of the enemy's ironclads because of the "Huas- 
car's" superior speed. In July he arrived at Arica and 
there received orders to go south and harass the enemy, 
but on no account to risk his valuable charge in a bat- 
tle. Leaving Arica, Grau ran into the bay of Iquique, 
July gth, where he had been informed the ships of the 
blockading squadron were in the habit of standing out 
to sea at night, being afraid of torpedoes. 

Discovering the transport "Cousiiia" in the harbor, 
he enforced his demands for her surrender, and was 
about to take possession of his prize when the Chilean 
sloop "Magallanes" (Captain Latorre) hove in sight 
and steamed toward him. A lively firing began and 
was kept up for some time, the "Huascar" meanwhile 
making four unsuccessful attempts to ram. The firing 
brought the "Cochrane" to the assistance of the "Ma- 
gallanes," when Grau, following his instructions, or- 
dered the "Huascar" to withdraw, July loth. 
'• After this action the Chilean squadron remained in 
the harbor at night, but kept up a sharp lookout for 
torpedoes. One night a floating object was discovered 
near the "Cochrane," which was taken for a torpedo. 
This caused the Chilean commander to bombard the 


town ; a few of the inhabitants were killed and some 
damage done, but most of the shells passed over the 

On the 17th of July, the "Huascar, " in company with 
the "Union," started southward on a cruise. Several 
Chilean ports were visited, the launches found there de- 
stroyed, and two merchantmen captured. Off Antofa- 
gasta on July 23rd, the Chilean transport "Rimac, " con- 
veying a battalion of cavalry and stores to the town, 
was captured. The troops and officers were taken to 
Arica; the "Rimac" was converted into a Peruvian 

Soon afterward, August i8th, the "Union," command- 
ed by Captain Garcia y Garcia, went south to inter- 
cept in the Straits, two vessels from Europe with car- 
goes of stores for the Chilean government. He reached 
Punta Arenas, the Chilean settlement on the Straits, 
just after the first vessel had passed through. The 
governor of the place assured Captain Garcia that both 
vessels had passed, when the "Union" set off in hot 
pursuit. The other vessel was at the time entering 
the strait, so that both of them escaped, and, arriving 
at Valparaiso, their cargoes served to equip a new levy 
of three thousand men. 

The action of the Chilean fleet being barren of re- 
sults, while Captain Grau was making himself feared 
along the whole coast, caused much discontent in Chile, 
and several changes were now made among the officers. 
Galvarino Riveros replaced Juan Williams Robelledo in 
the "Blanco, '' as commander of the navy. Captain Simp- 
son was superseded by Captain Latorre, of the "Ma- 
gallanes, " in the command of the "Cochrane;" Don 
Rafael Sotomayor was appointed minister of war and 
dispatched to Antofagasta. He ordered the blockade 
of Iquique to be raised and the two ironclads to pro- 


ceed to Valparaiso to undergo such repairs as would 
enable them to match in speed the redoubtable "Huas- 
car. " Other vessels of the navy were also overhauled, 
and a number of transports hired and purchased. 

On the 27th of August^ the "Huascar" appeared off 
the port of Antofagasta, having stopped at Iquique on 
her way down, where she took aboard two of the Ley 
torpedoes. In the bay were the "Magallanes" and 
"Abtao, " the latter with disabled machinery. Captain 
Grau, approaching the Chilean vessels, immediately 
opened fire, but they were moored so near the shore 
batteries that he was unable to take them. The "Abtao" 
was severely damaged and about twenty of her crew 
killed and wounded. A three hundred pound shot 
struck the "Huascar's" funnel and killed an officer. 
The torpedo expert had launched one of his missiles 
during the night at the "Abtao," but it had not pro- 
ceded far when it turned and came back toward its 
starting point. The "Huascar" was only saved by the 
gallant Lieutenant Diez Canseco jumping overboard 
and deflecting the torpedo from its course. Thoroughly 
disgusted with torpedoes of this pattern, Captain Grau 
had them all buried in a cemetery at Iquique. The 
Chileans, however, resurrected them. Quitting Anto- 
fagasta, the "Huascar" cruised about for some time, 
visiting Talca, Tocapilla and Mejillones and destroy- 
ed many launches and other property, before retiring 
to Arica. 

Admiral Juan Williams Robelledo had, as we have 
seen, resigned, and Admiral Galvarion Riveros had been 
appointed in his place to the command of the Chilean 
fleet. On the first of October, the squadron, consisting 
of the "Blanco," "Cochrane," "O'Higgins," "Covadon- 
ga" and transports "Loa'' and "Cousina, " fell in with 
the "Huascar" and "Union" off Antofagasta and gave 


chase. The Peruvian vessels might have effected their 
escape had not the"0'Higgins, " "Cochrane," and "Loa" 
appeared in the opposite direction steaming directly 
toward them. The Chilean squadron had separated at 
Mejillones the day before and put to sea in two divi- 
sions, in search of the two Peruvian vessels. Grau 
was caught between the two divisions. 

Captain Grau ordered the "Huascar's" head turned 
toward the east under a full head of steam, hoping to 
escape. The "Union"' passed the "Huascar" and the 
admiral ordered her to bear away toward Arica, which 
she did, though followed closely by the "O'Higgins" 
and "Loa. " She arrived there safely about dark. See- 
ing that the "Cochrane" would cross his bows, Grau 
prepared his ship for action, keeping close in toward 
the land. 

At 9:25 o'clock the action was begun off Point An- 
gamos by the "Huascar," at a distance of three thou- 
sand yards. The fourth shot struck the Chilean ves- 
sel, when she opened fire in return. One of her first 
shots passed through the "Huascar's" armor and killed 
and wounded twelve men ; at the same time a three 
hundred-pound shell from the "Huascar" nearly stove 
in one of the "Cochrane's" plates. 

The "Huascar"' now attempted to ram her antago- 
nist, but the latter steered in a parallel course and pre- 
vented it. Five minutes afterward a shell struck the 
pilot tower of the "Huascar," and exploding, killed 
Admiral Grau and a lieutenant. The brave admiral 
was blown literally to pieces, only one leg being after- 
ward found. Another well-directed shot pierced the 
armor of the "Huascar's" turret and killed several of 
the gunners. Inexperienced relief crews being sent to 
the guns the shots now flew wide of the mark and did 
little execution, while the cabin was soon filled with 


the dead and wounded. Twice the "Cochrane" attempt- 
ed to ram, but failed. She, however, sent two more 
shells through the "Huascar's" plating, which did much 

The "Blanco" now arrived and at once opened fire 
upon the Peruvian vessel, in which several commanders 
had been already killed. During the action Admiral 
Grau was succeeded in the command by Aguirre, Car- 
bajal, Rodriguez, Palacios and Garezan, one after an- 
other shedding his blood upon the "Huascar's" decks. 
The Chilean riflemen shot down three out of the four 
men working the gun in the "Huascar's" top; a broad- 
side from the "Blanco" killed all the men at the reliev- 
ing-tackles ; the engines were filled with soot from 
the shattered smokestack, the steam steering-gear had 
been disabled. 

Once the "Huascar's" colors were shot away and the 
Chilean vessels ceased firing, thinking their enemy had 
surrendered. But another flag was hoisted and the un- 
equal contest went on. The "Blanco" and "Cochrane" 
both followed the Peruvian vessel and poured into her 
an unceasing fire from their heavy guns, machine-guns, 
and small arms; the "Huascar" replied occasionally 
with her left turret gun. 

The "Covadonga" arrived upon the scene and fired 
one gun, but the "Huascar" was already silenced. At- 
tempts were made by her crew to sink her, the com- 
mander ordering the engineer to open her valves. But 
before this was done some of the men on deck waved 
handkerchiefs and towels as a sign of surrender, and 
hauled down the flag ; then the firing ceased. Lieu- 
tenant Simpson of the "Cochrane" and Lieutenant 
Castillo of the "Blanco" went aboard with other offi- 
cers and men and took possession of the hard won prize. 
Thirty-two officers and men lay dead and forty-eight 


wounded upon the "Huascar's" decks, out of the crew 
of one huridred and ninety-three. The action had lasted 
one hour and thirty minutes. 

The survivors of the ill-fated ironclad were kept 
some time at work putting out the fires and getting 
the vessel in sailing order, then she was taken into 
Mejillones Bay. This action off Point Angamos left 
the Peruvians only the two wooden corvettes afloat, the 
"Union" and "Pilcomayo, " and the latter was captured 
by the Chilean ironclads in November. 

Prat and Grau, friends, as well as opponents in this 
war, were martyrs each to his country's cause, and their 
names are justly immortalized in both Chile and Peru. 

Missing Page 

Missing Page 




The allies had made strenuous efforts to concentrate 
an army in the south before their communications 
should be cut off by sea, for along the desert coast of 
southern Peru and Bolivia it is nearly impossible to 
move an army very long distances except by way of 
the Pacific. Plere and there along the desert wastes 
deep gorges have been plowed out by the mountain 
streams dashing down to the ocean, and in them there 
are occasional oases and small cultivated tracts of land, 
where the towns are situated. 

The allied army at Arica and other southern points 
now numbered about 20,000 men. General Prado had 
gone south from Arica on a tour of inspection to Tara- 
paca, where General Buendia was in command. Gen- 
eral Daza, having brought four thousand Bolivian rein- 
forcements into the field, remained at Arica and Tacna. 
General Prado took south with him two battalions of 
the Bolivian troops commanded by Colonel Villamil, 
and left them at Pisagua. Then he proceeded to 
Iquique where he remained several days, that port as 
well as Patillos being now efficientl}' garrisoned. The 
force in Tarapaca amounted to abojit nine thousand 
men under Buendia, an old soldier, and a rather rash 

19 iSg 


one; but Colonel Suarez, his chief of staff, was a highly 
efficient officer. Tarapaca is something over one hun- 
dred miles southwest from Arica, fifty from Pisagua 
and about the same distance inland from Iquique. 

The Chileans, now masters of the sea, began to push 
forward reinforcements until their army in the field soon 
numbered from 12,000 to i5,ooomen, well drilled, ably 
officered and splendidly equipped. From seven to ten 
thousand of these troops were embarked at Antofagasta 
under General Escala, the objective point being the 
port of Pisagua. The fleet and ten or twelve trans- 
ports were emplo\'ed in the expedition, under the com- 
mand of Commodore Riveros. 

On the morning of the 2nd of November, this force 
appeared off Pisagua, which was defended by rifle-pits, 
two small batteries, a garrison of three hundred troops 
and about six hundred Indians, Buendia being in the 
town at the time and taking the chief command. 

The coast rises here to a height of ten or twelve 
hundred feet, and at the foot of the bluff lies the town 
of Pisagua. Two paths and a railroad zigzag over the 
hills, and along them the rifle-pits had been formed ; 
here the Bolivian Indians were stationed under Colonel 
Granier. Other troops took up positions in the town, 
commanded by Colonels Villamil and Recabarren, Gen- 
eral Buendia himself commanding in chief. The bat- 
teries were situated about three miles apart, extending 
from the mouth of. the Tiviliche ravine on the north, 
to the point of Huayna Pisagua on the south. A force 
which had been landed at Junin several miles down the 
coast, was to make a detour and fall upon Pisagua in 
the rear. 

The first act was to bombard the little forts north 
and south of the town by the "O'Higgins" and "Coch- 
rane;" the one at Huayna Pisagua was soon silenced, 


that at Tiviliche was abandoned. About seven hun- 
dred men were sent ashore in boats under cover of a 
lively cannonading from the fleet. This force was 
checked at the beech by the brisk firing of the Boli- 
vian Indians in the rifle-pits and upon the bluff, but 
there troops landed and the firing became so hot that 
the beach was soon covered with the dead, the men- 
of-war all the time pouring in a tremendous rain of 
shot and shell. For five hours the defenders held out. 
General Buendia hourly expecting reinforcements. The 
Chileans had conducted the landing with much pluck 
and enterprise, leaving their boats behind them, officers 
and men vying with each other in deeds of valor. 

The town was carried, and step by step, fighting for 
every inch of ground, the Chileans pushed up the bluff 
and dislodged the defenders, who fled up the railroad. 
The Chileans lost two hundred and thirty-five in killed 
and wounded; the losses of the defenders do not seem 
to be accurately known, but were probabl}' equal to 
that of their opponents. The allies retreated up the 
railroad to La Noria and Peiia Grande and in a few 
days formed a junction with troops from Iquique and 
other points south. The Chileans soon after gained 
possession of the railroad for a distance of fifty miles 
to Agua Santa; the main body of the army occupied 
the heights of San Francisco, which were intrenched, 
and Jaspampa, where General Escala established his 
headquarters. Here they awaited reinforcements. 

On the 6th, an advanced body of one hundred and 
seventy-five cavalrymen under Colonel Jos6 Franciso 
Vergara, in making a reconnoissance at Jeramia near 
Agua Santa, fell in with a small mounted party of 
Peruvians, commanded by a young man named Jos6 
Ventura Sepulveda. Seventy out of the ninety-four 
Peruvians were sabered and left. dead upon the field. 


President Prado, hearing of the disaster at Pisagua, 
ordered his colleague, President Daza, to form a junc- 
tion with Buendia. President Daza started to obey 
President Prado, but had advanced from Arica only to 
the ravine of the Camarones with three thousand of his 
Bolivians, when he turned back in a cowardly retreat, 
his force utterly demoralized. There were too many 
president-generals commanding the allied armies to 
insure concerted action in carrying out important move- 

General Buendia had gone to Iquique ; hearing there 
of the advance of Daza, and being short of provisions, 
he assembled his scattered army at Pozo Almonte near 
the northern terminus of the Iquique railroad. Early 
in November he began a march across twenty or thirty 
miles of intervening desert, his army in three divisions 
commanded respectively by Colonels Davila, Busta- 
mente and Villegras. Villegras commanded the Boli- 
vians, Davila, the advanced division. 

Meanwhile the Chileans had augmented their force 
at San Francisco ; six thousand men with thirty-two 
long range guns were now intrenched on the heights. 
On November igth, their advanced guard fell back 
from Agua Santa, retiring before the approach of Buen- 
dia's forces, amounting now to near men. On 
the same day the allies marched some fifteen or twenty 
miles from Agua Santa and halted at the oficitia of Por- 
vinir where there was a supply of water. They had 
made a long march across the arid plains and were suf- 
fering terribly from thirst. 

They were now close to the heights of San Fran- 
cisco, upon which the Chilean army was posted ; Gen- 
eral Buendia established his headquarters at Porvinir, 
Colonel Suarez rode from rank to rank. It was decided 
to allow the men to rest after their long march, but 


Colonel Espinar in reconnoitering the enemy's posi- 
tion brought on the battle. The Chileans opened a 
heavy fire of musketry and artillery upon the charging 
Peruvians, who sought to capture their artillery ; they 
then dashed upon their adversaries with bayonets fixed 
and drove them back. Colonel Espinar had fallen and 
the advanced force was without a leader ; falling back 
they caused demoralization in the main army, while a 
division under Villegras, ascending the ravine from the 
east, met with no better success. 

Villegras fell wounded. The troops retreated in 
fairly good order to Porvinir. The Chileans took no 
advantage of the rout. They lost their gallant leader, 
General Emilio Sotomayor, and two hundred and eight 
in killed and wounded. The Peruvian-Bolivian loss is 
not very definitely stated, but their dead was estimated 
at two hundred and twenty. Colonel Suarez collected 
the remnants of the army at Tarapaca. The Bolivians 
retreated toward the highlands of their own country. 

Iquique was evacuated by the allies and November 
22nd a force of Chileans occupied it. The garrison un- 
der Colonel Rios retreated to Tarapaca. On the 29th, 
President Prado invested Admiral Lizardo Montero 
with the command and set out for his capital; on the 
i8th of the following month he turned over the gov- 
ernment to the vice president, General La Puerta. 

After the battle of San Francisco, the Chilean gen- 
eral dispatched a force of two thousand men with a 
small body of cavalry and one hundred and fifty pieces 
of artillery to reconnoitre the enemy at Tarapaci. The 
force was under the command of Colonels Arteaga and 
Vergara. Arriving at TarapacA, the troops were sepa- 
rated into three divisions, one under the command of 
Ramirez was to come up the ravine, one under Arteaga 
was to descend from the heights directly upon the town. 


one under Santa Cruz was to advance down the ravine 
in which the place is situated. This division of the 
force caused its destruction. The Peruvian forces under 
Buendia and Suarez had left the town and were mov- 
ing northward in the ravine. Informed of the dispo- 
sition of their foes, they attacked them from the heights 
and after an hour of severe fighting routed them com- 
pletely, capturing a battery of Krupp guns. 

The divisions in the ravine were also obliged to fall 
back after a sharp encounter and the Peruvians were 
left masters of the field. The Chileans lost six hun- 
dred and eighty-seven in killed and wounded; the Peru- 
vians, nineteen officers killed, sixteen wounded, and 
four hundred and ninety-eight men killed and wound- 
ed — heavy losses for the number engaged in the com- 

On the following day the Peruvians continued their 
march and arrived at Arica on the i8th of December, 
with three thousand of their number out of ammuni- 
tion, with few arms, ragged, hungry and thirsty. Gen- 
eral Buendia and Colonel Suarez were immediately ar- 
rested for the loss of the province. 

The Chileans buried their heroic dead at TarapacA 
and assumed complete possession of the province, 
where a small garrison was placed, while the main 
army was stationed in Pisagua and Iquique. This was 
soon reinforced, and the available forces in the field 
numbered seventeen thousand men. Arica, Islay, Ilo 
and Mollendo were blockaded, thus severing the first 
named place from its communications with the north, 
except by the overland way by Arequipa. Of the allied 
army remaining, Daza had about three thousand men 
at Tacna and Montero four thousand at Arica, the 
whole in a very demoralized condition. 

These reverses were without doubt the reason for 


President Prado's abandonment of the army of the 
south and his withdrawal to Lima. He sailed for 
Panama on December 19th ; two days afterward a revo- 
lution broke out at the Peruvian capital. Colonel Pierola 
being the leader. The government party was besieged 
in the palace by General La Cotero; Colonel Nicolas 
de Pierola, after a fight with the government forces in 
Lima, went to Callao during the night and next morn- 
ing took possession of the place. The government 
surrendered and Pierola became virtual dictator of Peru. 

The Bolivians, disgusted with Daza, also planned a 
successful revolution, which resulted in placing Gen- 
eral Narciso Campero in power. Daza retired to Peru. 
On the 27th of December he had gone to Arica to 
consult with Montero. While there his troops at Tacna, 
ashamed of their president, deposed him and elected 
Colonel Camacho to the command. The next day the 
revolution in La Paz placed Campero temporarily in 
supreme power; on the 5th of June following, he was 
elected constitutional president. Campero was an able 

The Peruvians made an unsuccessful attempt to de- 
stroy some of the blockading vessels in the harbor of 
Arica with torpedoes ; the Chileans, quite as active, 
planned a decent upon the town of Ilo, which is con- 
nected with Moquegua by railroad. Five hundred men 
were landed on December 31st, provisions were seized, 
and some damage was done to the railroad. After vis- 
iting Moquegua the party re-em^barked, January 2nd. 

During the last days of February, Arica was several 
times bombarded and unimportant actions took place 
between the shore batteries and the blockading vessels. 
Several men of the "Huascar's" crew were killed, but 
no serious damage was done to the town. 

On the 17th of March, Captain Villavicencio sailed 


from Callao in the "Union" with stores and munitions 
of war for the troops in Arica, determined to run the 
blockade, which he succeeded in doing. Discovering 
the manoeuvre, the "Cochrane," "Huascar, " and "Ama- 
zonas, " gave chase and kept up an artillery practice 
at long range. One shell killed two and wounded 
twenty of the "Union's" crew, but the vessel escaped 
and made her way safely back to Callao. 

On the 6th of the following month, the Chilean war- 
ships, "Huascar" (which had been repaired and added 
to the navy), "Blanco," "Angamos," "Pilcomayo'' and 
"Cousina, " commanded by Admiral Riveros, sailed 
northward, their objective point being Callao. The port 
was blockaded and an unsuccessful attempt made to 
capture the "Union" and "Atahualpa, " but they slipped 
in close behind the darsena, or mole, and eluded their 
pursuers. The blockading squadron made the unforti- 
fied island of San Lorenzo, just out of the harbor, its 
headquarters and warned neutral vessels to leave the 
anchorage within eight days. On the 22nd a bombard- 
ment began at long range, but did comparatively little 
damage, as the shore defences replied from their one 
hundred and seventy guns. Attempts were made by 
the Peruvians to destroy the Chilean vessels with tor- 
pedo launches, but they were captured and the scheme 
frustrated. In revenge for these attempts, the Chile- 
ans again bombarded the town on the loth of May, 
but the batteries on shore replied so effectively that 
the "Huascar" was considerably damaged. 

About this time the Chilean government added to 
its navy several swift torpedo boats, manufactured in 
England and the United States. One, the "Janequeo," 
destroyed the Peruvian steam-launch "Independencia" 
at the mole in Callao harbor. Lieutenant Galvez, of 
the "Independencia," threw a one hundred pound case 


of powder on the "Janequeo's" deck and exploded it. 
Both vessels sank, with a loss of eight men of the "Inde- 
pendencia's" crew. 

The blockade of Callao, together with that of the 
neighboring ports of Ancon and Chancay, was main- 
tained for nine months. 





The Chileans now determined to prosecute the war 
on Peruvian territory and to destroy the allied armies 
assembled at Tacna and Moquegua. On the 24th of 
February, 1880, they embarked twelve thousand men at 
Pisagua in transports and the next day landed about 
ten thousand of them at Pacocha, the seaport of Mo- 
quegua, sixty miles north of Arica. A day or two 
afterward an additional force of three thousand men 
was landed at Vitar, which joined the main army. 

After reconnoitering the country and destroying some 
property at MoUendo during the first week in March, 
the Chilean array under General Baquedano, who had 
succeeded General Escala in command, advanced toward 
Moquegua, which is connected with its ports by rail- 

After a week's toilsome march Moquegua was reached 
and occupied without resistance. From the heights 
above the town the Peruvian forces could be seen oc- 
cupying the strong position of Los Angeles, an histori- 
cal spot, where, in 1823, General Valdez repulsed the 
attacks of the patriot forces led by General Alvarado ; 
it was also occupied by Pierola in- 1874, in his revolt 
against the government. At this almost impregnable 

Battle of Tacna 


place, which is situated on one of the spurs of Mount 
Torata, Colonel Gamarra, having abandoned Moquegua, 
took up his position with about two thousand men. 
Here were precipitous heights situated in a triangle 
formed by the river Ilo, a deep ravine on the left, im- 
passable mountains on the right, a ravine and sandy 
slope in front to be passed before the steep incline 
could be reached by an attacking force. It was an 
important position for the allies, as it covered the line 
of retreat to the north for the main army at Arica. 

General Baquedano ordered a thousand men under 
Colonel Munoz to make a long detour by way of Tu- 
milca to the rear of the enemy. At daylight on the 
morning of the 22nd of March, Munoz attacked in the 
rear, while at the same time a force began to scale the 
heights in front of the enemy's position, and two bat- 
teries of artillery under Lieutenant Colonel Novoa 
opened fire. The Peruvians being enfiladed and at- 
tacked in front and rear, with a shower of shells, mus- 
ketry and furious bayonet charges, fell back in some 
disorder to Ilubaya, leaving twenty-eight killed and a 
number wounded upon the field. The Chileans imme- 
diately occupied Yacango and Torata. 

About the time Baquedano's army had advanced 
from Ilo, (March 12th,) Colonel Silva, commanding a 
body of Bolivians at Viacha, had revolted against Cam- 
pero's government. Though the insurrection was easily 
put down, it was owing to this fact that the large body 
of Bolivians, consisting of four battalions, had not 
supported Colonel Gamarra at Los Angeles. 

Active preparations were now made by Baquedano 
to attack the allied armies assembled at Tacna, from 
10,000 to 14,000 strong. On the 19th of April, General 
Campero arrived from Bolivia and assumed the com- 
mand in chief of the allied armies, the second in com- 


mand of the Bolivians being Camacho, while Admiral 
Montero still commanded the Peruvians. Previously, 
the Chileans had thoroughly reconnoitered the coun- 
try and advanced several bodies of troops in the direc- 
tion of Tacna. Colonel Albarracain surprised a body 
of twenty-five Chilean cavalry at Locumba and cut 
them all down but four. On the 17th, Colonel Ver- 
gara engaged Albarracain at Sama and killed one hun- 
dred and fifty of his men. This cavalry then pushed 
on close to Tacna, and on the i8th, the fourth division 
of the Chilean army, which had remained at Pacocha, 
moved forward. On the 27th, General Baquedano broke 
camp at Hospicio near Moquegua and accompanied 
by the war minister, Don Rafael Sotomayor (who died 
of apoplexy on the way), began his march over the 
desert toward Tacna, his troops marching in three di- 
visions. On the 20th of May, the army encamped near 
Buena Vista on the Sama river, sixteen miles north- 
west of Tacna, the base of supplies being the port of 
Ite, twenty-five miles distant. Five days afterward 
the Chilean army moved forward to within six miles 
of Tacna, and on the day following advanced to within 
a short distance of the enemy's intrenched position on 
a line of sand-hills to the northwest of the city, the 
flanks defended by deep ravines, the front by a steep 
glacis strongly fortified and commanding a plain over 
which the Chileans must pass. Admiral Montero com- 
manded the right wing. General Camacho the left; the 
center was led by Colonel Castro Pinto, President Cam- 
pero himself being chief in command. 

On the morning of the 26th of May, General Baque- 
dano took up a position just beyond the range of the 
enemy's artillery, and there stationed a reserve under 
Munoz. At 9.50 a. m., his Krupp guns opened upon 
the Peruvians at a distance of four thousand yards and 


for an hour did deadly execution. The first and second 
divisions were moved forward a distance of four miles 
and deployed in line of battle. Shortly before noon 
the infantry advanced, led in four divisions by Colonels 
Amenguel, Amunategui, Barcelo, and Barbosa. The 
lines came within four or five hundred yards of the 
enemy before the latter opened fire upon- them. Then 
in the face of a tremendous hailstorm of bullets, the 
Chileans advanced on the double and charged, the first 
attack being upon the Bolivians on the left commanded 
by Colonel Camacho, which was the weakest point. 
The left was turned and a heavy enfilading fire opened 
from the rest of the line. The battle now became gen- 
eral ; Campero sought to reinforce the left and for a 
short time opposed nearly his whole force against the 
four thousand Chileans who had led the onslaught. 
For an hour they sustained the attack then began to 
waver ; but the Chilean cavalry made a brilliant charge ; 
the line reformed and resumed its former position. At 
12:30 the Chileans were wavering and falling back, at 
I o'clock they were making a spirited advance. Their 
riflemen carried the intrenched position, their artillery 
constantly mowing down the ranks of the Aymara 
and Inca Indians upon the crest of the sand-hills. The 
allies fell back, retreated through Tacna and pursued 
their way toward Corocoro. Campero retired to La 
Paz and Montero with the Peruvians toward the north 
by way of Torata, which place was soon after occupied 
by Barbosa with a force of Chileans. The Chilean loss 
amounted to 2,128 in killed and wounded; the Peru- 
vians lost 2,500 killed and wounded; the Bolivian loss- 
es could not be accurately estimated ; four hundred 
prisoners were taken. 

An advance was soon made upon Arica. The Chilean 
cavalry pushed forward and unearthed a number of tor- 


pedoes which the Peruvians had planted at the ap- 
proaches of the railway bridge over the Chacalluta river. 
On the 2nd of June, four thousand Chileans advanced 
to Chacalluta near Arica. Colonel Leyra a few days 
before had attempted to reinforce Arica with two thous- 
and Peruvians from Arequipa, but hearing of the defeat 
at Tacna had fallen back. 

Arica was a strongly fortified place, situated on a 
sandy plain rising above the beach, on the south de- 
fended by a fort on the high Morro hill, around the 
town a line of forts and trenches, on the north three 
batteries. In the harbor the "Manco Capac, " com- 
manded by Captain Lagomarsino, was anchored near 
the forts. The defenses were garrisoned by two thous- 
and troops under the command of Colonel Bolognesi ; 
Captain Moore commanded the batteries on the Morro. 

Establishing his headquarters at Chacalluta, General 
Baquedano invested Arica on the land side, posting his 
artillery so as to cover assaulting parties. In the harbor 
the squadron, commanded by Captain Latorre, consist- 
ing of the "Cochrane," "Magallanes, " "Covadonga'' and 
"Loa, " stood ready to bombard the town. On the 5th of 
June, Bolognesi was summoned to surrender. He re- 
fused and the next morning the attack began. The Chil- 
ean field-batteries opened fire at long range, but were 
soon silenced by the one hundred-pounders the Peru- 
vians brought to bear upon them. The squadron then 
opened fire at distances ranging from one thousand to 
eight thousand yards. The shore batteries and the 
"Manco Capac" replied vigorously. The "Covadonga" 
was struck twice by huge projectiles and was so much 
damaged that it was found necessary to send her to 
Pisagua for repairs ; a shell entered near one of the 
"Cochrane's" guns and, exploding, wounded twenty- 


seven men. The Chilean ships were now withdrawn 
to await the assault on the following day. 

The plan of the assault was for one regiment to at- 
tack the northern batteries, three regiments to attack 
the southern forts, and simultaneously others were to 
attack the sand-bag defenses along the line. For this 
purpose four thousand men were selected, and the com- 
mand assigned to Colonel Pedro Lagos. 

At daylight on the 7th of June, half of the Chilean 
force under Lagos made a vigorous assault upon the 
sand-bag defenses before the Morro ; the defenders fled 
to the latter place, and the action became general. The 
three batteries on the beach were carried. The Peru- 
vians fired a mine, or torpedo, and in retaliation the 
Chileans massacred four hundred and fifty men, when, 
at 7 a. m., the Peruvian defenses had all been carried, 
with the exception of the Morro and east forts. The 
main body of the assaulting force had rushed up the 
inclined slope to the Morro on the inland side in the 
face of a lively rifle fire, scaled the low parapet, and 
after a gallant struggle, defeated the garrison. The 
other forts had either been captured or abandoned by 
this time and the town was in the hands of the vic- 
torious Chileans. The Chileans lost three hundred 
and seventy-two men; of the Peruvians, seven hundred 
were lying dead in pools of blood, " Se forman pantanos 
de sangre!"* many were wounded and six hundred taken 
prisoners. The "Manco Capac'' was blown up to pre- 
vent her falling into the hands of Baquedano's vic- 
torious army. The crew went aboard the transport 
"Itata, " but subsequently gave themselves up. A tor- 
pedo-boat was also blown up by her crew. The victors 
permitted the Peruvians to transport their wounded in 
the "Limeiia" to Callao, where they were placed in the 

*Vicuna Mackenna. 


hospitals. The Chileans were now masters of the sea, 
the entire Bolivian coast and a rich province of Peru. 

Soon after the fall of Arica several naval incidents 
worthy of mention occurred in the neighborhood of 
Callao, where the blockading squadron still maintained 
a rigorous blockade. On the afternoon of the 3rd of 
July, a Huacho packet, or small coasting vessel, was 
observed to quit the harbor and sail northward. The 
"Loa, " which had arrived from Arica shortly before, 
gave chase. Three men were seen to leave the coast- 
er and take to the shore, as the "Loa'' approached. 
Captain Pena commanded the warship; he sent Lieu- 
tenant Martinez to examine the abandoned vessel, 
which was found to have on board a cargo of vegeta- 
bles and poultry. The little craft was towed alongside 
the Chilean vessel, and the transfer of the cargo had 
been nearly completed, when a terrific explosion tore 
open the "Loa's" side at the water-line causing her to 
instantly fill and sink. Some kind of infernal machine, 
charged with more than two hundred pounds of dyna- 
mite, had been arranged in the bottom under the chick- 
ens. Captain Pena, three officers and fifty men, went 
down in the ill-fated craft ; thirty-eight of the crew 
were saved. 

Two months passed, during which both sides were 
preparing actively for the final struggle. In the last 
days of August, the "Angamos" engaged the batteries 
in Callao harbor at a distance of three and four miles. 
On the last day, September ist, some damage was done 
to the "Union." Two days afterward the batteries 
were again engaged by some of the vessels of the fleet, 
but with no other result than the sinking of a tug. 

On the 13th of the month, another successful attempt 
was made by the Peruvians to blow up Chilean men- 
of-war. This time it was the "Covadonga, " which had 


been sent to maintain the blockade in the port of Chan- 
cay, not far from Callao. Observing an empty gig and 
launch near the mole, the "Covadonga" opened fire and 
destroyed the launch, and then sent a boat alongside 
to examine the gig. When this had been satisfactorily 
done, the little craft was towed to the warship where 
tackles were hooked on for the purpose of hoisting her 
up the starboard davits. When the tackles were tight- 
ened an explosion took place. The "Covadonga" was 
blown in and sank immediately. The gig had been 
arranged to explode in this manner. The captain and 
some of the crew perished, but about fifty of the men 
were rescued. 

These diabolical acts enraged the Chileans to such 
an extent that Admiral Riveros bombarded three de- 
fenseless towns ; not, however, until the Peruvians had 
refused to accede to his demands and turn over the 
"Union" and "Rimac," then lying in the harbor pro- 
tected by the guns of the batteries. 

An expedition of three thousand men was landed at 
Chimbote, Paita and other places about this time, com- 
manded by Colonel Patrick Lynch, the avowed object 
being to ravage the coast towns. In Paita, he burned 
the. custom-house and other public property, and com- 
mitted depredation in ten or eleven other coast towns, 
as well as upon adjoining farms. Near Chimbote a 
contribution was demanded of nearly gioo,ooo from a 
rich sugar planter at Palo Seco, by way of ransom. The 
president, Pierola, refused to allow the planter, Don 
Dionisio Derteano, to pay the amount; then Lynch 
burned the premises and destroyed the property. 

After this another attempt was made by the Peruvi- 
ans to blow up Chilean ironclads, October gth, by means 
of a sunken boat filled with powder. This time they 
were not successful. On the 6th of December, three of 


the Chilean torpedo-boats were drawn into an action 
with a Peruvian armed steamer, the "Arno, " in the har- 
bor of Callao. The fleet took part and this drew the 
fire of the shore batteries. One of the torpedo-boats, 
the "Fresia, " was struck by a shell and sunk, but was 
soon afterward raised by the Chileans. A few days 
afterward, four of the blockading vessels engaged the 
monitor, "Atahualpa, " which had moved out about a 
mile from the mole. During the engagement the big 
one hundred and eighty-pounder breech-loading gun of 
the "Angamos, " which had, on account of its range, 
done much valuable service for the Chileans, broke 
from its connections and fell overboard. The loss of 
this gun was probably felt more than the loss of the 
unfortunate lieutenant whom it killed as it went over. 
While the Chileans were moving their troops down 
from Tacna and massing them at Arica, preparatory to 
embarking them for the north, the United States min- 
ister at Santiago, Mr. Osborn, was offering the good 
services of his government to bring about peace. It 
was arranged that a conference should take place on 
board the United States warship "Lackawanna" in the 
harbor of Arica, representatives from the three govern- 
ments engaged in the war to be present. Don Aurelio 
Garcia y Garcia and Don Antonio Arenas represented 
Peru; Don Mariano Baptista and Don Juan Carrillo, 
Bolivia ; Colonel Vergara, the new Chilean minister of 
war, Don Eulogio Altamirano and Don Eusebio Lillo, 
represented Chile. Mr. Osborn, United States minis- 
ter to Chile, Mr. Christiancy and Mr. Adams, repre- 
senting the same government in Peru and Bolivia, were 
present. The meeting took place October 22nd ; the 
Chilean representatives required the province of Tara- 
paca south of the Camarones, the Bolivian seacoast 
and a war indemnity of ^20,000,000, one-fifth of which 


was to be in cash, the return of all Chilean private 
property taken, as well as the transport "Rimac," the 
abrogation of the secret treaty of 1873, which was 
known to have been agreed upon by Peru and Bolivia, 
the retention of Moquegua, Tacna and Arica until all 
conditions were complied with, and an obligation not 
to fortify Arica in the future. 

The conditions were not accepted and Chile replied 
that she must have compensation for her sacrifices, and 
the provinces which her capital and energy had made 
valuable. Peru proposed to leave the question to the 
United States for arbitration ; Chile, seeing little to 
arbitrate while she was conqueror, refused. Bolivia 
suggested a full war indemnity in lieu of territory; this 
was refused. Chile asked just what she had conquered, 
and believed in the well-worn adage that to the victors 
belong the spoils. 

The conference was broken off and the Chilean army, 
25,000 strong, prepared to embark for the neighborhood 
of Lima, in three divisions. On November i8th, one 
division of nine thousand men under Colonel Lynch 
landed at Pisco, drove off the garrison stationed there 
under Colonel Zamudio, and then occupied ttie town, 
also the town and valley of Yea; then it marched to Chin- 
cha, whence it afterward pushed northward to Curayaco 
Bay, where the other two divisions under Sotomayor 
and Lagos were to disembark near Chilca, one hundred 
and seven miles from Pisco. 

Upon the approach of the Chilean forces Pierola 
turned over the civil government to La Puerta and as- 
sumed command of the Peruvian army about the cap- 
ital. The foreign naval officers obtained permission 
for representatives from the neutral vessels to join the 
headquarters of each of the armies. This request 
being granted, eight representatives were selected from 


the British, American, French and Italian squadrons, 
to visit the headquarters of General Baquedano and 
General Pierola and report upon the struggle, now near 
at hand. 




The Peruvian government issued a decree ordering 
every male resident in Lima capable of bearing arms 
to join the troops in the field for the protection of the 
capital. In this manner an army was hastily summoned, 
in four divisions, of five thousand to six thousand men 
each, commanded respectively by Colonels Iglesias, 
Suarez, Davila and Caceres. President Pierola com- 
manded in chief. General Silva was chief of staff. The 
men were poorly clothed, worse fed and armed with 
rusty Remingtons and Winchesters. The one hundred 
guns in the artillery parks and forts, were of Lima 
manufacture principally, and varied as to patterns. The 
whole of the Peruvian force in and about the capital 
has been given at 33,500. 

The Chileans had now in this vicinity 21,000 infan- 
try, artillery 1,370, cavalry 1,252; a total of 23,621 men, 
well-equipped and with sixty-three guns of good pat- 
tern. From this it will be seen that there was no great 
disparity either in numbers or strength in the respec- 
tive armies. 

Being now advised that the Chileans would advance 

upon the capital from the south, Pierola determined to 

form lines of defense in that direction. Breastworks 



were thrown up in two long semicircular lines ; the 
outer, ten miles from Lima, was about six miles long, 
extending from the high Morro Solar, near Chorrillos 
on the coast, to- the mountains on the east; the inner 
line, about six miles out and four miles in length, 
passed just outside the village of Miraflores. Mines 
and torpedoes were prepared, but were not of much 
worth in checking the advance of the enemy over the 
sand-hills and through the beautiful orchards and clover 
fields which surrounded Lima. Redoubts upon Mount 
San Cristobal to the north of the city and upon Mount 
San Bartolem^ to the south and east, with batteries on 
the small hills south of the city, constituted the nearer 

On the 23rd of December, two divisions of the Peru- 
vian army moved into line at Chorrillos ; on the day 
following the rest of the army went to Miraflores. The 
divisions atChorrillos under Colonels Iglesias andSuar- 
ez extended their lines from Villa to Monterico Chico, 
strongly intrenched as described above ; the other divi- 
sions under Colonels Davila and Caceres, took up po- 
sitions in the Miraflores line. General Pierola estab- 
lished his headquarters at Chorrillos. 

As already stated, the first division of the Chilean 
army was landed at Pisco and ordered to march north- 
ward to form a junction with the main army at Cu- 
rayaco. General Villagras was at first in command 
at Pisco, but was subsequently relieved. Lynch being 
appointed in his place. On the 13th of December, 
Lynch began his march northward. Along the route he 
destroyed much property, burning and pillaging several 
villages, in revenge for being repeatedly annoyed by 
desultory skirmishes with the enemy. He arrived with 
his division at Ciirayaco on the 25th, bringing with 
him considerable booty. 


The main army disembarked at Curayaco from the 
22nd to the 25th, and immediately occupied the towns 
of Lurin and Pachacamac a few miles to the north- 
ward. Here headquarters was established and the army 
went into camp. One brigade was thrown across the 
river Lurin to guard the bridge and approaches from 
Chorrillos ; Colonel Barbosa pushed on to Manzano in 
the upper part of the valley and there encountered the 
cavalry force which had been harassing Lynch on his 
way north. The commander, Colonel Arostegui, and 
upward of two hundred men, were killed or taken pris- 
oners, the remainder making their escape to Lima. 

Both armies were now actively engaged in preparing 
for the final struggle and reconnoitering for positions. 
January 6th, the Chilean commander-in-chief recon- 
noitered the Peruvian line at Chorrillos with a con- 
siderable force. On the 9th, Barbosa was sent with his 
cavalry to At6 to reconnoitre the enemy's extreme left 
and report on the feasibility of a flank movement in that 
direction. A skirmish occurred in which several Chil- 
eans were killed. Pierola the same day strengthened 
the position of his left with Davila's division, for which 
reason Baquedano decided to abandon the idea of a 
flank movement and attack in front. 

On the afternoon of the 12th, the Chilean army moved 
by the mountain road of Atocongo toward the Peruvian 
right; Lynch, however, with two regiments moved by 
the coast road to attack the Peruvian right near Morro 
Solar. On the following morning the Chilean army 
emerged from the mountain road and formed for battle 
along the whole line. General Sotomayor in the center, 
Colonel Lagos on the extreme right, the left under 
Lynch ; the reserves under Colonel Martinez were placed 
back between the center and left. 

The Peruvians had Iglesias with five thousand men 


to oppose Lynch, Caceres commanded the center, de- 
fending Santa Teresa and San Juan, Davila was on 
the extreme left, Suarez' division formed a reserve. 

At the break of day, Lynch's division moved forward 
and gained a position within four or five hundred yards 
of Iglesias' position on the right, before he was dis- 
covered. This brought on desultory firing which grad- 
ually became heavier as the other Chilean divisions 
approached the Peruvian lines. This was about 5 a. m., 
and from this time the firing grew more and more brisk. 
Some of the torpedoes which the Peruvians had placed 
before their intrenchments exploded, and this so exas- 
perated the Chileans that they subsequently showed 
little quarter. San Juan was carried in about an hour, 
the defenders flying for shelter. The Peruvian right 
was steadily forced back, notwithstanding that the ar- 
tillery there played constantly upon the advancing Chil- 
eans, until it rested upon the Morro Solar. The cen- 
ter was at San Juan, and this having been cut, the 
Peruvian left wing was driven from its position and 
compelled to retreat in a rout toward Miraflores. The 
right, still fighting obstinately at the Morro Solar, was 
now attacked in front and flank and driven back toward 
Chorrillos. The Chileans at this juncture let loose 
their cavalry, which charged the fugitives from the 
center and left all along the roads to Lima, cutting 
them down mercilessly. 

On the right the fighting was still continued desper- 
ately. Colonel Iglesias sent appeal after appeal for 
reinforcements, but none came. Lynch was supported 
from the center and the Peruvians made a stand behind 
the houses and garden-walls of Chorrillos ; finally they 
were forced back and took up a position behind the 
batteries on the hill. The Chileans opened an artil- 
lery fire upon them which at 2 p. m., forced the gal- 


lant Iglesias to surrender; this, too, despite the fact 
that he had at last been tardily supported by Recabdr- 
ren and Caceres, who brought about three thousand 
men to the hill. 

The Chilean loss is given at from two thousand to 
three thousand ; the Peruvians lost in killed and wound- 
ed over four thousand men, with as many more taken 

The Chileans occupied Chorrillos and the men soon 
became utterly demoralized with drink; so much so, 
that Pierola might have rallied his army and defeated 
them while engaged in their orgies. For this reason, 
perhaps, Baquedano may have thought it best not to 
push forward immediately to the second line of de- 
fenses at Mirailores. A vast amount of property was 
detroyed or plundered by the soldiery, and Chorrillos 
laid waste. 

During the two days following the battle efforts were 
made by the foreign diplomats in Lima to arrange an 
armistice, with a view of averting further bloodshed 
and destruction of property. Pierola had requested 
this, and two foreign officers went with a flag of truce 
to General Baquedano and obtained his consent to a 
conference. An armistice was arranged to extend until 
midnight of January 15th. But during the afternoon, 
while making some changes of position, the Chilean 
third division was brought near the Peruvian lines, and 
quite close to the place where the Peruvian men-of-war 
were anchored. Not understanding the exact terms of 
the armistice, a few shots were fired by the marines; 
soon the firing became general, to the great surprise of 
both commanders. 

The Chileans and Peruvians both were thus taken by 
surprise. The former were at the time preparing their 


dinners, and a panic was only averted by the timely 
arrival of reserves. 

At half past two o'clock the battle of Miraflores had 
thus been inadvertently begun. The Chilean fleet 
opened fire upon the town of Miraflores and disabled 
the guns in the fort, which was situated between the 
town and the sea. The third division advanced and 
captured the place, the defenders falling back to the 
Peruvian center. One of the Chilean field-batteries 
had gained a commanding position at the Peruvian 
left and opened a destructive enfilading fire ; the ad- 
vantage was pushed by the first division and a strong 
force of cavalry and artillery, despite the incessant 
roar of the guns from the heights of San Bartolom6 
and San Cristoval. Four Peruvian redoubts were car- 
ried one after another at the point of the bayonet. By 
5 :30 o'clock the Peruvian army was fleeing in a wild 
rout toward the city, leaving over two thousand dead 
upon the field. The Chilean loss was about the same. 

Miraflores was burned ; the Peruvian army was dis- 
persed in all directions. Pierola with his chiefs retired 
to a little town in the mountains ; all the Peruvian ar 
tillery and munitions of war fell into the hands of the 
victorious Chileans. 

On the da}' following, the municipal Alcalde of Lima, 
Torico, formally surrendered the capital, and on the 
17th, the Chilean army took possession. Riots occurred 
and General La Cotero, Prado's late minister of war, 
undertook a revolution to put himself in Pierola's 
place, but he was taken and imprisoned. The mob 
looted and burned the Chinese quarters ; liquor stores, 
as well as small shops, were rifled. Lima was for a 
few days a city without a government, or even a police 

Callao was also for a while given over to mob rule. 


but the resident foreigners banded themselves together 
and soon made a successful stand against the rioters. 
The "Union" and "Altahualpa" in the harbor, together 
with several school-ships and transports, were destroyed 
to prevent them falling into the hands of the victors. 

General Saavedra was appointed temporary military 
governor of Lima to receive its formal surrender, and 
Captain Lynch was appointed to the same office in 
Callao, which town he occupied with his division ; he 
soon afterward became military governor at Lima. Gen- 
eral Baquedano returned to Chile with ail but ten thou- 
sand of his troops. Admiral Riveros withdrew with a 
part of the fleet, leaving Latorre in command of the 
vessels which remained. 

In time President Pierola established his headquar- 
ters at Ayacucho, the interior cities being for a time 
beyond the reach of the Chileans. Caceres brought 
together the remnants of the army. The Chileans con- 
tented themselves with the occupation of the capital and 
with levying contributions. They refused to treat with 
Pierola and a provisional government was organized at 
Lima, Francisco Garcia Calderon, an eminent Peru- 
vian lawyer, being selected by a meeting of leading citi- 
zens as provisional president and Admiral Montero as 
vice president. Chile gave countenance to this ques- 
tionable government, hence it was unpopular, as it was 
thought that Calderon would agree to almost any con- 
ditions in a treaty that the Chileans might see fit to 
impose. The old congress being called together refused 
to permit Calderon to grant any cession of Peruvian 
territory in a treaty of peace ; it was therefore dis- 
missed, August 23rd, 1881. On the 28th of September 
Calderon's government was abolished by the Chileans. 
Pierola, too, had on the 28th of July resigned his office 
into the hands of a national assembly at Ayacucho, and 


subsequently refused to hold the office of provisional 
president to which the assembly had then elected him. 
The latter office he resigned, November 28th. This 
left Admiral Montero as vice president in charge of the 
government. In August of the following year, he pro- 
ceeded to Arequipa and formed a ministry. Colonel 
Iglesias still held command in the north and Caceres 
in the central departments ; Suarez was assigned the 
command of the troops in the south, stationed at Are- 
quipa. During the year the organizing of new forces 
went on, the Peruvians obstinately refusing to accede 
to Chile's demands for the conquered nitrate territory 
and a war indemnity. 

In September, 1882, Montero went to La Paz and 
there held a conference with President Campero ; it 
was decided that the allies should hold out for better 
terms. Predatory raids and insignificant skirmishes 
were kept up, hardly worthy of mention. In January, 
1882, the Chileans occupied the vallej's of Tarma and 
Xauxa and established garrisons in several of the towns. 
In July following several of these garrisons were at- 
tacked by Caceres and some of them cut to pieces. 
Colonel Canto, the Chilean officer in command in the 
interior, then retreated from the valleys. 

A similar effort to occupy interior points was made 
in the north. A skirmish took place near Caxamarca 
in which the Chileans were at first repulsed,- but re- 
ceiving reinforcements, they in turn compelled the 
enemy to fly the field. After inflicting some damage 
by depredations the Chileans withdrew to the coasts, 
in September, 1882. A resolute attack upon the Chil- 
ean garrison at San Bartolem^, a place about fifty 
miles from Lima, was repulsed on the 22nd of July. 
The Chileans then withdrew nearer to Lima, destroj'- 
ing several villages along the line of their retreat. 


During Pinto's administration the war with Peru had 
united all parties in patriotic support of the govern- 
ment. All classes loyall}' supported the cause of the 
war ; congress was in accord with the president and 
voted supplies and authorized such emissions of paper 
money as were from time to time found to be necessary. 
Several important laws were passed, such as the abo- 
lition of the tobacco monopoly and a law which de- 
clared judges separated from administration and party 
influences and made the judiciary somewhat more inde- 
pendent of both. 

The public interior debt had reached the sum of 
130,000,000, but the receipts from the guano and nitrate 
fields enabled the government to meet its obligations, 
and, though the paper money raised prices and rents, 
the country recovered from its economical prostration 
and a period of abundance followed the crisis of 1878. 



The war with Peru, having been decided and practi- 
cally settled in favor of the Chileans by the battles of 
Chorrillos and Miraflores, it is time to turn our atten- 
tion to political changes at Santiago, where party feel- 
ing at this time was running high. On the i8th of 
September, 1881, Don Domingo Santa Maria succeeded 
Don Anibal Pinto as president of Chile. Santa Maria 
was a pronounced liberal and had long been a conspic- 
uous figure in Chilean politics, having been twice ban- 
ished for taking an active part in revolutions. In 1852, 
he had retired to Lima and in 1858, to Europe, a po- 
litical exile from his own country. He had been min- 
ister of finance in 1863, under President Perez, who 
had formed a ministry of moderate liberals and con- 
servatives, had signed the defensive treaty with Peru 
against Spain in 1866, and, as minister of foreign affairs 
during the last year of Pinto's administration, had con- 
ducted the negotiations with Lavalle pending the out- 
break of the war. 

The reaction toward the liberal party had set in dur- 
ing the administration of President Errazuriz in 1871. 
He had formed a conservative ministry,but the attempts 
to bring about reforms, particularly the abolition of 

ecclesiastical tribunals, had estranged the president 



with the moderate liberals from the old conservative 
party. This evolution once begun continued through 
the administration of Pinto. The conservatives were 
kept out of oiBce, and in time the power and influence 
of the administration was exerted in favor of liberals.* 
The conservatives had become demoralized, out of line, 
"fuera de Hnea," systematically removed from all pub- 
lic offices, possessed not a single influential official, 
and hanging over them was the shadow of political 
ostracism.! This was the condition of the parties at 
the close of the year 1880, as described by one of the 
foremost conservatives. But the men of the old regime 
were not disposed to submit tamely to the new order, 
and constant dissensions followed. From the time 
that the nation had become free from the Freire agita- 
tions and the liberals had been put down in the battle 
of Lircay, 1831, until 1871, presidents had been able 
to succeed themselves and hold two terms of office each. 
Prieto, Bulnes, Montt and Perez had each held two 
terms, and during those years Chile had had a stable 
government, strong enough to put down all liberal in- 
surrections, although the policy of Prieto, Bulnes and 
Montt, was, because of this very centralized power, 
illiberal and retrograde. Under the new order, no 
president could hope to do more than name his suc- 
cessor, and an attempt to do this by Balmaceda, as we 
shall see, was vigorously opposed. It was opposed 
when Pinto favored Santa Maria. 

A strong effort was made to prevent the nomination 
of Santa Maria; the liberal party, which was made up 
of a radical group, the moderate liberals and other 

*"Sisteindticamente alejados de todos los puestos publicos, no gozaban de in- 
fluencia oficial ninguna, i pesaba sobre ellos la sombra de una especie de ostra- 
cismo politico que, si no era persccucion manifiesta, tenia todos los caracteres 
de odiosidad profunda," etc. C. Walker Martinez. 

t"La herencia de Pinto debia necesari£tp?epte servir a las ambiciones liberal- 
es," etc, Marti[ib2: 


factions, was again divided in sentiment. Some were 
with Pinto in his support of Santa Maria, others were 
for General Baquedano, the liero of the war. Two 
meetings were held, one at Santiago and the other at 
Valparaiso, on January 2nd, the one at the capital to 
form the basis for a liberal convention, the one at Val- 
paraiso for the same object, but in favor of other men 
than those who inspired the movement at the capital. 
The meeting at Santiago wished to hold a convention 
at Santiago composed of distinguished persons, law- 
yers, deputies, doctors, senators, municipal officers 
and university students; in the meeting at Valparaiso 
much was said of democracy, of the popular elements, 
local representation and national interests. Secret influ- 
ences and interests moved different persons toward one 
or the other of the groups, and ambitious leaders in 
each faction created discord. In the Santiago meeting 
the resistance of the radicals was most characteristic 
and the convention went to pieces, loudly blaming the 
Valparaiso gathering for the work. Thus stood mat- 
ters when news arrived of the surrender of Lima. 

Political agitation, in the face of the glorious news, 
was momentarily suspended, as if by a spell, and all 
parties united in manifestations of enthusiastic patri- 
otism. Still, in the midst of the jubilation, Santa 
Maria's partisans did not forget to work. Baquedano's 
name was suddenly presented by the opposition and 
his candidacy became formidable;* but during the 
evening and the following morning the rumor was cir- 
culated that Santa Maria was the official candidate. 
He was amigo intimo de Pinto, and the government in- 
fluence was actively exerted in behalf of the minister. 

But public feeling ran high, and called for a candi- 

*"La candidatura de Baquedano surjif^- i snriio como Minerva armada de la 
cabeza a los pi6s, con grande prestijio, con popularidad enorme," — Martinez, 


date apart from official influence. At this juncture the 
conservative party espoused the candidacy of Baque- 
dano, not having a suitable name to present as its offi- 
cial candidate^ and sought in this way to fall in with 
the popular movement. The conservative leaders de- 
nounced official interference in the nominations and 
elections, and sought to bring about a reunion of their 
party with the Montt-Varistas, the latter being a branch 
of the ancient conservative party, opposed to radical 
reforms and in favor of aristocratic government, but 
at this time without very well-defined political maxims. 
They, the Montt-Varistas, knew the government influ- 
ence to be strong and, therefore, decided in favor of the 
official candidate. Santa Maria was nominated. 

But dissensions were rife and on the loth of June 
General Baquedano withdrew his name; this gave the 
death blow to the movement which had been started 
against the government. The latter carried the elec- 
tions, and the opposition suUenl}' acquiesced, heaping 
opprobrium upon the president elect.* 

Santa Maria selected as his cabinet the following 
names: Minister of the interior, Don Jos6 Francisco 
Vergara ; foreign relations, JDon Jos6 Manuel Balma- 
ceda; justice, culture and public instruction, Don Eu- 
jenio Vergara ; finance, Don Luis Aldiinate ; war and 
navy, Don Carlos Castellon. The ministry was not en 
tirely satisfactory to the opposition, but still did not 
incite resistance, and tlie new government began its 
administration with fair prospects of success, and with 
hopeful expectations of bringing about several contem- 
plated reforms. 

Meanwhile the war in the north had been practically 
decided by the battles of Chorrillos and Miraflores, 

*"?Era me orador ilustre? No. ?Un intcrjdrrimo magistrado? No. ?Un escri 
tor notable? No. ?Un Sabio? No. ?Un caracter, un h^roe, un solado, siquiera? 
No." C. Walker Martinez. 



but, as we have alreadj' noted, skirmishes were still 
kept up in the interior, and both Peru and Bolivia 
held out nearly three years, for better terms than 
Chile was willing to grant. During the last year, 1883, 
there were several sharp engagements between the Chi- 
leans and a force which General Caceres had long been 
able to maintain in the interior. In May, there were 
several skirmishes, in two of which Caceres was de- 
feated, (Balconcillo and Pampas de Sicaya), General 
Canto commanding the Chileans. On May the 22d, 
the Peruvian leader was again defeated at Garma by 
General Garcia. 

The indefatigable Caceres again rallied a force and 
met the Chileans on July loth, at Huamachuco. Col- 
onel Alejandro Gorostiaga commanded about one thous- 
and six hundred Chilean troops, and with them de- 
feated Caceres at the head of over four thousand. The 
Peruvians lost nine hundred killed and as many more 
wounded ; the Chileans lost fifty-six killed, one hundred 
and four wounded, also four officers. The Peruvian 
general, Silva, was killed ; eleven pieces of artillery 
and eight hundred stands of rifles were captured. The 
battle lasted from 6 a. m. to 2 p. m. 

When Lynch, the Chilean military governor, re- 
ceived news of the battle, he invited President Iglesias 
to come to Lima and take charge of the government 
there, which had been opposed by Caceres. At the 
same time he published a decree calling on all officers 
formerly serving under Caceres to come in and give 
themselves up, or be treated as spies. 

The Indians of the interior, incited by men more 
unscrupulous than patriotic, still maintained an obsti- 
nate resistance. On August 15th, the Chilean com- 
mander chastised three thousand of them for pillaging, 
killing and wounding eight hundred of their number. 


About the same time a mutiny broke out among the 
Peruvian troops at Chancay which had to be quelled. 
During the months of August and September active 
efforts were made to hasten peace measures, and the 
troops in several districts of Peru recognized Igiesias 
as lawful president. On September i8th, three thou- 
sand opposition troops (Monteneros) were defeated at 
Huancayo, two hundred of them being killed. 

On the 2nd of October, 1883, eight hundred and seven- 
ty Peruvian officers availed themselves of Lynch's invi- 
tation to come in, and submitted to the Chilean authori- 
ties. Puno was occupied, and on the gth Casnia de- 
clared for peace. On the 20th, the treaty of peace was 
signed between Chile and Peru. On the 24th General 
Igiesias was recognized in Peru as president regenerador. 
On the 29th, Arequipa, which had so long held out, 
surrendered, and Montero fled to Bolivia, where, how- 
ever, he was not very enthusiastically received, and 
soon after went on to Buenos Ayres and afterward to 
Europe. He resigned whatever supposititious author- 
ity he possessed to Caceres. On November gth, the 
Chilean army of occupation had been concentrated at 
Arequipa, and the Bolivian army, or what remained of 
it, at Oruro. But on this day the Bolivian envoy, 
Guijarro, quitted Tacna and went to confer with the 
Chilean envoy, Lillo, with reference to peace. On 
December nth, the treaty between Bolivia and Chile 
was signed. The Indians of the interior, however, led 
by Caceres, who spoke their language, kept up skir- 
mishes and devastation until the close of the year. 

By the treaty Chile obtained from Bolivia the lat- 
ter's seacoast, including the port of Cobija, twenty per 
cent of Bolivian port customs, privileges for construct- 
ing railroads into the interior, and other concessions. 

By the terms of the treaty between Peru and Chile 


signed, at Ancon, October 20th, 1883, Peru ceded to 
her antagonist the territory of Tarapacd to the Camer- 
ones, forever and unconditionally ; the territories of 
Tacna and Arica were to remain subject to Chilean 
authority for a period of ten years, at the close of 
which term the vote of the people of those provinces 
should decide whether they should return to Peru or 
remain Chilean. In either case the country to which 
they should afterward be definitely annexed, engaged 
to pay to the other an idemnity of ^10,000,000. Chile 
solemnly engaged to carry out certain agreements re- 
lating to the guano and nitrate of soda deposits, such 
as to pay over to creditors of Peru fifty per cent of the 
net proceeds derived from the deposits, until the fer- 
tilizer was exhausted or the debt paid. New depos- 
its discovered in the territory permanently annexed 
were to belong to the Chileans, and the island of Lo- 
bos was to continue under the administration of Chile 
until a contract for one thousand tons of guano previ- 
ously made by them had been completed, Chile mean- 
while agreeing to pay Peru five per cent of the pro- 
ceeds derived from the sales of the guano. 

The treaty was to be ratified at Lima within one 
hundred and eighty days of its date, Chile maintaining 
an arm}' of occupation in Peru until the ratification 
was completed, at an expense of $300,000 a month to 
the Peruvians. This monthly idemnity, however, was 
subsequently modified. The final treaty was signed 
April 4th, 1884. 

The expense of the war to Chile had been enormous, 
a heavy burden for so small a nation. It was estimated 
at ^60,000,000 by the middle of the year 1881, which 
was within $15,000,000 (nearly) of the whole national 
debt on January ist, 1880. But the national credit had 


been maintained, and guano bondholders had no cause 
to complain of Chile's engagements. 

On July 23d, 1881, Chile obtained two hundred and 
fifteen thousand seven hundred and twenty-five square 
kilometres of land in the south by treaty with the Ar- 
gentine Republic. This matter had been long pending 
and had several times nearly caused a rupture of the 
friendly relations existing between those republics. 
Chile claimed to Cape Horn ; the Argentines disputed 
this and claimed the whole of Patagonia. Perhaps the 
Argentines were right, but they had acquiesced in 
Chile's possession of the territory and claim to it for 
many years, and were not, therefore, now in a position 
consistently to oppose it. 

The dissensions which had preceded Santa Maria's 
nomination and election to the presidency did not 
greatly abate after his inauguration. One of the re- 
forms the liberals brought forward was that of sepa- 
rating the church from the state. We have seen how 
bitterly the clerical party opposed the passing of a law 
in President Errazuriz's time, imposing penalties on 
priests who incited to disobedience of the laws. It is 
not, therefore, surprising that they should bring every 
influence to bear against separation. In 1884, the ques- 
tion was mooted in congress and gave rise to fiery de- 
bates. The government and a large majority of the 
house Avere in favor of a gradual separation ; the radi- 
cal group urged the expediency of bringing about the 
separation by a single stroke. The discussions in ec- 
clesiastical and political circles grew warm, and con- 
tinued unabated through Santa Maria's administration. 
As we have seen, the death of Archbishop Valdivieso 
in 1878, had left a vacancy which the government de- 
sired to fill and, therefore, designated for the place the 
prebendary. Don Francisco de Paula Taforo. This 


nomination was fiercely assailed by the church party 
and the Pope refused to ratify it until the matter had 
been investigated. The Bishop of Himeria was sent 
out as an apostolic delegate and after hearing his re- 
port, the Pope again refused to confirm Taforo. The 
government then handed the delegate his passports, and 
he indignantly declared that civil authorities should not 
administer ecclesiastical patronage. This disavowel of 
the prerogatives of the state in matters ecclesiastical 
gave increased force to the discussions of church mat- 
ters and resulted finally in the passage and approval 
of the cemetery and matrimonial laws and a law which 
organized a civil registry. 

In 1883, the civil marriage law had been passed, and 
this was from the start as stubbornly resisted by the 
clericals as the question of separation. The elections 
of March, 1885, of senators and representatives was a 
crushing defeat of the opposition, and gave the liber- 
als increased majorities ; but the manner in which the 
elections had been carried by government influence 
caused great dissatisfaction, although there were whole» 
sale frauds and insolent intimidations practiced by both 

The organized opposition of the clericals to the civil 
marriage law produced turbulence throughout the coun- 
try. The government refused to allow a clerical mar- 
riage any force in law, and the church refused to allow 
anj' force in religion to a civil marriage. Women took 
sides with the church, the men with the government, 
so that there were few marriages. There was need of 
reform in this matter, for twenty-three per cent of all 
children born were illegitimate. The church affixed 
conditions to marriage sacraments to which men would 
not submit. The law was intended to curtail the church 
fees in this respect and to remedy the discord by pro- 


bibiting the clergy from performing marriage ceremo- 
nies unless certificates of civil marriage were first ob- 

The clergy refused to marry any one previously mar- 
ried by the civil law, and the main political issue now 
became the repeal of the law of 1883. The ultramon- 
tane archbishop excommunicated the president and his 
cabinet ; also all members of congress who had voted 
for the obnoxious law. He further threatened that a 
similar penalty should be visited upon every commun- 
icant who obeyed the statute and had a civil marriage 
performed. This ridiculous opp'jsition to a most salu- 
tary law was carried even furth(ir, and in the March 
elections the clergy bought votes with absolution and 
religious privileges. 

We begin to see the first lightning flashes preceding 
the storm. It is related that, on the 24th of January, 
1886, President Santa Maria received through the mail 
at his residence in Santiago, a package containing an 
infernal machine. He was suspicious of it, and upon 
carefully untying the strings, found that it contained 
->. clock-work machine attached to a hammer in such a 
manner as to explode a charge of dynamite. To this 
pass had politics come. 

Increase in the public revenues enabled the admin- 
istration to initiate and carry forward many important 
public works. Large sums were voted to construct 
railways and other public works, and for purposes of 
education and colonization. The'Araucanian territories 
were occupied as far as the site of the ancient Villa- 
J-ica and active colonization was begun. A law was 
passed pensioning the infirm and crippled soldiers oi 
the war and their orphans. Public offices were reorgan- 
ized, and a better system of promotions and payment 
of civil employes and military officers was arranged. 


Certain articles of the constitution were amended, re- 
moving many of the barriers which had hitherto stood 
in the way of a true federal, republican and constitu- 
tional form of government. A new election law was 
passed, which it was hoped would give more freedom 
and purity to the ballot. 

Jose Manuel Balmaceda. 



The conservative opposition had grown more and 
more pronounced during Santa Maria's administration, 
and the elections had come to be marked by turbu- 
lence, fraud, oppression and bloodshed. In the elec- 
tions of 1882, two men had been killed and seven 
wounded; in those of 1885, seventeen were killed and 
one hundred and sixty-five wounded; in the elections 
of the year 1886, forty-six were killed, and one hun- 
dred and sixty wounded, making a total of sixty killed 
and three hundred and thirty-two wounded. When we 
consider the small voting population, only one in fifty, 
suffrage being limited to those who can read and are 
registered and qualified high tax-payers, it will be seen 
that the elections had somewhat the appearance of 
civil revolts, so high did party feeling run. 

The Santa Maria government threw all its influence 
toward the election of Don Jos^ Manuel Balmaceda. 
The opposition sought at first to unite upon Don Jos6 
Francisco Vergara, but failed in this. The three or 
four sections of the liberal party were vastly in the 
ascendency, outnumbering the Montt-Varistas, clericals 
and conservatives; and the official candidate met with 


no organized resistance. Balmaceda was elected and 
duly installed on September i8th, 1886. His cabinet 
contained as minister of the interior, Don Jos6 F. Ver- 
gara; foreign affairs, Don Francisco Freire ; Varas, Ed- 
wards and Aturez filled the other departments. In the 
following year a new cabinet was formed, the old min- 
isters resigning on account of the president's lavish 
expenditures in pushing public works. On this ques- 
tion four ministries resigned during the next four years. 

Under Balmaceda numerous reforms were proposed ; 
one project was to prohibit senators and deputies from 
having interests in public contracts, another, that 
neither the president nor any minister should give an 
office to a near relation unless he was qualified in 
ever}' respect to hold it, and still another, that the 
president should be elected by congress, not by popular 
vote. All these questions caused exciting debates. 

This was a time when there was much talk of pro- 
gress, of advancement in public interests. In the year 
following Balmaceda's election the senate voted a sub- 
sidy to complete the gap of one hundred and forty 
miles of railroad connecting the Chilean system with 
that of the Argentine Republic by way of the Uspallata 
pass. The Arauco company in London was granted 
the right of completing a grant made by Chile in 1884, 
for the building of a railroad from Concepcion to Rios 
de Curanclahue and for the undertaking of certain pub- 
lic works in the province of Arauco and other parts of 
Chile. In the summer of 1887, a telephone line was 
constructed between Valparaiso and Santiago, and Co- 
quimbo was lighted with electric lights. The state 
devoted ^3,000,000 a year to free public instruction; 
1,500 primary schools were established with over one 
hundred thousand pupils. During the year 1887, the 
government paid out 3650,000 to hospitals, lazarettos, 

THE CIVTL WAR OF i8pi 331 

vaccination offices, fire departments, etc. The police 
received a subsidy of §471,900. In the year 1888, -there 
was set aside for all these purposes the sum of $1,196,- 

In December, 1887, there were 1,096 kilometers of 
government railroad in operation, and 1,369 kilometers 
projected for the following year at a cost of nearly 
seventeen millions of dollars (^3,517,000). Private 
companies operated 1,558 kilometers. 

Yet despite these lavish expenditures for public im- 
provements of all kinds, the government made an ex- 
cellent showing in its annual budgets and firmly main- 
tained the credit of the state. In 1889, the revenue 
collected by the government amounted to §50, 183,938; 
expenses, $46,135,501 ; foreign debt, $39,748,000; home 
debt, $23,834,484. On the first of January of the year 
1889, the government had an available fund of savings 
of about $25,000,000. This, following upon a costly 
war with Peru, was indeed a flattering showing. 

In the years 1889 and 1890, there were abolitions of 
certain duties, such as the import duties on machines 
and tools for agriculturists, for mining, for different 
trades and industries. New railroads were contracted 
for at an estimated cost of $4,000,000; new buildings 
for elementary and normal schools were erected in all 
parts of the country ; a new line of steamers to run 
between Valparaiso and Panama was subsidized, the 
monopoly so long held by the Pacific Steam Naviga- 
tion Company being thus subjected to competition. 

These vast material and intellectual improvements, 
which not even the ravages of the cholera scourge of 
1887 and 1888, could retard, were not brought about 
without unceasing debates with the conservatives, who 
saw the money go into railroads and schoolhouses, 
which, they argued, should be used to pay national 


debts and redeem the paper currency. This sort of 
liberalism was even too advanced for many liberals ; 
the party, made up of three or four factions, had now 
enjoyed power long enough to create dissensions within 
its ranks. Violent political demonstrations became the 
order of the day, a very notable one occurring on the 
20th of May, i8go; and in July, there were labor dis- 
turbances. When it became known that the president's 
choice for a successor was Senor San Fuentes, all par- 
ties, save the out and out Balmacedists, the Liberales 
del Gobiertio, opposed the candidate ; for Seiior San 
Fuentes was as cordially detested by some sections of 
the liberal party as he was beloved by others. 

The constant thunder of the clericals, conservatives 
and Montt-Varistas began to tell: dissensions had at 
last been created in the liberal ranks. They had been 
wont to compare Santa Maria and Balmaceda with the 
worst of the Roman tyrants, until factions of the lib- 
erals took up the cry.* The government interference 
in elections, so bitterly opposed by the conservatives 
in Santa Maria's canvass, was now taken up by liber- 
als themselves. It was not democratic, it was impe- 
rial, and in the matter of San Fuentes, it was found 
that the country would no longer tolerate it.| The 
leaven was working now, and it needed but little usur- 
pation of power on the part of the president to make 
the opposition cry of "Caesar" take hold upon disaf- 
fected liberals, who joined the conservatives and cleri- 
cals in significant warnings to the government to be- 
ware, lest there rise another Brutus. 

*"Como Caligula, Neron, Domiciano, Comodo, Caracalla, Eliogabalo, que todos 
fueron malos," etc. — C. Walker Martinez. 

f'Pasa en Chile con los sucesores de nuestros presidentes lo que pasaba en 
Roma con los herederos del Imperio. No los elejia el pueblo, salvo los cases es- 
cepcionalcs de las revoluciones, sino unicamente el emperador asociandolos a su 
gobierno con elnombre el Casares,"— Martinez, 



From 1817, when the Spanish yoke was thrown off, 
until 1833, Chile was governed by dictators, sometimes 
well, sometimes ill, but alwaj's b}' autocratic power. 
In the latter year a constitution was promulgated, under 
which the ship of state sailed in comparatively tranquil 
seas for more than half a century ; this parchment, 
as amended in 1874, and other times, is the organic 
law of Chile to-day. Constitutions are supposed to 
be the most rigid expressions of law and will, but like 
creeds they are still somewhat elastic. If they are 
not amended to keep pace with the popular will and 
national advancement, certain parts must perforce be- 
come practically dead letter, or severely strained in 
the intrepretation. Such had long been the case with 
the Chilean constitution. Framed in a time of dicta- 
tors, it had given almost dictatorial powers to the 
president, which time had greatly modified in practice 
if not by positive amendments. 

The Chilean constitution is somewhat like that of 
the United States, yet different in important particu- 
lars. The president is chosen by electors nominated 
by the provinces, three electors being allowed to each 
representative. His term of ofBce is for five years, and 
he can not now be twice elected consecutively ; formerly 
he could be. He is bound to convoke congress in regu- 



lar session from June ist to September the ist, but he 
can at any time prorogue it for a term of fifty days; he 
can summon it in special session whenever he may 
please \ he appoints and removes the six ministers, the 
intendentes of provinces, governors of towns, diplo- 
matic agents and five out of the eleven members of the 
council of state; he is commander-in-chief of the army 
and navy, or practically so ; he appoints the judges of 
both the higher and lower courts upon recommenda- 
tion of the council of state ; he approves, promulgates 
and takes part in the making of laws, issues decrees, 
regulations and instructions which he may deem advan- 
tageous for the due execution of laws. 

It will thus be seen that the powers so delegated to 
the president amount in fact to making him almost an 
autocrat, should he choose to be dictatorial. In the 
few instances where he must act in conjunction with 
the council of state, he can wield an influence almost 
dictatorial for he has the appointment of five out of 
eleven members of that body, the other six being ap- 
pointed in the proportion of three from each branch of 
congress. His cabinet is entirely of his own appoint- 
ment. The seven members from each branch appointed 
by congress as an advisory committee, called Comision 
Conservadora, whose functions are to see that there is 
due observance of the constitution while congress is 
not in session, tender advice to the president, and sug- 
gest the expediency of extra sessions, is in fact merely 
an advisory committee, with no power which a president 
not in sympathy with congress is legally bound to 

It will be seen, therefore, that the chances were that 
at some time a president might be chosen who would 
fall out with congress, or, rather, with the Chilean 
oligarchy, which in fact governed Chile and held the 


dictatorial powers of the president under control, and 
then the only check congress would have upon his 
almost unlimited power, would be the money check. 
They could refuse to vote him supplies. This is what 
happened in the case of Balmaceda in the first part of 
the year 1890. As before noted, he had been returned 
in 1886, by the liberal party, composed of at least four 
elements but loosely united. These may be designated 
as Liberals del Gobierno, who were out and out Balma- 
cedists; Nacionales, those who were opposed to making 
a wide distribution of the offices as unfair to them, 
who had been the old liberal party ; Sueltos, who were 
of all shades of political belief; Radicales, who were 
the extreme liberals and came at last to view Balma- 
ceda's administration as tending toward a conservative 
reaction. The conservatives were split into three di- 
visions : The Montt-Varistas, aristocrats believing in 
aristocratic government ; Clericales, who believed in a 
priestly influence in government ; Conservadores, who 
were the least extreme conservatives. 

Balmaceda, as we have seen, had been elected by 
the liberals, and for two years ruled not unsatisfactor- 
ily; but his pertinacious adherence to the strict letter 
of the constitution as against the parliamentary toler- 
ance practiced by his predecessors, his manner of dis- 
tributing the spoils, his zeal in erecting public build- 
ings, pushing public works and building schoolhouses, 
necessitating lavish expenditures, eventuall}' caused a 
split of his former supporters and all but the Liberals 
del Gobierno, interested in office, were finally arrayed 
against him, together with the three factions of the 

Thus stood matters in January, 1890. Four cabinets 
had gone to pieces over the question of the erection of 
costly public works instead of providing for the re- 


demption of the paper currency; nine foreign minis- 
ters had succeeded each other in rapid succession ; 
Balmaceda adhered to his policy and continued to 
choose new parliamentary selected cabinets, for, not- 
withstanding the power granted him by the constitu- 
tion, the unwritten parliamentary law which had grown 
up was, that the ministers should be in harmony with 

It now became the general impression in congress 
that the president was scheming to have Senor San 
Fuentes succeed him, as his presidential term was far 
spent. It was alleged bj' his opponents that he wished 
to enrich himself by promoting a scheme to form a 
syndicate to purchase the Tarapaca nitrate beds; 
hence the first step was to elect a successor. It had 
been the custom for presidents to name their succes- 
sors, and to use all the party machinery to accomplish 
that result. It would have been strange if Balmaceda 
had not done as his predecessors, whatever truth there 
may or may not have been in the nitrate story. However, 
he disclaimed any intention of supporting San Fuentes, 
as also did the latter of having any designs on the 
presidential chair. Congress doubted the intentions 
of both, perhaps with good reason, and when San 
Fuentes was made prime minister by the president, a 
vote of censure was passed. The president insisted 
that his ministers should remain. This was against 
the precedents, but not, apparently, against the con- 
stitution. Congress, therefore, refused to pass the ap- 
propriation bill until a ministry should be appointed 
in harmony with its views. With funds cut off, the 
government could not long carry on its expensive works, 
or even exist, so that Balmaceda yielded and formed a 
new ministry with Judge Belisario Prato of the supreme 
court as prime minister. Congress was satisfied, and 

THE CIVIL WAR OF i8gi 337 

voted temporary supplies. Argentina had just deposed 
a dictator ; perhaps that fact weighed somewhat with 
Baimaceda when he made this concession to congress. 

Congress and the new ministry now began to seek 
the removal of objectionable intendentes and other 
government officers, for the purpose of handicapping 
the president in the forthcoming elections, particularly 
if he were scheming for the return of San Fuentes. The 
president refused to remove anybody, save for an in- 
dictable and proven offence. 

It was an extraordinary session called by the presi- 
dent for the express purpose of passing an appropria- 
tion bill — the annual supply bill. He maintained that 
it had no constitutional authority to go outside and 
take up the matter of the removal of officers, and the 
consideration of Australian electoral ballot bills, and 
municipal bills, which were intended to carry the elec- 
tion against him. Congress would not vote the supply 
bill until the objectionable officers were removed. The 
president refused, the ministry again resigned. Bai- 
maceda appointed a new ministry in sympathy with 
his views and closed the session, October 17th, i8go. 

The constitutional committee now sought to exer- 
cise some of its senile advisory powers, and advised 
that another extraordinary session be called. The pres- 
ident and his ministers hesitated about taking the 
course suggested by the congressional constitutional 
committee. According to precedent they should have 
obeyed the behest; according to the constitution, they 
were not obliged to do so. 

While they were deliberating, the committee arro- 
gated to itself the responsibility of calling a session of 
its own. This congress when assembled could do no 
more than consider and denounce, and this it did in a 
lively manner. It became apparent that no supplies 


would be voted by another extraordinary session, but 
rather that some sort of a law would more than likely 
be passed for the deposition of the alleged dictator ; 
therefore, the president called no session, and disre- 
garded protests and representations from citizens, cor- 
porations and the press. 

But the government could not keep the state machin- 
ery oiled very long without funds. The temporary sup- 
plies would be of no avail after September 31st. Con- 
gress was daily receiving the support of popular sym- 
pathy, particularly in Valparaiso and Santiago, and 
had a strong following in the army and navy, despite 
the alleged active efforts of Balmaceda to win over the 
support of the officers, and to replace the obdurate ones 
with his own partisans. Summary action, and that 
very soon, was necessary if the president maintained 
his power and persisted in his dictatorial policy. 

The president issued a manifesto January ist, 1891, 
declaring it his intention to adhere to his constitu- 
tional powers and functions, to stand by the strict let- 
ter of the constitution whether or not some of its pro- 
visions were to be considered as constituting it, in 
many respects, dead letter. With its unfairness and 
effete provisions he had nothing to do ; nor had he 
anything to do with the new theories of parliamentary 
government until such theories were embodied in posi- 
tive law. He might be bound ordinarily to heed the 
advice of the constitutional committee, but why call 
another extra session which would only pass votes of 
censure upon him and would not vote supplies? There 
would soon be elections, then the people might decide ; 
in the meantime, he would perform his duty according 
to his oath and his constitutional rights. Such was 
the argument. 

The acts of the president had been declared illegal 

THE CIVIL WAR OF 1891 339 

by the supreme court. He ignored the court, which 
was no doubt in sympathy with the opposition. Pro- 
bably from the time he had dissolved congress on Oc- 
tober 5th, the president had been preparing his final 
coup d'etat. It is reasonable to suppose that he was 
not idle, and there is no doubt much truth in the 
charge that he increased the police force everywhere, 
obliged the officers of the army to pledge support to 
him and, in case of their refusal, dismissed or impris- 
oned them, broke up public assemblies, and it is likely 
may have been indirectly responsible for some citizens 
being shot down by the police. 

Some of the officers of the army who had been im- 
prisoned for refusing to pledge their support, appealed 
to the supreme court, and the court decided that they 
should be set at liberty. The court also decided that 
the army and navy had no legal existence after De- 
cember 31st, inasmuch as no congress had then passed 
the annual law granting supplies and enumerating the 
strength of the land and naval forces for the ensuing 
year. Probably the court was right, but Senor Bal- 
maceda was now dictator and refused to obey the su- 
preme court, which was in sympathy with the party 
opposed to him. Congress, which had a very ques- 
tionable legal existence, deposed the president, or de- 
clared him deposed, and empowered Jorge Montt of 
the navy to assume command provisionally; when a 
junta was formed aboard ship, consisting of Senor 
Montt, Waldo Silva, vice president of the senate, and 
Barros Luco, president of the chamber of deputies. 

On January 7th, following the publication of the 
president's letter, civil war began. The commanders 
of the "Blanco Encalada, " "Cochrane" and "Huascar, " 
the only ironclads in the navy, declared at once for 
congress ; the wooden vessels followed their lead. The 


army adhered to the cause of Balmaceda, whose role 
was now practically that of a dictator. The congress 
made haste to get aboard warships, and a state of siege 
was proclaimed. 

Congress had doubtless expected a revolt of the army ; 
but in that respect it had had overweening confidence. 
The army, through loyalty, through jealousy of the 
fleet, through increased pay and promotion, stood by 
the cause of the president; and as there were some six 
thousand troops and strong fortifications in Valparaiso 
there was nothing better for the revolutionary leaders 
and the fleet to do than to proceed north to Iquique, 
and undertake there to cut off and convert to the use 
of the congressional party the main sinews of war ; to 
wit, the $20,000,000 or $30,000,000 annual revenues 
from the nitrate fields. 

The congressional fleet was composed of two iron- 
clads, the "Blanco Encalada" and "Almirante Coch- 
rane;" of one monitor, "Huascar;' of the cruiser, "Es- 
meralda;" the corvette, "O'Higgins;" the gunboat, 
"Magallanes," and the corvette, "Abtao, " the latter 
being at this time on a voyage of instruction for mid- 

On January 6th, at night, the "Blanco," "Esmeralda" 
and "O'Higgins" quit Valparaiso harbor and went to 
Quintero, twenty miles north, to join the "Cochrane" 
and "Magallanes." The "Huascar" was left in Val- 
paraiso to undergo repairs. On the 7th, Balmaceda 
undertook to restore the armament, but Captain Montt 
manned boats and succeeded in towing her out of the 
harbor. She was repaired and did good service after- 
ward under Captain Jos6 Santa Cruz, taking, for one 
thing, the town of Taltal. The "O'Higgins," with the 
transport "Amazonas, " took the whole province of Co- 
quimbo, having landed sixty men; the "Cachapoal" 


went north and took possession of most of the ports, 
without opposition. 

It was thought advisable by the congressional lead- 
ers not to proceed too rashly against Iquique, as the 
place might offer decided resistance to the fleet, which 
would have at the outset a demoralizing effect upon 
the revolutionary cause. Therefore, the first serious 
move was made against Pisagua, forty miles north of 
Iquique, and an important nitrate port. After a short 
bombardment, the town yielded. Though a primitive 
place where goods are carried from the shore to light- 
ers on old Indian balsas paddled by boatmen with 
double-ended paddles, it was still of great importance 
to the congressionalists, because of its nitrate trade. 

Some twenty-five or thirty miles inland from Pisa- 
gua, on the railroad running east and then south to 
Iquique through the nitrate regions, is the town of 
Zapiga. Here a detachment of congressional troops, 
badly disciplined and poorly armed, was opposed to 
a body of government troops, by whom they were 
routed. The latter then advanced and retook Pisagua 
after a hotly contested fight. The congressional fleet 
subjected the port to a terrific bombardment, inflicting 
great damage and suffering upon the town and inhabi- 
tants. They recaptured the place. 

At San Francisco, a village below Zapiga on the rail- 
road, a body of government troops pushing forward to 
Pisagua under Colonel Robles, was met by the revo- 
lutionists, and after a desperate encounter defeated. 
Two-thirds of the Balmacedist troops were left dead 
upon the field, both sides fighting with fierce despera- 

With the shattered remnant of his little army Colonel 
Robles joined the garrison from Iquique, which had 
been sent forward to his support at San Francisco, and 


again attacked the enemy at Huaraz, the revolution- 
ists, in the meantime, taking advantage of the absence 
of the garrison to establish themselves in Iquique. At 
Huaraz the government forces were successful ; the 
enemy was sent flying toward Iquique, with such of the 
troops as escaped the slaughter. Colonel Soto pursued 
and carried Iquique by assault, with a detachment of 
government troops. Colonel Robles should have fol» 
lowed with reinforcements, making sure of this impor- 
tant point, but that he failed to do, with subsequent 
disastrous results. There were over five thousand gov- 
ernment troops at different points within from one to 
four days' march of Iquique, with not more than two 
thousand revolutionists to oppose them, yet Soto was 
left with a handful of men to defend the town against 
a furious bombardment by the enemy's fleet. 

Colonel Soto pounded his field-pieces against the 
ironclads during the day, February 17th, until his force 
was reduced to fort}' men. Rear Admiral Hotham was 
in the harbor with the British man-of-war, "Warspite." 
Seeing the havoc made of English property in the 
town, he proposed an armistice to arrange the matter. 
Colonel Soto, despairing of receiving reinforcements, 
agreed to this, and on the next da}' a conference took 
place on board the "Warspite;" there the arrangement 
agreed upon was, that Iquique should be surrendered. 
A detachment sent by Colonel Robles arrived late 
enough to be taken in at the surrender. Two million 
rounds of ammunition fell into the hands of the revo- 

The revolutionists determined now to hold Iquique 
at all hazards. Hold it they must or the congressional 
stake would soon be lost, for Robles, Gana, Arrate and 
Camus had five thousand government troops in the vi- 
cinity. Therefore, all the men in Iquique able to bear 

THE CIVIL WAR OF 1891 343 

arms, as well as those from the surrounding nitrate 
works, were brought into the service. And from the 
coast towns the congressional fleet brought in as many 
recruits as could be obtained. In this way an army of 
about three thousand men was raised. 

The revolutionists doubtless expected that the gov- 
ernment detachments, commanded at different points by 
Robles, Gana, Arrate and Camus, would unite and fall 
upon Iquique. This, however, was not done. There 
was bad management. Colonel Robles was brave 
enough, and commanded in chief, but he was seventy 
years old and a poor strategist. He halted at Sebas- 
topol, about twenty-five miles southeast of Iquique, 
and from there sent word to the junior officers to rejoin 
him. But the Atacama desert, which for so many cen- 
turies destro3'ed the Inca armies and many times 
turned back invaders, could not well be traversed by 
the other detachments, without water. Besides, Colo- 
nels Gana, Arrate and Camus, acting each upon his 
own judgment, had sent off portions of their troops to 
protect coast towns. 

Colonel Robles moved forward to Pozo al Monte. 
Here he received reinforcements from Colonel Arrate's 
detachment, and without waiting for the other detach- 
ments to send what men they could, rashly determined 
to move forward and attack the enemy, who was now 
advancing. Robles underrated both the valor and the 
strength of the enemy, who numbered 2,600 men, with 
some cavalry, three field-batteries, and several gatling 
guns. The government troops for a time seemed likel)' 
to prevail. Robles, though wounded himself, ordered 
a general advance. But a flank movement, performed 
b}' a body of cavalry accompanied by some infantry, 
was ordered by Colonel Canto, who commanded the 
congressional troops, probably in anticipation of the 



charge made by Robles, and this was successful. Colo- 
nel Robles was mortally wounded while leading the 
charge; the government troops were cut to pieces. The 
gallant old colonel, while dying of his wounds, was 
riddled by bullets and pierced by bayonets. 

Balmaceda now' found himself in the trying position 
of sustaining a demoralized cause. After Robles' de- 
feat, the other government colonels retreated across 
the Andes out of Chile and did not return until winter; 
2,500 of the government troops at Antofagasta ran away 
to Argentina ; the troops at Tacna fled to Peru. There 
was now no government force of any consequence left 
in the north, and the impassable desert prevented troops 
from crossing overland to Iquique from the south. 
Transports and a navy were necessary, and Balmaceda 
had neither to speak of. The "Imperial," which had 
been doing good service in reinforcing and provision- 
ing the northern garrisons, and which afterward fitted 
out as a cruiser, acted a conspicuous part in the war, 
would not hold a thousand troops. The torpedo-boats, 
"Lynch" and "Condell," had been ordered around from 
Buenos Ayres ; this was the extent of the government's 
navy. Opposed to it, the revolutionists had several 
formidable ironclads. 



The president's manifesto on January ist, had started 
a revolution but poorly prepared to cope with him. 
Seldom has an insurrection in its inception seemed so 
unpromising. The insurgents had no army, no mus- 
kets, no cannon, no munitions of war. The army had 
not revolted as was expected. A few muskets were 
captured at Quintero, but even counting those, the 
congressionalists could only number four hundred, all 

But what was at the outset a drawback to the oppo- 
sitionists, proved in the end a benefit. Repeating rifles 
and smokeless powder were soon procured, and before 
the close of the contest 12,000 men had been equipped 
with the most modern weapons of warfare. With a 
repeating rifle, one congressional soldier became a fair 
match for three government soldiers armed only with 
the old-fashioned breechloaders. 

Again the contest was not so unequal at the outset 
as might at first be supposed. Chile is a maritime 
country, her towns nearly all being on the seaboard ; 
thus the possession of a well equipped fleet by the con- 
gressionalists, gave them a decided initial advantage. 
It is probably true, too, that the army was not alto- 
gether whole hearted in its loyalty to Balmaceda. Cer- 


tain it is, that a large number of officers joined the fleet 
and went north to Iquique with the junta, where they 
fought on the opposition side. The congressionalists 
were from the start better officered. Colonel Canto 
was a strategist, with whom Robles was unfit and unable 
to cope. Then before the southern campaign began, 
the congressionalists had secured the services of Colo- 
nel Korner, a Prussian tactician, and there was no BaJ- 
macedist officer his equal in the science of war. Men 
may fight like demons, as was the case with Balmace- 
da's troops, but their blood may be shed to little pur- 
pose if they are led by inferior officers. The Chilean 
soldier is a fighter with the spirit of the Araucanian 
Indian, but somebody needs to plan for him ; valor will 
not take the place of strategy. 

Their successes in the north soon gave the opposi- 
tion the almost undisputed possession of four provinces ; 
and the provinces, too, having the wealth, containing 
the resources of the nation. Though a barren coun- 
try where rain falls but seldom, the nitrate desert of 
Tarapaca and the surrounding country, taken from Peru 
in the Chilean-Peruvian war, is a region of enormous 
wealth ; and the revenue derived from it by the state 
is greater than all the import duties. The royalty of 
Ji.6o( Chilean) levied on each hundred pounds, produced 
a revenue in 1890, of $20,900,000. The desert region of 
Tarapaca, Antofagasta and Atacama, extending nearly 
four hundred miles from north to south, is a vast chem- 
ical laboratory whose nitrate of soda deposits (caliches) 
furnish the best known fertilizer in the world. Here 
enormous fortunes have been made, and are still being 
made, largely by English capitalists. Here an army 
of men is employed, the TarapacA caliches alone in 
1890 employing 13,000 workmen. The northern ports 
of Iquique, Pisagua, Coleta, Buena, Junin, Tocopilla, 

THE CIVIL WAR OF i8gi 347 

Antofagasta, Taltal and Puerto Olivia, have been built 
up by the immense industry, Iquique being now the 
seventh city in Chile. 

Thus it will be seen, that though the wealth of Old 
Chile was in the south, including the cities of Santi- 
ago, Valparaiso, Concepcion and the large towns, and 
though Balmaceda had the government machinery and 
army at his disposal, yet the possession of the four 
northern provinces by the revolutionists gave them no 
inconsiderable advantage. There they organized a 
fairly well-ordered government, and, with abundant 
revenues procured Manlicher rifles, drilled troops and 
assumed all the outward appearance of seceding states. 
Bolivia even went so far as to recognize them as bel- 
ligerents. The "Itata" being detained, did not reach 
them with her smuggled cargo from California, but the 
"Maypo" got through on the 3rd of July, to Iquique, 
carrying several thousand rifles, a large amount of 
ammunition, four Krupp field-batteries and twenty-two 
cannons. The northern army was thus far better equipped 
than that of the south, and in far better morale, though 
it seemed likely, at the lively rate at which recruiting 
was going on, that President Balmaceda would be 
able to crush them by sheer weight of numbers, his 
army at different points soon numbering altogether 
some forty thousand men. If the government succeeded 
in getting away from France the new cruisers "Errazu- 
riz" and "Pinto," built there for Chile but held until 
the French supreme court could decide whether they 
should be consigned to the Chilean government, with 
the small fleet Balmaceda would then have, the revolu- 
tionists might, it was thought, be cooped up in Iqui- 
que and their revolt be summarily crushed. The cruis- 
ers, however, were always reported on the way but 
never came. They were in time released by the French 


court but were unable to obtain crews in European 
ports, so that they were detained first at one place and 
then at another. 

The fact that they might come, however, may have 
spurred on the revolutionists to their final determina- 
tion to attack Balmaceda on his own ground, and not 
wait for him to attack them in the north. 

By March, public feeling in the south had changed 
somewhat, and in Santiago and Valparaiso there was 
not the same general outspoken sympathy for the revo- 
lutionary cause as at first. In the rural districts of the 
south, the sympathy was generally with Balmaceda. 
Interest began at this time to be taken in the approach- 
ing elections. The old congress would have no exist- 
ence after May 31st. Senators and deputies must be 
elected. Soon, too, a new president must be elected, 
June 25th. President Balmaceda, it was thought, would 
probably carry the elections for his choice as a succes- 
sor, he being Don Claudio Vicuna, a country gentle- 
man of vast wealth, and popular enough. This caused 
some trimming to the wind by many oppositionists in 
the south, but in the north enthusiasm increased for 
them and recruiting went on actively. 

The impartial historian can not uphold all the admin- 
istrative and political acts of Balmaceda, but when all is 
said, he was rather an Andrew Johnson than a Robes- 
pierre. He said : "Congress by the express terms of 
that constitution, has no more right to dictate to me 
what ministers I shall choose than it has to advise 
what food I shall eat, or what clothes I shall wear." 
Technically correct ; but if a parliamentary precedent 
had grown up beside the constitution by which the 
ministry was formed after the English plan, and not 
upon the American plan, courtesy should have led the 
president to bow to that precedent. The Chilean con- 


Showing movemmts of opposing armies 
in closing MttUs of the war. 
Compiled, from vojrious sources. 

Mctytca/fiut A 

THE CIVIL WAR OF i8gi 349 

stitution had not hitherto been followed to the letter, 
because the government of Chile had ever been, in its 
workings, rather oligarchical than democratic. It had 
been king and barons, rather than president and people. 
Balmaceda was the most aggressively liberal of all the 
presidents, elected because of the fact that President 
Santa Maria had thrown his influence for him. For 
many years after the fall of Freire, the conservative 
aristocracy, had controlled the government. Presi- 
dents had usually, but not always, yielded to the sen- 
timent of congress, because congresses were generally 
with them, and were also aristocratic. Kence the 
alleged lex non scripta; but the government had been 
parliamentary by sufferance, not constitutionally so. 
When President Balmaceda found himself opposed, 
not only by the conservatives, but by three factions of 
his own party, he should have bowed to the conclusive 
fact of majorities. True, we can well see that this 
opposition was more material than patriotic. It was 
at bottom a revolt of interests. Many of the old aris- 
tocratic families were in financial straits; the nation 
was heavily in debt. That Balmaceda should be build- 
ing expensive schoolhouses, enraged them. When it 
appeared that another liberal might be elected, it was 
but natural that they should begin the most strenuous 
opposition. The clergy hated Balmaceda; he was ac- 
cused of free thought and had trimmed down ecclesi- 
astical revenues, particularly in the establishment of 
civil marriages. Tradesmen in Santiago and Valpa- 
raiso went with their wealthy patrons. Many people 
espoused the cause of congress through the resentment 
men naturally feel against a one-man power. The for- 
eign elements in Chile were against the president. He 
liad hinted at curtailments of grants to foreign corpor- 
ations; he lamented the fact, that thoughChilean blood 


had purchased the Tarapaci fields, their wealth was 
fast passing away into foreign hands. 

And so on all sides the opposition of interests began 
and grew. It was each faction for its own interest, and 
a unity of political purpose among them in favor of 
their interests. Looking at the situation dispassion- 
ately, one is constrained to think that President Bal- 
maceda was not without patriotism. But if he was not 
a Lopez, he was at least dictatorial in spirit, and the 
age of dictators has passed, even in South America. 

If all the inhuman acts attributed to Balmaceda were 
not sanctioned or committed by him, yet some are a 
lasting stain on his name ; as, for instance, the causing 
of the opposition youths to be shot at Las Caiias just 
after the disembarkation of the revolutionary army at 
Quintero in the final denouement of the struggle. These 
youths may have been dynamiters, prepared to blow up 
bridges and cut railway and telegraph lines between 
Santiago and the south to prevent the southern troops 
from coming north, but the shooting of them while 
asleep, particularly the sending of ten of them back to 
the hacienda to be shot, was barbarous beyond all the 
necessities of modern warfare. 

But then we should not forget that this treatment of 
the young revolutionists, if historically correct, was no 
worse than the outrage committed by oppositionists 
after the last battle ; no worse than the shooting down 
of a boatload of refugees trying to escape the fury of 
the mob.* 

*No doubt it was somewhat as a writer in Blackwood's magazine for January, 
iSgi, says, "The country was overrun with spies, private correspondence was not 
respected, freedom of speech was forbidden, the press was ahnost suppressed, 
and no one suspected of being unfavorable to the government was in safety. Im- 
prisonment, floggings, tortures, and in=;pections of houses at all hours of the day 
or night, were of frequent occurrence." There was a sort of reign of terror in 
Chile, and some allowance must be made for the prevailing turbulence. Santia- 
go and Valparaiso were filled with spies and plotters. There appear to have been 
inhuman acts perpetrated on both sides. ^ The oppositionists disc'aimed the 
barbarities practiced in the bomb-throwin?s; perhaps President Balmaceda 
might have disclaimed personal knowledge of many atrocities on his side. 

THE CIVIL WAR OF i8gi 351 

The vessels from France did not arrive, and it became 
necessary for President Balmaceda to make some dem- 
onstration against the enemy to hold popular sentiment 
and sympathy in his favor. There was danger in delay. 
As he could not send troops north for want of transports, 
a naval demonstration was decided upon. The govern- 
ment navy, as we have seen, consisting as it did of the 
cruiser "Imperial" and two torpedo-catchers, was no 
match for the enemy's ironclads. But the "Imperial" 
was a swift boat, able to keep out of the way of all 
antagonists save the "Esmeralda;" the torpedo-boats 
might blow the ironclads out of the water if they caught 
them at night in some of the northern harbors. It was 
determined to try what could be accomplished. 

On April i8th, the three vessels left Valparaiso. The 
"Imperial" was commanded by Captain Garin, the 
"Condell" by Captain Moraga, the "Lynch," by Cap- 
tain Fuentes. The first objective point was Quintero 
Bay, twenty miles from Valparaiso, where two days 
were spent in putting the crews through the torpedo 
practice. Orders were then received by the little fleet 
to go north and sink the oppositionist ship, "Aconca- 
gua," and two ironclads, which were supposed to be 
making their way to Caldera Bay. Further orders were 
to capture or sink any vessels found in Chilean waters 
with arms or nitrate aboard. Proceeding north, two 
or three merchant vessels were hailed and overhauled 
by the "Imperial," but no contraband nitrate or war 
supplies were found. The "Imperial" carried coal for 
the torpedo boats and was to stand off at a safe dis- 
tance from Caldera until after the attack by the "Con- 
dell" and "Lynch." Failing to receive intelligence of 
them in forty-eight hours, the "Imperial" was to pro- 
ceed to a northern rendezvous previously agreed upon. 

The forty-eight hours elapsed, and nothing being 


heard from the other vessels, the "Imperial" went on 
her way north. The "Condell" and "Lynch" had found 
the enemy's flagship, "Blanco Encalada, " accompanied 
by a smaller boat, in the harbor. Stealing upon her 
from opposite sides, they torpedoed her and sank her 
in less than three minutes. 

Coming out of the harbor, the "Lynch" and "Con- 
dell" met the transport "Aconcagua," upon which they 
immediately opened fire. The latter fought desper- 
ately for an hour and a half when she ceased firings 
which was accepted as a signal of surrender. At the 
moment of surrender a warship, supposed by the 
"Lynch" and "Condell" to be the "Esmeralda," was 
sighted. She was apparently steering to cut off their 
retreat from the harbor. She was discovered to be the 
British man-of-war, "Warspite;" but by the time this 
discovery had been made the "Aconcagua" had escaped 
and crept under the guns of the forts in the harbor, 
where she could not be taken by the plucky torpedo- 
boats. Throughout the engagement the forts had fired 
constantly, but their shots had fallen wide of the mark. 
The loss on the "Blanco Encalada" was two hundred 
and forty-five. One man was killed and ten wounded 
on the torpedo-boats. The losses on the "Aconcagua" 
were considerable, as she was crowded with troops. 

The "Condell" and "Lynch" were crippled, princi- 
pally by the damage caused by the discharge of their 
own heavy guns, and were obliged to put back to Val- 
paraiso for repairs. Learning of this, Captain Garin 
returned to Valparaiso with the "Imperial," May 7th. 

The return of the government fleet to Valparaiso 
seems to have been hailed with applause. Crowds 
gathered upon the wharves and the adjacent hills, bands 
played, voices rent the air and flags waved everywhere. 
Doubtless the oppositionists in Valparaiso at this time 

THE CIVIL WAR OF 1891 353 

kept under cover. The impression produced for the 
government cause was favorable ; the demoralizing 
effect upon the revolutionary fleet amounted almost to 
a panic. Henceforth, the Iquique warships were kept 
well out of the harbors at night, being afraid of another 
descent of the torpedo-catchers, and the harbor of that 
place was protected by chains and sunken torpedoes. 

This expedition, having in the main proven success- 
ful. President Balmaceda determined to send his little 
fleet north again, hoping that a few more warships 
might be sunk. It appeared that the revolutionists 
were being supplied by foreign vessels, weighing anchor 
at the southern ports and clearing nominally for Callao, 
or other points, but calling at Iquique and northern 
places with coal, provisions and supplies. This must 
be checked if possible; before that could be done effec- 
tually, the enemy's fleet must be destroyed. With the 
few vessels at his disposal the president could not hope 
to maintain an effective blockade of the northern ports, 
but he must make some show of doing so to rationallj' 
insist upon his right to search vessels for contraband 
goods and re-exact duties on nitrate cargoes. There- 
fore, on the loth of May, the "Imperial" and "Condell" 
were sent north again, the "Lynch," not having under- 
gone sufficient repairs, being left behind at Valparaiso. 
The first pface touched at was Coquimbo, where about 
thirteen hundred troops were landed. At this time 
Coquimbo and La Serena were held by a force of 11,000 
government troops commanded by Colonels Carvalho 
and Errazuriz. 

On May 14th, the "Condell" ran into Iquique harbor 
in the night, but finding only a few sailing vessels 
there withdrew. On the night of the i6th, another 
reconnoitre was made, but resulted in nothing further 
than firing a torpedo at a disabled supply ship. The 


next day there was some important manoeuvering with 
the "Cochrane," then a run to the vicinity of Pisagua, 
where the "Huascar" and "Magallanes" were stationed. 
The three vessels fired a few random shots at the tor- 
pedo-boat, which went on to Pacocho, where lay the 
"O'Higgins. " The story is told that Captain Moraga 
did not torpedo the "O'Higgins" that night as he had 
contemplated, for the reason that his engineer's brother 
was aboard it. Be that as it may, the "O'Higgins" 
was not attacked. 

On the 2ist, the "Condell" joined the "Imperial" and 
the two vessels anchored at Taltal. Two field-pieces 
ashore opened fire upon them, but a shell or two scat- 
tered the gunners. The Intendencia, or intendent's 
quarters, was demolished by the firing which followed 
from the boats; then a lively landing by about sixty 
men from the "Imperial" and "Condell" caused the 
troops on shore to flee, not, however, before they had 
wounded several men in the boats. 

This was all that came of the second cruise, as the 
two vessels returned to Valparaiso on the 24th. 

The government was disappointed that the two little 
torpedo-catchers had not destroyed some of the enemy's 
fleet, and in a few days ordered another cruise to the 
north to make demonstrations against ports held by 
the insurgents. Pisagua was bombarded and consider- 
able damage done. The forts, as well as the "Huas- 
car" lying the harbor, replied as best they could, but 
with little effect. The "Imperial" sustained some dam- 
age, but none aboard were seriously injured. Iquique 
was also bombarded, and a few shots were exchanged 
with the forts at Antofagasta. 

Sometime before this, three of the crew of the goy- 
ernment torpedo-launch, "Aldea, " had been bribed by 
the oppositionists to take the launch out to sea and 

THE CIVIL WAR OF i8gi 355 

turn it over to a warship, which was to meet it there. 
The warship was late, the "Lynch" overhauled the 
launch and the three bribe-takers were court-martialed 
and shot. 




By the middle of June, 1891, the government army 
numbered 41,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry and two hun- 
dred field-pieces. The army of the opposition num- 
bered anywhere from eight thousand to twelve thousand 
men. The disparity of numbers caused the president 
to be over-sanguine ; that the northern army would come 
south and attack him was an unlikely event which he 
scouted, hence his troops were scattered ; 14,000 of them 
were being kept in the north at Coquimbo, away from 
direct communication with Santiago, other large bodies 
were stationed in the south. This was bad general- 
ship, and in the end proved disastrous. Still, the pres- 
ident knew not at what point his enemies might strike, 
he knew not what emissaries might be set to work, so 
he sought to guard his whole territory. 

The legal existence of the old congress expired on 
the 31st of May. Elections resulted as had been ex- 
pected, in the return of members for the new congress 
in sympathy with Balmaceda. Conservatives and lib- 
erals not in sympathy with the president refrained 
from voting, so that the elections were a foregone con- 

On June the ist, the newly elected congress met. 


THE CIVIL WAR OF 1891 357 

President Balmaceda delivered an address, defending 
his action in taking into his hands the reins of govern- 
ment, and giving a hopeful outlook for the future. Con- 
gress immediately passed a bill legalizing the presi- 
dent's acts, and then began the discussion of a reform- 
ation of the constitution, a discussion which was kept 
up until Montt and Canto had sent the members flying. 

On the 25th of June, electors from the provinces were 
chosen favorable to the candidacy of Don Claudio Vi- 
cuna, Balmaceda's choice for his successor, and on 
July 25th he was duly elected, but not fully installed 
before Balmaceda's downfall. Senor Vicuna was a 
wealthy gentleman of an old and distinguished family, 
as old in fact as the conquest, and does not appear to 
have been in any respect an objectionable man, not- 
withstanding the fact that he has been charged with 
cruelties almost equalling Balmaceda's.* 

The close of the struggle drew on. The province of 
Aconcagua raised two regiments for the oppositionists, 
and clamored for rifles. To supply them, the northern 
army having determined to go south before the gov- 
ernment vessels could be got away from foreign ports 
and before Balmaceda could farther strengthen himself 
and install his successor, Vicuna, in office, landed at 

*As for instance, that he wanted to fire a Hotchkiss gan into a crowd assembled 
at the door of the Intendencia within which he was established in Valparaiso at 
the time of the August fight, and that he was only detained from so doing by the 
German consul. One can hardly credit some of these stories, particularly as to 
the coloring given them, when they end with such words as "political criminals," 
"abominable cruelties," and capped with an unrighteous wish that such political 
refugees as Vicuria, Godoi and Banados Espinosa, might be caught and shot. 
Senor Vicuna explains the incident by saying that he made his way through the 
mob, revolver in hand, when he fled for refuge after the battle of Placilla, 

The story of Serior Vacuiia's alleged atrocity is offset by one from the other side, 
wherein a Balmaceda sympathizer remarks: "You see to what cowardly extremes 

Ricardo Gumming, and offered, or sent him $300,000 in order that by means of 
treachery and dynamite he might bring about the destruction of the 'Imperial,' the 
'Lynch' and the 'Condell.' This miserable fanatic Gumming got hold of some 
Austrians and Italians, gave them some money, and finally offered them $30,000 
for each vessel blown up with dynamite. These persons acting in concert with 
one Sepulveda, who was engaged as a steward in the 'Imperial,' managed to get 
aboard and to stow away behind the bolster on Sepulveda's bunk an infernal 


Caldera. There a thorough organization of their forces 
was made ; their presence there also obliged the pres- 
ident to send reinforcements to his contingent in Co- 
quimbo, thus reducing his forces around the capital. 

When preparations had been completed, the oppo- 
sition army embarked on transports and the war vessels 
for Quintero, about twenty or thirty miles north of 
Valparaiso, where disembarkation began on the 20th 
of August. 

The government felt secure in its position until the 
insurgent army was disembarked. For several days 
opposition agents had been at work in Valparaiso ; 
many oppositionists there were armed and awaiting 
the approach of the northern troops to join themselves 
with them. To let these partisans know that the final 
hour for the struggle had arrived, the "Esmeralda" on 
the i8th, fired eight shots at Valparaiso. On the 30th, 
the senate would formally ratify Claudio Vicuna's elec- 
tion ; henceforward he would be legal president ; it was 
therefore politic to have the decisive battle before that 
time, to overthrow the dictator before he was succeeded 
by Senor Vicuna, though against him not much could 
be urged, save that he was a partisan of Balmaceda. 

Telegraph and telephone lines to Santiago were cut, 
and so well planned was the oppositionist movements 
that the fact of their landing at Quintero, which was 

machine, containing several pounds weight of dynamite, with time-fuse and 
every thing ready to set it off in the ship's hold. With equal success they con- 
trived to get similar machines on board the 'CondelP and the "Lynch," sup- 
plemented by quantities of dynamite neatly stowed away in large loaves of fresh 
bread from which they had removed the crumb. Bread thus prepared is, as it 
seems, known as Greek bread. Fortunately, however, for the republic and 
the vessels, one of the Italians bribed into this plot betrayed his accomplices to 
the authorities, who discovered the infernal machine, the dynamite loaves, and 
other appliances half an hour before the time agreed upon for the explosions." 

For this offense Gumming, an Austrian named Politico and Sepulveda, were 
tried, convicted and shot. The guilty quartermaster of the "Imperial" hanged 
himself in his cabin. The British minister and several members of the diplo- 
matic body interceded for Gumming, but Balmaceda insisted on having him shot 
with Politico and Sepulveda, wherefore the thing became a political scandal. 

The story becomes interesting as a portentious warning of what may be ex- 
pected in modern warfare 

THE CIVIL WAR OF i8gi 359 

at four o'clock in the morning, was not known in San- 
tiago until eight. Necessarily, so sudden and unex- 
pected a descent, created consternation among govern- 
ment officials. There had been rumors of such a move, 
but these were treated at Santiago, as a nephew of 
Senor Vicuna at the time expressed it, as "Portuguese 
3'arns. " Repeated attempts had been made to blow up 
bridges on the railways leading to the south, but, as we 
have seen, the manceuvers were frustrated by the vigil- 
ance of the government. 

The opposition army landed at Quintero, consisted 
of eight thousand six hundred infantry, six hundred cav- 
alry, eight hundred naval brigade men, three batteries of 
field-artillery and a battery of Gatling guns. To oppose 
them, Balmaceda's general in Valparaiso, Alzerreca, 
with a force about equal to that of the insurgents, was 
ordered forward to Colmo, or Concon, to check the ene- 
m}''s advance until General Barbosa could join him with 
the troops from the south. Alzerreca took up a posi- 
tion on the hills, placing the river Aconcagua between 
him and the enem)'. Colonel Canto made a feint to 
cross the river above Alzerreca's position, and allowed 
the latter to capture a few field-pi.eces. His troops fell 
back, seeing which the government's advanced regi- 
ments were moved forward to cross the river. While 
this was going on. Canto transferred artillery on launches 
under cover of the hills to the rear of the government 
army. Then the opposition troops opened fire on their 
opponents in front, while the artillery poured in a mur- 
derous fire from behind. They were near the mouth of 
the river, where the "Esmeralda" and "Magallanes'' had 
crept in, and they now opened a terrible cross fire upon 

The battle began at eleven o'clock in the morning, 
the armies having come within artillery range of each 


other at nine o'clock. The cannonading on both sides 
was heav}^ An advanced line of the government forces 
sustained the furious fire from the enemy's vessels for 
fully two hours, and were left by the blundering Bal- 
macedist officers unsupported. Finding .them unable to 
keep up an effective fire, Colonel Canto ordered an ad- 
vance against them. Under cover of the fire from the 
ships and their own artillery, the oppositionists dashed 
through the river and began a charge. Reinforcements 
were hurried forward on the government side, and for 
an hour the conflict raged, until Alzerreca's advanced 
guard was literally cut to pieces, forced to abandon 
their guns which were then turned against them, and 
to fall back. Colonel Canto profited by their discom- 
fiture and pressed forward with his men, the ships and 
his own artillery in the rear still keeping up their rapid 
firing. For two hours longer the battle raged, then 
Balmaceda's army broke and fled. 

The struggle had been terrible for the numbers en- 
gaged. Of the eight thousand infantry and nine hun- 
dred and fifty cavalry constituting the government 
forces, between two thousand and three thousand were 
killed and wounded. Of the 7th regiment eight hun- 
dred and thirty-four were killed, nine hundred of the 
Traiguen regiment, five hundred and twenty of the Te- 
muco regiment, five hundred and fifty of the San Fer- 
nando regiment, and others in similar proportions. 
The revolutionists lost about a thousand men, less than 
half of whom were killed. 

In this battle of Concon it will be seen that the op- 
positionists outnumbered the government troops, be- 
sides possessing the advantage of being armed with 
Manlicher rifles.'" The regiments at the river were 

♦The reports o£ the battle are somewhat conflicting. One trustworthy account 
has thef;overnment troops led by both generals, Alzerreca and Barbosa, between 
whom, at the time, there existed .ill-feelings. Another equally credible account 

THE CIVIL WAR OF i8gi 361 

mowed down like grass before the scythe. The shells 
from the warships did terrible execution, one shell 
from the "Esmeralda" being reported as having killed 
two hundred men. One regiment was wholly destroyed 
by volleys from the Manlicher rifles at not twenty yards 

President Balmaceda made strenuous efforts to re- 
cover from the disaster. The southern troops could 
not be hurried forward, as railway communications had 
been destroyed by the successful dynamiters. About 
six thousand troops at Santiago were sent forward 
toward Valparaiso ; the president himself remained in 
Santiago to await the arrival of the southern reserves. 

Canto continued to advance toward Valparaiso; two 
days later he attacked Vina del Mar, five miles east of 
the former city. This was a watering place, having a 
race track and almost surrounded by hills. A strongly 
fortified place, called Fort Callao,v>'as attacked, the "Es- 
meralda" and "Cochrane" assisting with their guns. 
The place was well-nigh impregnable and could not be 
readily taken, so that the attacking forces were obliged 
to retire. 

This repulse prevented a direct march upon Valpa- 
raiso, which port General Barbosa's army was protect- 
ing, being strongly posted on the surrounding hills all 
the way from Vina del Mar. Canto and Korner fell 
back to Salto, fifteen miles from Vina del Mar, where 
there was a railway bridge over a wide chasm on the 
direct line from Santiago to Valparaiso. This was de- 
stroyed, thus cutting off the president's chances to 
hurry forward the southern reserves as soon as they 

has Barbosa join Alzerreca after the battle, with reinforcements from the south 
which swelled the government army to 14.000 men. It seems likely that Al- 
zerreca commanded the advanced guard, consisting of two regiments of infantry 
and some artillery and that Barbosa's men were behind, as the lines extended 
over a distance of four miles. Certain it was, that reinforcements were very slow 
in reaching the front. 


should arrive. The government made an attempt to 
prevent the destruction of the bridge by dispatching 
an armed ironclad train, but this novel defense proved 
a failure. 

It vsras necessary for the oppositionists, in order to 
reach Valparaiso, to make a detour of some sixty miles, 
approaching it from the south. This they attempted 
to do, but found the government troops occupying a 
strong position on the heights reaching to and over- 
looking Paciila, seven miles from Valparaiso. Here 
they halted on the 27th. Their army was now increased 
to 12,000 by reinforcements, mostly impressments, and 
desertions from Balmaceda's army; it was also greatly 
strengthened by eighteen field-pieces, captured at Con- 
con. The government force seems to have numbered 
at this point about nine thousand men, President Bal- 
maceda not being able to get through seven thousand 
men he had raised at Santiago, with three field-batteries, 
owing to the destruction of the railway bridge at Salto. 
The oppositionists knew, however, that it would only 
be a matter of a day or two before the president would 
get reinforcements through, and so determined to at- 
tack at once. General Barbosa and Alzerreca appear 
to have disagreed as to the advisability of fighting with 
their inferior force and poor equipments, but the dis- 
pute seems to have been settled in favor of giving bat- 
tle. It was certainly bad generalship to attack twelve 
thousand well-equipped men with nine thousand, when 
there were strong detachments,"north and south that, 
by a little delay, could have been got within support- 
ing distance. 

Canto had really outflanked Barbosa, who was trying 
to defend Valparaiso, and was about three miles dis- 
tant from him when he drew up his forces on the Las 
Cadenas farm near Placilla. The northern troops were 

THE CIVIL WAR OF 1891 363 

filled with hopeful enthusiasm, had taken all their pro- 
visions with them from their ships, and felt that the}' 
must win, for they could not return. Barbosa held a 
strong position on the heights overlooking Placilla, 
his artillery in the center, his infantry posted on the 
slopes below the artillery and also back on the high 
ground. Other artillery protected his right, and cav-' 
airy were in reserve. The latter part of his force, 
however, appears to have had opposition leanings. 
They neglected their duty, and- just before the battle, 
four hundred of them went over to the northern army. 

Owing to the hilly nature of the country the opposi- 
tion troops, without being seen, had been able to get 
into position, having started from the Las Cadenas 
farm before daylight, the whole army excepting one bri- 
gade. Early in the morning, as the latter was ad- 
vancing across the plain, Balmaceda's troops opened 
an artillery fire upon it. The brigade advanced rapidly 
and got into position. The oppositionist's right and 
left wings then advanced and opened fire, which brought 
on the battle. Step by step Canto's troops advanced up 
the hill toward Barbosa's artillery, his right wing all 
the time engaging Barbosa's left, which, after an hour 
and a half's severe fighting, was in such danger that 
the artillery in the center was turned about to force 
back the enemy's right. Korner, however, made a 
detour and turned the government's left, the opposi- 
tion centre and left pressed forward, shaking the whole 
line in front of them ; their cavalry clambered up the 
hills, assailing the wavering infantry on all sides, until 
an utter rout of the Balmaceda army began. 

The battle had lasted three hours; upward of one 
thousand men had been killed on the government side 
and fifteen hundred wounded; and four hundred killed 


and one thousand wounded on the congressional side. 
By five o'clock the northern army was in undisputed 
possession of Valparaiso, and their ships were floating 
in Valparaiso harbor. 

The squadron of government cavalry which had gone 
over to the opposition before the battle, had made a 
charge upon the artiller}' behind which were Generals 
Barbosa and Alzerreca. Barbosa fell fighting ; Alzer- 
reca is said to have been shot while kneeling and beg- 
ging for mere}'. Other accounts state that he died as 
a soldier should. 

Balmacedist leaders in Valparaiso hastened aboard 
foreign ships in the harbor. The Americans had been 
about the onl}' foreigners evincing much sympathy for 
the Balmaceda side. The United States government 
had prohibited the dispatch of mimitions of war from 
American ports to Iquique, and had chased the "Itata. " 
Naturally, then, a rush was made for the "Baltimore." 
Captain Fuentes and crew from the"L3'nch" were among 
those who sought an asylum on the vessel. One ac- 
count from an opposition source states that the"Lynch" 
opened fire on the town after the battle, and that hun- 
dreds of civilians and soldiers returned the fire, and 
rained such a shower of bullets upon the ship that 
she was obliged to pull down her flag and surrender, 
the officers jumping overboard and taking refuge on 
foreign ships. Another account, which appears to be 
better authenticated, says : "The congressional troops 
no sooner saw the execrated 'devil's ship' than they 
opened a murderous rifle fire upon those on deck. The 
unfortunate crew realized that they were doomed men, 
and in desperation replied with the gatling guns. 
So hot was the fire from shore, however, that nothing 
on deck could live. Five tried to escape in a boat, 
but were riddled almost immediately. Two poor wretch- 

THE CIVIL WAR OF i8gi 365 

es swam for their lives, but foolishly climbing upon a 
mooring buoy, were shot. Finally all were killed ex- 
cept two, who hid in a stokehole, and contrived to 
swim ashore at night."* 

Don Claudio Vicuna, Godoi, Julio Espinosa, Alfredo 
Ova He, and Admiral Viel, escaped from Valparaiso and 
found refuge on board the German cruiser "Sophie." 
The editor of the Valparaiso Balmacedist paper was 
not able to make his escape in time to avoid being 
shot without a trial. 

Then followed a scene in the streets of Valparaiso 
that would make Bacchus blush and put Nero to shame. 
The rabble turned itself loose and sacked the town with- 
out restraint. Incendiarism and ruthless murders fol- 
lowed. Drunken, debauched men and women danced 
in the streets and were shot at by other drunken men, 
in wanton sport. By daylight half a thousand corpses 
were weltering in blood about the streets. Shops and 
houses were plundered and firemen shot at while try- 
ing to extinguish flames. 

The wild scenes which followed at Santiago also 
beggar description, though there the mob confined its 
energies chiefly to acts of vandalism. The houses of 
President Balmaceda and Don Claudio Vicuna were 
sacked, as were houses of other Balmacedists through- 
out the city. From house to house the mob went, fol- 
lowing a leader mounted on a horse, wearing a poncho 
and broad-brimmed hat, and ringing a bell. Houses of 
oppositionists were not generally molested, but those 
of Balmacedists were looted, furniture and household 
utensils being carried through the streets, while oppo- 

*These two accounts very well illustrate how the "atrocities" vary much ac- 
cording to the government or opposition leaning of the reporter. Certainly 
the iatter of the above reports is more reasonable to believe, since it is hardly 
probable that the crew of the "Lynch" would have invited destruction after their 
cause had lieen lost in the battle. More than that, Captain Fuentes and his offl- 
eers, it would seem, had at this time made their escape to the "Baltimore." 


sition ladies in balconies shouted, "Tell me whose house 
that is from!" A broken statue of Balmaceda was 
kicked through the streets, opprobrium heaped upon it 
at every bound. Beggars possessed themselves of works 
of art, dirty women wheeled away chairs and sofas, 
wagonloads of stolen goods were driven to hiding- 
places, shouts rent the air, and red ribbons, the badge 
of the oppositionists, fluttered everywhere. 

On the 1 8th of Sept., while the nation was cele- 
brating an Independence day, Balmaceda's legal term 
as president expired ; that night he shot himself while 
in bed, leaving a letter to the Argentine minister, Uri- 
buru, in whose house he had taken refuge, explaining 
that he deemed his presence there a danger to all the 
inmates, and hoping that his death might, secure bet- 
ter terms for his late followers.* He was secretly 
buried to prevent outrages by the mob upon his re- 
mains. Thus passed from earth this man whom his 
enemies called a "tyrant" and his friends "a good-na- 
tured gentleman." He is described as being about 
fifty years of age, six feet- in height, of spare build, a 
broad, sloping forehqad, a good-humored eye, and wear- 
ing usually in his face a half-playful, half -cynical smile. 

The oppositionists met with no farther opposition 
from the outlying government garrisons. The "Con- 
dell" and "Imperial" surrendered at Callao and were 
taken back to Valparaiso by the transport "Gurmao. " 
A week had not elapsed before affairs in Chile were 
as quiet as in ante helium days. The junta which had 
carried on the revolutionary cause so long, at once 

*Though knowing of his defeat, Balmaceda on the 28tli of Aug. gave a dinner- 
party in honor of his wife's Saint's day. It shows well the man's courage. At 
about ten o'clock he sought and obtained an asylum at the Argentine legation, 
handing over Santiago to the care of General Baquedano. Here he remained, 
protected by Seiior Uriburu, the Argentine minister, until the i8th of September, 
He was supposed to have made his escape, and one story was circulated and 
given general credence that he had been shot by his muleteer while crossing the 

THE CIVIL WAR OF i8gi 367 

took charge of the government and fixed October i8th, 
as election day, and November the i8th, for the time 
of meeting of electors to select a new president. The 
notes issued by President Balmaceda to the amount of 
J27, 000,000, were legalized. A tribunal of justice be- 
gan a searching investigation of Balmacedist officials, 
and whenever they were shown to have used public 
moneys for their own use, confiscations were ordered. 

The junta del gobierno ruled the country not unsatis- 
factorily until November, when Captain Jorge Montt, 
son of Manuel Montt, president of Chile from 1851 to 
1861, was chosen president, and from head of the junta 
became the head of the republic. 

Senor Claudio Vicuna, the constitutional president 
of Chile, who came within one day of taking his seat, 
escaped to the United States, and then went to Paris. 
In an interview at the latter place in November, he 
said: "After every one of these popular revolutions, a 
scapegoat must succumb to allay the passions aroused, 
and Balmaceda's blood must have sufficed for the ven- 
geance of those who opposed him, if, indeed, they had 
vengeance at heart." This is a philosophical view of 
the situation from the man who was execrated next to 
Balmaceda, and who lost a million piastres in the 

At the close of the civil struggle in Chile, feeling 
against the United States government in certain quar- 
ters was quite pronounced. Under Balmaceda's gov- 
ernment, prompt and energetic steps were always taken 
to see that the persons and property of citizens of the 
United States were protected. Cordial feelings existed 
between the governments, and it is reasonable to sup- 
pose that the United States minister in Chile, and 
United States citizens generally, felt no prejudice 
against Balmaceda. People of the United States were 


disinterested spectators of the civil strife, and had no 
quarrel with Balmaceda. It appeared to them a fight 
between the ins and the outs in Chilean politics, in 
which the ins, as a dulj' and lawfully established con- 
stitutional government, were entitled to be considered 
as such until they were known to be out. They had 
little national concern and still less direct individual 
interest in the internal dissensions of the people of 
a sister republic in the south. 

Primarily, the new government in Chile felt this to 
be the real cause of estrangement. The fact that the 
United States government gave no recognition to the 
congressional party in Chile until it had established 
itself, that it seized the swift "Itata" for a violation 
of neutrality laws, a certain cable incident, a story that 
Admiral Brown of the United States navy conveyed in- 
formation to Valparaiso of the landing of the congres- 
sional forces at Quintero (which is denied, but which 
maj' have been at the time pretty generally believed in 
Chile), Minister Egan's and the "Baltimore's" protec- 
tion of refugees, all these things naturally increased 
the feeling against the United States government. And 
it is quite natural that the antipathy should have been 
openly exhibited. With such riotous proceedings as 
are heretofore recorded as taking place in Santiago 
and Valparaiso subsequent to Balmaceda's downfall, 
proceedings which no authority could restrain, it is 
not surprising that American sailors should have been 
attacked by a mob in the streets of Valparaiso. That 
is precisely what happened on the evening of October 
i6th, when Captain Schley of the "Baltimore" gave 
shore leave to one hundred and seventeen petty officers 
and sailors of his ship. They spent the afternoon 
sauntering through the streets of Valparaiso. A Chil- 
ean sailor spat in the face of an American sailor and 

THE CIVIL WAR OF 1891 369 

the latter knocked him down. This was John W. Tal- 
bot, who was accompanied only by a fellow sailor named 
Charles W. Riggin. They were beset by a crowd of 
Chilean citizens and sailors. These were principally 
sailors who had recently been discharged from the 
transports, and longshoremen and not sailors from the 
Chilean fleet. The Americans were chased into a street 
car, then driven out of it and Riggin was beaten until 
he lay half dead in the street. This was within three 
minutes walk of the police station and the Intendencia; 
but the police were half an hour reaching the spot. 
Arriving, one of them appears to have shot the already 
expiring Riggin, at least, such is the testimony of two 
men who claim to have been eyewitnesses of the bru- 
tal act. 

The uprising was quite general in several places at 
about the same time ; there had been significant, omin- 
ous threatenings before ; no doubt the thing had been 
planned by the mob, as the "Baltimore" crew had been 
on the streets from i 130 p. m., to 6 :30 p. m., and there 
had been time enough for conferences in the grogshops. 
Eighteen of the "Baltimore" sailors were stabbed and 
beaten, one receiving as many as eighteen knife wounds. 
Only one Chilean was hurt. Six of the sailors were 
severely wounded ; the others received only slight bruis- 
es and cuts. 

Thirty-six of the United States sailors were arrested, 
for "the deplorable condition of affairs,"* and dis- 
charged. Some leaders of the Chileans were arrested, 
a trial was protracted through nearly three months, and 
some convictions obtained. 

In the long diplomatic correspondence which fol- 
lowed between the two governments, Senor Matta, Chil- 
ean minister of foreign affairs, complicated the rela- 

* Judge of Crimes Foster. 


tions still more by sending out communications to the 
effect that there was untruth and insincerity in the re- 
ports of the United States naval officers and in the 
official communications. 

On the 2Tst of January, 1892, President Harrison 
communicated to the government of Chile the conclu- 
sions of the United States government in the form of 
an ultimatum, substantially as follows ; The assault was 
an attack upon the United States nav)', having its ori- 
gin and motive in a feeling of hostility tp the govern- 
ment of the United States ; the public authorities at 
Valparaiso failed in their duty, and the evidence led 
to the conclusion that Riggin was killed by the police 
and soldiers ; the United States government asked suit- 
able apologies and some adequate reparation for the 
injury done it. 

Receiving no reply to this before the 25th, President 
Harrison that day transmitted the correspondence and 
all the information connected with the affair to the 
United States congress, in a special message. While 
it was being read, Chile's reply came, and was gladly 
welcomed by the peace loving republic of the north ; 
for the affair was deplored first and last. The reply 
recited that the government of Chile had no data au- 
thorizing it to think that the affair in Valparaiso on 
October the i6th, was due to any dislike of the uniform 
of the United States, but regretting, and condemning 
the occurrence, and offering that the matter should be 
presented to the United States supreme court, for adju- 
dication as to whether there were any ground for re- 
paration, and if so, in what manner it should be made ; 
or if not to the United States supreme court, then to 
a tribunal of arbitration. The Matta letter was de- 
plored, a desire for cordial relations between the gov- 
ernments expressed, and the suggestion previously 

THE CIVIL WAR OF i8gi 371 

made that Mr. Egan's recall would be acceptable to 
the Chilean government, was withdrawn. 

This reply was satisfactory to the United States gov- 
ernment, and the only question remaining for settle- 
ment not covered by Chile's reply was the amount of 
indemnity to be paid to the injured Baltimore sailors. 
This was settled by Chile placing at the disposal of 
Mr. Egan $75,000 in gold and asking him to cause it 
to be distributed among the families of the two United 
States seamen who lost their lives, and to the Baltimore 
sailors who were wounded. 

On the 7th of August, 1892, a treaty was agreed upon 
between the United States and Chile, by the terms of 
which a commission appointed conjointly by the two 
republics, shall pass upon all claims made on the part of 
corporations, companies or private individuals of either 
government upon the government of the other. 




The Chileans have been called the "English" and the 
"Yankees" of the South, and they themselves take some 
pride in the saying, "Somas los IngUses del Sur. " For 
many years Chile has been understood by the outside 
world to have a stable government, good credit and 
progressive enterprise. Compared with other Spanish- 
American republics Chile has been remarkably free from 
internal wars, and has settled her party differences usu- 
ally with much prudence and wisdom. We have only 
to look into the internal affairs of neighboring repub- 
lics to be convinced of this. 

The Spanish ancestors of the present Chilean inhab- 
itants were hardy pioneers, Basques and Biscayans, 
the most rugged and indomitable of Spanish races. 
The Indians of Chile were the most warlike and per- 
severing of all the American races. From these two 
sources came, by intermarriage, the present virile, pro- 
gressive race. And it is one race, for save in the ex- 
treme south, an Indian is seldom seen in Chile. The 
mountainous country and the temperate, invigorating 

climate, give physical and mental vigor, and the peo- 



pie are not characterized by that lassitude which we 
observe in the Spanish inhabitants of warmer climates. 

Physical energy leads to sturdy independence of char- 
acter and self-confidence, as well as frugality and in- 
dustry. It gives better morals, better laws, better pa- 
triotism ; it leads to daring and to deeds of valor. An 
energetic people, brave and cheerful, they are also hos- 
pitable and kind; but they fight for their rights and 
give not a hair's breadth in compromises. They are 
aggressive, too, and use force, as men of the moun- 
tains do everywhere ; for from time immemorial, hill- 
dwellers have been in a manner freebooters, taking all 
they might be able to carry off, but generous even to 
foes. That Chile has an eye on Peru and Bolivia and 
desires a larger slice of the Argentine Republic, is 
quite probable. She has assisted all of them in time 
past to obtain and keep their independence; a ward of 
Peru in the beginning, she became the strong child in 
the end. The Chileans hold themselves in high esteem, 
and take great pride in being Chileans. They admire 
true greatness and worth in foreigners. They put O'Hig- 
gins, Mackenna, Miller, Cochrane and Lynch with their 
own heroes. But the Chilean is sufficiently national 
in feeling to look upon himself as somewhat better 
than foreigners. Whatever is French, however, com- 
mends itself to him ; the educated Chilean will certainly 
speak French, and copies French models closely. The 
bookstalls, and there are many of them in the capital, 
are filled with French books, and the leading dailies 
publish nearly always a feuilleton translated from Oh- 
net, Maupassant, or other popular Parisian writers. 

Still, while the Chileans admire most the French, 
they have great respect for the English as a commer- 
cial people, though they criticise them as lacking in 
amiability. Steamships, railways, mines and commer- 


cial houses are in the hands of the English, the latter 
sharing mercantile interests with the Germans. The 
Chileans have high respect for these attainments, for 
their own character is averse to commercial pursuits. 
English has been gradually coming into favor with the 
liberals during the past ten years, until now it holds 
a place nearly on a level with French in the popular 
estimation, and the j'oung men and maidens consider 
it essential to understand both languages, if they would 
be considered educated. To be educated in South Amer- 
ica and Mexico, is certainly to speak more than one 

There are advanced thinkers and scholars in Chile; 
intellect is held in high esteem. There are "dyed in 
the wool" conservatives, who look askance at popu- 
lar education as inconsistent with the rule of clericals 
and aristocrats ; but steadily year by 5'ear liberal sen- 
timents have grown. When we speak of liberal senti- 
ments, however, let it be understood that Chile is Cath- 
olic and wishes to remain Catholic ; she has no desire to 
become Protestant. The higher classes are very well ed- 
ucated and delight in politics and arguments; they de- 
nounce opponents and eulogize progress; they will 
submit only within certain limits to being fettered in 
thought or action. The Chilean liberals believe in 
popular education and in the advancement of the mass- 
es; they believe in everything modern. They make 
history for the country; they make big debts, big im- 
provements and (for Chile) big wars. Political con- 
tentions make a nation safe, enlightened, strong. In 
the numerous social clubs of Santiago politics form the 
never ending theme of conversation. 

The season in the capital is gay, though the older 
families there form an aristocratic coterie which is rather 
exclusive. Every Chilean of wealth feels in duty bound 


to live in the capital during the season and to own a 
house there. His house, however, is not often open 
to entertainment and his family circle is close, extend- 
ing not much beyond relatives and near friends. But 
in the tertulia and public receptions social intercourse, 
dancing and ordinary social functions'are maintained. 
In the afternoon, society drives in the Cousino park, in 
the evening it promenades in the Alameda, or goes to 
the pleasant little theatre on the Santa Lucia hill, if 
it be summer, or to the large commodious theatre of 
the city if it be winter ; a theatre of which Santiago 
may well be proud, for it is the third in the world in 
respect to its size, and cost $400,000. On the great 
plaza of summer evenings a military band plays while 
the gay promenaders walk round and round, or stand 
and sit about under the trees, the young men in silk 
hats and black coats staring at the pretty girls dressed 
becomingly in the latest French fashions. 

Though educated in the belles-lettres sense, the Chil- 
ean young lady can not be said to possess liberty of 
action such as English and American young ladies 
enjoy. Woman certainly occupies an inferior position, 
due mainly to national customs from which she has 
not yet been able to emancipate herself. The young 
ladj' is chaperoned and hampered by an etiquette which 
deprives her of the opportunity of becoming acquainted 
with young men, of studying their character, of form- 
ing friendships with them. To be courted by one 
save under the eye of parents or guardians, would be 
considered an impropriety. But these severe restraints 
are beginning to relax somewhat. Woman's right to 
labor is certainly encouraged and respected, since no 
where else in the world than Chile is she found as a 
street car conductor. 

The Chilean woman is a churchgoer and is very 


punctual in her devotions. She keeps up the church 
and saves it from utter decay, for the men seldom go. 
With her figure closely enveloped in her black shawl 
or mania, which she wears hood-fashion over her head 
and allows to fall loosely over her dress, she goes trip- 
ping to church in the early morning. She carries in 
her hand her prayer-book and a yard of carpet, or fancy 
woolwork, upon which she kneels on the stone floor of 
the pewless cathedral. No matter what her station in 
life or wealth, the Chilean lady puts off her bonnet, 
dons the mania and kneels in the centre of the church 
with her worshipping sisters, however poor or despised 
they may be. The mania puts them upon a level, and 
does away with all rivalries in dress during church 
hours. Though the men do not often go to church, 
and are disposed to oppose the clergy in a political 
way, still the church has a firm hold upon the people 
of Chile. The educated Chilean has no war with the 
Catholic church, to him it is the divinely appointed 
institution ; but he is in favor of progressive Catholi- 
cism. If he does not go to mass himself, his wife and 
daughters must go, and on special occasions, such, for 
instance, as the procession of Corpus Christi, he will 
condescend to take part. If he opposes the priest in 
legislative halls, he yet reverences his time-honored 
religion, and for a Chilean to be other than Catholic 
would mean for him to be out of caste. 

Santiago is somewhat cosmopolitan, although the 
urban foreign population is chiefly domiciled in Val- 
paraiso. There is a large foreign population, some 
ninety or one hundred thousand altogether in the coun- 
try, of whom five or six thousand are English and 
about the same number each of Germans and French. 
Valparaiso is essentially an English city, so far as com- 
mercial interests are concerned. English is spoken 


everywhere equally with other languages, shops have 
English names, the solid commercial houses are Eng- 
lish or German, and there are English churches, Eng- 
lish hotels, English professional men, and an English 
newspaper. In the management of the great business 
enterprises, the Chilean yields to foreigners. English 
capital and enterprise have developed the coal mines 
in the south, the Tarapaca nitrate works in the north, 
the mines throughout Chile; English capital has built 
the railroads, or many of them, English engineers have 
projected the lines, and English employes run them. 
The government railroads were built from English 
loans ; England is the civilizer, the taskmaster, the 
great merchant, the miser, the banker, the usurer of 
the world. Tarapaca is essentially an English district, 
Antofagasta and Taltal English towns, while in the 
south, English and German energy are predominant in 
Talcahuano, Concepcion and other towns. 

In the south there are large German settlements; 
Valdivia and Puerto Montt are essentially German 
cities. Spanish is spoken with German, at least by the 
second generation, but it is a verj' corrupt Spanish. 
The Germans in Chile, as elsewhere, retain their na- 
tional characteristics longer than other foreigners, and 
though the children learn Spanish, they continue, gen- 
erally, to speak the language of their fathers even to the 
third generation, so that in such towns as Caiiete, Ger- 
man is spoken as much as Spanish. But they are thrifty 
settlers and the solid business men and agriculturists 
of southern Chile, although, be it understood, many 
of the Chileans are shrewd business men. The great 
haciendas, vineyards and mines, are usually owned by 
Chileans, who, however, generally employ foreign over- 

The peon or roto is the laborer of Chile and his class 


constitutes a large part of the population. He is the 
real son of the soil, the true Chilean. He is a great 
miner, but rather roving in his disposition. He is in- 
dustrious, ignorant, and has few wants. He is by in- 
stinct intelligent, but he is superstitious. He is the 
filthiest of mortals in his house; he lives upon his gar- 
lic dish of cazuela, watermelons and liquor. He has a 
large family invariably, despite the fact that his chil- 
dren die like summer insects, because of filth. He is 
a strong man, because only a healthy child is able to 
survive. If he has a simple mud-plastered hovel and a 
few fagots upon which to cook his cazuela, he is con- 
tented and happy. He is faithful to his home, although 
he is seldom married to his wife. He chooses a help- 
mate in early life by simply agreeing to live with her, 
and he usually keeps his promise. 

His pleasure is drink and his amusement is riding. 
He lives niggardly and works constantly for several 
weeks, hoarding his pittance for a grand carousal. He 
dresses in the simplest fashion, a shirt, a pair of trow- 
sers, a slouch hat and a poncho constituting his garb. 
His wife wears a calico gown with a long train, which 
is usuall}' bedraggled as to skirt. It is seldom that he 
can read, but he has natural genius for imitating and 
learns to do any kind of work with little instruction. 
He has wonderful strength and endurance. No Euro- 
pean is capable of such physical endurance. He is a 
specially good miner and can scramble up a notched 
pole with a hundred pounds of ore upon his back. As 
a stevedore in the harbor, he disdains the use of mod- 
ern appliances and with sheer physical strength lifts 
and carries upon his back enormous weights. Four of 
them will think it no task to shoulder p. pianoforte and 
go trotting through the street with it. 

The peons are docile enough in disposition and 


when treated fairly are easily controlled or influenced. 
They are imitative and what one does they all do, even 
in the matter of getting drunk. They take care of their 
old and are kind to each other, save while intoxicated, 
when they are apt to fight to the death. They have 
much Indian blood in their veins and exhibit many 
ancestral traits; they hold wakes over dead children 
and attempt to cure disease with bits of paper, leaves, 
or such trifles, pasted upon different parts of the face. 
The holding of wakes over children is, however, a bar- 
barous custom that is gradually dying out among them. 
It consists in decking out the little one in its finery, 
encircling its head with a wreath of flowers, painting 
its face and putting strings of beads around its neck, 
in which condition it is placed upon a table and kept 
for weeks while drunken festivities are participated in 
by the parents and friends. As infant mortality is 
great, the number of wakes in a year must make the 
custom a troublesome one. Only the strongest children 
live, so that the peons have become a hardy race by 
the survival of. the fittest. 

But education is beginning to take hold upon this 
people and their condition in time will be greatly ame- 
liorated. Large numbers of them are yearly emigrat- 
ing to other South American states, particularly to 
Argentina, in search of better remunerated work. His 
lot is a hard one, but he loves his adobe hut, and, 
drunken as he is, the peon has some fine qualities of 
head and heart, which may yet make a good citizen of 
him. He is the surviving progeny of a once proud 
race of Indians and the valiant Spanish conquistadores, 
and he has a historical past behind his degraded pres- 
ent condition. His ancestors were heroes, if he him- 
self is little better than a serf. 

The Indian population of Chile is inconsiderable as 


compared with that of other South American states. 
It is usually estimated at about 50,000. The Arauca- 
nians still live in the country south of the Biobio, ad- 
hering to many of their primitive habits, and dwelling 
together in villages. The laws of Chile have respect 
for their rights as proprietors and their lands can only 
be purchased through the chiefs, who hold a sort of 
paramount patriarchal title, and then by subsequent 
settlements with the individual proprietors. The In- 
dian claims being extinguished, a good title to the land 
may be obtained through the proper officers. This pro- 
prietary right to their lands, held through the centuries 
by their invincible valor, has been a potent means of 
keeping this nation of Indians together and preventing 
admixture with Spanish blood. 

The Araucanian Indians are intelligent looking, well 
made fellows of about medium height. They have the 
usual straight hair and eyes peculiar to the Indian 
races. They are of light copper color, walk upright 
and look you full in the eye. They dress in the poncho 
for an outer garment, fasten a blanket around the waist 
which hangs down below the knees like a short skirt, 
and tie a red handkerchief around their heads. They 
have no beards and wear the hair cut just below the 
ears. The women wear the poncho folded like a shawl, 
and a dress of blue cloth. They coil their jet black 
tresses around their heads, ornamenting the braids with 
strings of beads. They wear large silver earrings, 
often two or three pairs at the same time, and neck- 
laces of beads or of leather studded with silver orna- 
ments. They go barefoot and pin their ponchos with 
silver ornaments. The women do the weaving and 
make the clothes, both for themselves and the men. 

Their huts are usually orderly and clean, a thing 
which can hardly be said of the homes of the peons. 


The master of the house may have several wives, and 
these with their children dwell together in apparent 
peace. The manner of taking a wife is similar to a 
custom which prevails in many barbarous countries ; 
the youth goes to the home of the prospective bride, 
and having settled with the father for her, forcibly car- 
ries her off. At least he and his friends appear to use 
force, but they are in reality suffered to take the maiden 
away with only a slight show of resistance. The pair 
then retire to the forest, and, after dwelling there to- 
gether for a few days, go to the husband's hut, where 
they live afterward as husband and wife. The women 
have the same custom which prevailed among the an- 
cient Incas, of going alone to the forest streams at the 
time of childbirth. When born, the child is washed 
in the river, wrapped carefully in its clothes and bound 
to a board, to which it remains fastened until it is 
time for it to learn to walk. 

The religion of the Araucanian is simple, like that of 
all Indians; it is, in fact, little more than a belief in 
immortality and in the spirits of good and evil. He 
believes in a Great Spirit and an Evil Spirit. The 
Evil Spirit must be often appeased ; in every calamity, 
reverses, bad weather, or bad crops, a meeting must be 
called under some mystical tree and an offended Deity 
be appeased with bowlings and liquor drinking. Wakes 
are held over the dead, the body being often kept some 
time suspended over a fire in the hut. The deceased 
at burial is supplied with food, clothing, weapons, a 
favorite horse or canoe, and other necessary accoutre- 
ments for the long journey to the happy regions beyond 
the seas. The Evil Spirit is kept out of the grave by 
the friends surrounding it with crossed lances, while 
the body is being interred. 

This simple religion has no creed; the wise old 


woman, the Machi, prophetess, seer of the tribe, alone 
pretends to have supernatural gifts and is the village 
doctor. Sickness is caused by a visitation of the Evil 
Spirit and he must be exorcised, when the patient will 
recover. This task the old woman performs with di- 
vers dismal wails and incantations and the burning of 
branches of the sacred canelo tree, whose leaves have 
great medicinal virtue in cases of fever. The prophetess 
of the tribe, when her remedies fail and her patient dies, 
must point out the person whose evil eye caused the 
death. That person is then slain by the relatives of 
the deceased if he can be found. This is the most 
barbarous custom connected with the Indian religion, 
but it is hardly worse than burning witches. 

As a rule the Araucanians are courteous in their man- 
ners and honorable in all their engagements. They are 
brave in battle, but not cruel. They cultivate the soil, 
and are permanently attached to their lands. They are 
obedient to their own toquis, laws and customs, and 
kind to each other and to their animals. An Arauca- 
nian's horse loves him and follows him like a pet. 
They are a hospitable people and not treacherous. 
The}' received the Spaniards hospitably when they first 
visited their countr}' and only rose against them when 
they found that they had come as invaders. It is said 
that whoever receives the toqui's hand in friendship 
may travel with impunity throughout the Indian terri- 
tories. So long as tWe traveler comports himself as 
he should, he will be in no more danger than if he were 
traveling among his own countrymen. 

Though he is a superstitious individual, the Arau- 
canian is yet an imaginative and not altogether uncon- 
genial person. He is a natural diplomatist and talks 
a Jong time before he comes to the point. On more 
than one occasion in his great palavers with the Span- 


iards he proved himself a shfewd politician. But he 
is as much a believer in omens as Romulus. Let the 
little bird of ill-omen chirp on his left side while he 
is on a journey and he will turn back. 

Considerable efforts have been made by the Romish 
church to convert these Indians, and with some suc- 
cess. A few churches and monasteries have been at 
different times established within their territories, with 
church schools for the instruction of the young Indi- 
ans. Every year quite a number of boys are turned 
from their barbarous ways of life, and, after a short 
training, are induced to hire themselves out as labor- 
ers and to live among the Chileans, with whom they 
in time identify themselves. Others of the boys run 
away and return to their former free life. 

The Chilean government, like the United States, 
has had its troublesome Indian question. Led by rene- 
gades, self-styled French kings, horse thieves and ban- 
ditti, the Indians have constantly harassed the frontier 
settlements. So sure as Chile became involved in war, 
the Araucanians stood ready to attack in the rear, as 
was the case during the late war with Peru when they 
attacked villages, burned houses, stole cattle and pil- 
laged haciendas. But constant wars and constant drunk- 
enness is at last solving the question, the Indians will 
become extinct or absorbed into the general population 
of Chile. They have been able to withstand Spanish 
arms, but they are not able to withstand the kind of 
firewater the Germans of southern Chile manufacture 
for them. Men, women and children drink and roll in 
beastly drunkenness. Smallpox and other diseases of 
civilized nations, have at different times well-nigh 
swept them from the face of the earth, and year by 
year lessd'n their numbers. Railroads are being pushed 
into their territorv and the shriek of the iron horse is 


ever a sound of doom to the red man. There was a 
time when the Chilean government forbade the purchase 
of their lands, thinking that they might in time become 
a province of civilized Indians. But this prohibi- 
tion is now removed and the Indians are left free moral 
agents to do as they please with their property. The 
result is that firewater, accompanied by a few dollars, 
buys their lands and this will in time destroy their 
autonomy as a nation. Sooner or later, despite all 
humanitarian laws and sentiment, the weak is sub- 
verted by the strong, either directly or indirectly. Such 
is the history of civilization, and civilization is fast 
pushing its wheat fields into the Araucanian territories, 
and the old towns which Valdivia founded, but which 
lay in ruins ever after, are springing into new and en- 
ergetic life on the Chilean frontiers. Angol is now a 
busy place of considerable population, Canete is a 
growing town, Valdivia has over 23,000 inhabitants, 
Arauco 27,000, while other cities, such as Traiguen, 
Temuco, and Puerto Montt, have been making rapid 
advancement and bringing the improvements and pro- 
gressive ways of the modern world into these ancient 
territories and among this ancient people. The Indi- 
ans live now in a state of semi-independence, recog- 
nizing in the Chilean government a sort of protector- 
ate. They are congregated principally in the provinces 
of Malleco, Imperial and Cautin, and in scattered bands 
throughout the country south of the Biobio river. 

In the extreme south of Chile are various small no- 
mad tribes of Patagonian Indians. The Yaghan and 
Fuegian Indians are savage and miserable beings, wan- 
dering about the islands at the Straits of Magellan, a 
few families of them usually together, armed with bows 
and arrows, clothed in old rags and blankets and sub- 
sisting on mussels and such food as they are enabled 


to pick up. On the mainland, the Indians sell skins 
and furs, puma, huanaco, and silver fox skins and os- 
trich feathers, to traders at Punta Arenas. Dwelling 
as they do in these cold, inhospitable, barren and rainy 
regions, they are the most miserable of earth's inhabi- 
tants, not even excepting the Esquimaux. They are 
related to the Indians of the Chilo^ Archipelago, but 
are far below them in intelligence and in their habits 
and manner of living. 

Including the Indians, southern Chile has but a scanty 
population. Punta Arenas on the Straits of Magellan 
is a town of one thousand inhabitants, where the Euro- 
pean steamers touch. The business of the place is 
carried on principally by English and Germans. The 
town is the centre of a considerable extent of sheep- 
raising country and a market for various settlements 
on the islands of Tierra del Fuego, Southern Patagonia 
and the Falkland Islands. Slieep farming is the prin- 
cipal industry of this southern country and there are 
several large ranches. Gold dust is found in consid- 
erable quantities in the streams and the shepherds fre- 
quently bring in enough of it to buy what they want 
in town. There are also silver and coal mines, but 
they have not, as yet, been worked with success. 

For the most part, this country is given up to seals, 
otters, seafowl and savages. The whole vast extent of 
the Territory of Magellan contains about two thousand 
people, of whom one half are foreigners. 




Chile is a long narrow strip "of country stretching a 
distance of 2,600 miles along the Pacific coast of South 
America ; its breadth varies from forty to one hundred 
miles, its area is estimated approximately at about 
294,000 square miles. This great country, extending 
from latitude 17" 47' S. southward to Cape Horn, has 
for its eastern boundary the center of the almost insur- 
mountable Andes, and for its western boundary the 
Pacific, along the shores of which runs the range of the 
Cordillera de la Costa. Before the recent acquisitions 
of territory from Peru and Bolivia, Chile was protected 
on its northern boundary by the almost impassable Ata- 
cama desert, three hundred miles in length, so that the 
natural position of the republic was one of great se- 
curity and strength. Beside the mainland and exten- 
sive islands along the coast south of Puerto Montt, 
Chile owns the island of Juan Fernandez and claims 
Easter Island. 

Between the Andes and Cordillera ranges runs a long 
valley, extending from the Quillota river south to Chilo^ 
Island, a fertile valley in which are situated the prin- 
cipal cities and where are found the best cultivated 
districts. To the northward of this valley there are 

fertile districts, such as those of Coquimbo and Acon- 



cagua, but the chief wealth of northern Chile is to be 
found in the rich mines of the mountains and nitrate 
deposits of the Tarapaca and Atacama regions. The 
mineral district proper consists of the provinces of 
Tacna, Tarapaca, Antofagasta and Atacama ; between 
the parallels of 27" and 32°, the countr}' is both a min- 
ing and an agricultural region. The central provinces, 
Santiago, O'Higgins, Colchagua, Curico, Talca, Lina- 
res, Maule, Nuble, Concepcion, Biobio, Arauco, Mal- 
leco, Cautin, Valdivia and Llanquihue, constitute a 
rich agricultural zone. From Puerto Montt to Cape 
Horn, there is a vast stretch of forest, mountain and 
island territory, valuable for fisheries and timber. 

It will thus be seen that Chile enjoj's every variety of 
climate, from the desert heat of Atacama to the snow 
and ice of Cape Horn, and is thus enabled to grow the 
fruits and grains of all zones and enjoy the products 
of all climates. The term which some Chileans use in 
speaking of their country, "pobre Chile," (poor Chile,) 
is scarcely applicable, as nature has lavished many 
bounties upon this tract of the inhabitable earth. Once 
there extended a chain of lakes up the great central 
valley, like those which are now seen in the islands 
from Chilo6 south, and these old beds have a very fer- 
tile alluvial soil, while the climate, tempered by the 
winds from the Pacific, is as mild and salubrious as 
that of California or Italy. 

The Chilean winter begins in June. The rainy sea- 
son further inland commences earlier than this, usually 
in April, and continues until the last of August. Sum- 
mer begins in December, spring the last of September, 
and from spring until autumn there is throughout Chile 
constant fine weather. In the southern portions, how- 
ever, and the timbered islands, the rainfall is heavy in 
summer. In the northern provinces, from Coquimbo 


north, rain seldom falls ; in the central provinces it 
sometimes rains three or four days in succession and 
then follows two or three weeks of pleasant weather. 
In the south it will often rain for nine or ten days in 
succession, but the storms are not accompanied with 
high winds or hail, and thunder is seldom heard. 
Snow falls only in the Andes, which are rendered 
nearly impassable by it from April to November. Oc- 
casionally there is a light fall in the country bordering 
upon the mountains, and in the interior provinces there 
are August frosts with chilly nights. Heavy dews fall 
during the spring, summer and autumn, and to a 
certain extent, supply the want of rain. Fogs are not 
infrequent on the coast; the north winds bring rain, 
the south winds clear sky; there are seldom tornadoes. 

There are one hundred and twenty-five rivers in Chile, 
nearly half of which flow directly into the sea. They 
form a vast natural system of irrigation, bringing the 
melting snows of the mountains down into the valleys. 
Eight or ten of them are navigable for some distance, 
as the Maule and the Biobio, the latter being over two 
miles in breadth. As Chile is merely the western slope 
of the Andes these rivers are all short and rapid, the 
waters shallow and broad, the banks low, the beds 
rocky. This fact, with the general topography of the 
country, renders irrigation a simple matter. 

Not only is Chile abundantly supplied with rivers, 
there are also many lakes, such as Bucalemu, Caguil, 
Borjeruca which are brackish; Ridaguel, Aculeu, Ta- 
guatagua, Laquen or Villarica, Nahuelguapi, and many 
others, beautiful fresh-water lakes, some of which, as 
Villarica and Nahuelguapi, are from seventy to eighty 
miles in circumference. In the southern provinces 
there are many small fresh-water lakes. 

In the southern part of Chile immense crops of wheat 


are grown ; this region has long been the Sicily of the 
southern Pacific coast. On the great farms, many of 
which in the vicinity of Angol have an extent of from 
5,000 to 20,000 acres, the crop is grown year after year 
with almost unvarying success, together with smaller 
crops of barley, maize, beans, grass, alfalfa and pota- 
toes. The alfalfa is baled and shipped principally to 
the nitrate districts of the north. Immense quantities 
of it are grown in the Aconcagua valley, where the 
fields are irrigated from the Aconcagua river. The 
farms are surrounded with hedges and rows of poplars 
and weeping willows, while the orchards and vineyards 
are instarred with roses, jasmine, and innumerable wild 
flowers. Between the Aconcagua and Maule rivers lie 
the fertile lands in Chile. 

Throughout Chile, more particularly near the capi- 
tal, the grape thrives, and wine-making is an impor- 
tant industry. Chicha in Chile is made from grapes 
and is as much the popular beverage as pulque is in 
Mexico. Grapes were early introduced by the Span- 
iards and in recent years French vines have been planted 
in nearly all of the great vineyards from Huasco to Val- 
divia. Among the largest of the successful vineyards 
may be mentioned the Urmeneta near Valparaiso, the 
Ochagavia, the Totoral near Concepcion, Subercaseaux 
Bordeaux, Panguehue, La Trinidad and Macul. The 
vineyards are irrigated and cultivated in a somewhat 
primitive manner, oxen being used for the plowing, 
but there is invariably a French expert as manager and 
the wines made are of a very superior quality. The 
industry is not restricted in any manner, either in the 
production or the sale. 

From Santiago south to Concepcion the country is 
a succession of rich farms and occasional sandy wastes, 
the latter being barren simply because of a lack of means 


of irrigation, for there are here no dews and no rivers 
except during the winter. The soil is usually deep 
and fertile, and wherever water can be conducted upon 
it, fine crops are grown. Some of the rivers, notably 
the Maypo, are veritable Niles and bring down vast 
quantities of alluvial deposits every season. The farms 
are usually separated by broad ditches and are carefully 
tilled, although the methods are primitive. The irri- 
gating canals are constructed at considerable expense 
and each hacendado is usually a shareholder of the cor- 
poration stock. The canals are divided into so many 
outlets {regadores) and each farmer subscribes for as 
many as he may need of the sluices ; from them water 
is drawn off into the network of ditches covering his 
fields. It is an expensive process, but highly efficient. 

Farther south, around the old Araucanian cities, are 
the vast wheatfields which we have already noted. Here 
rains are abundant, and over the low undulating hills 
the yellow grain waves in billowy oceans. Here also 
range large herds of cattle. Angol is a great wheat 
centre ; so also is Traiguen. A railroad has been pushed 
down through this country to Traiguen, and is headed 
for Osorno, where there are extensive tracts of valuable 
timber. Tanning bark {lingue) is here quite an import- 
ant article of commerce. In Valdivia, tanneries have 
long been established. 

It has been frequentl}' recorded by travelers in these 
southern forests that all the trees lean toward the north. 
This is caused hy the prevailing south winds. From 
the same cause, the timber on the hills is scanty and 
scrubby, that in sheltered spots most luxuriant. It is 
a wet, windy country, but the climate is temperate, 
the mean temperature being about 56° Fahr. This 
part of Chile is being peopled almost wholl)' bj' Euro- 
pean immigrants, chiefly Germans, who avail them- 



selves of the inducements held out by the government 
in the shape of a free forty-acre farm for the head of 
the family and twenty-five acres additional for each 
ten-year-old boy, with free transportation and a pension 
of S15 a month the first year in addition. But the 
immigrant's life is a hard one at best; trying to reclaim 
these primeval forests he finds himself beset with many 
difficulties he never dreamed of when he left his father- 
land. There is certainly room for him, for Chile is 
larger than any European country save Russia, and is 
inhabited by a population only a little greater than that 
of Paris. The government holds out glowing induce- 
ments, but as is usually the case with immigration 
pamphlets, the bright side only is depicted. The poor 
colonist soon finds that there is a column of losses to 
set over against the column of prospective gains ; but 
this the home seeker finds wherever he may go. 

It would seem that there is room in Chile for the 
business man, the merchant, the miner, the capitalist, 
the banker. English and German capital and enter- 
prise receive splendid returns. Particularly in the mat- 
ter of railroads and public works of all kinds is this 
true, and in banking. The monetary system and credit 
of the country are satisfactorj', Chile's credit being not 
far behind that of France, and political agitations are 
not now more violent than in other republics. 

The absence of coal mines was, until recently, a 
great drawback to the material development of the 
country ; but now this want is in part supplied by the 
opening up of the mines at Lota and other places in 
the south. The Lota mines have an annual output of 
200,000 tons, other mines aggregate about the same, 
so that the annual output is not far from 400,000 tons. 
There is still imported from England and Australia, 
from 250,000 to 300,000 tons annually. The Chilean 


coal is not of first quality and when discovered, less than 
forty years ago, was considered unsuitable for steamers 
and locomotives, as it is quite as much lignite as coal. 
For years the railways of the country used imported 
coal. A shrewd engineer discovered a simple contriv- 
ance for the grates which made it possible for the 
Lota coal to be used and now it is in use altogether. 

The coal formations are found along the coast from 
the river Biobio to Canete, and belong to the tertiary 
deposits, which lie upon the granite rocks of the Cor- 
dillera de la Costa. The formation dips toward the 
Pacific, but in many places has been upheaved and 
tilted in an opposite direction. The seams which out- 
crop in the rocks and are reached by means of shafts, are 
three in number and have an average thickness of from 
three to six feet. The depths at which they are worked 
vary from three hundred to eight hundred feet. 

It was known as early as 1825, that coal existed in 
southern Chile, and in 1835, Mr. Wheelright, the pro- 
jector of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, under- 
took to mine it, but with no success. No further at- 
tempts were made before 1855, when Don Matias Cou- 
sino began to work the Lota deposits near Coronel on 
the Arauco Bay. These mines now produce from eight 
hundred to one thousand tons dail}', which is taken out 
principally from under the sea, and gives employment 
to some two thousand miners. The men are well 
treated, work twelve hours a day, and receive from 
eighty cents to two dollars. The mines are well ven- 
tilated, good machinery is used, a hospital is attached 
to them and several schools are in successful operation. 
The company owns four steamers and several ships 
which ply along the coast, carrying coal north to Pacific 
ports and bringing back copper ore for the Lota smelt- 
ing works. The profits of the company exceed one 



million dollars a year. There are seven smelting 
furnaces, employing from six hundred to one thousand 
men and turning out one thousand tons of copper a 

There are glass and brick works established at Lota, 
also machine shops. The two towns. Upper and Lower 
Lota, have together a population of 14,000. Other ex- 
tensive coal mines in Chile are the Schwager at Coro- 
nel, Rojas at the same place, the Errazuriz at Lebu, 
and the Arauco Company's mines. 

But the true source of Chile's wealth and excellent 
credit is to be found in the nitrate works of the north. 
The vast deserts between Copiapo and the Camerones, 
once considered only a worthless waste, have been 
called a great natural chemical laboratory, for here 
various kinds of salts have been precipitated in im- 
mense quantities. Not only is this region rich in salts, 
but here are also some of the best paying mines on 
the coast. The value of the fertilizing product from 
the nitrate of soda deposits, called in the natural state 
calicheras, is too well known to need mention here. 
The calicheras are situated in the desert just below the 
surface, in the old dried up lake beds. It is on the 
sides, or rings, of these that the richest deposits are 
found. The deposits are detected by small natural 
holes, caused probably by the action of water at some 
period of the formation, and by fissures in the surface. 
The salitreras are situated at intervals on the east slope 
of the coast Cordillera along the edge of the pampa 
which lies between the Cordillera and the Andes, and 
at an elevation of from three thousand to four thousand 
feet above the sea level. They vary in richness; the 
calicheras near Antofagasta contain from fifteen to 
twenty per cent of nitrates, these of Tarapacd as much 
as seventy per cent. 


The calicheras lie near the surface, from one to ten 
feet below, and to reach them small excavations are 
made. Blasting powder is put under the raw nitrate 
and the ground thus broken up for a considerable dis- 
tance, then the caliche is separated from rock and rub- 
bish as much as possible and loaded into sheet iron 
mule carts, in which it is transported to the crushing 
mills. It is then bruised between rollers, dissolved 
and deposited in tanks and crystallized in vats, from 
which it is drawn off much as salt would be, and sacked 
for transportation. 

Beside the nitrate of soda there are the accessory 
salts found in it, potassium, magnesium, gypsum, and 
iodine. Caliche itself is crystalline in structure, solu- 
ble in water, and has a slightly saline taste. The ori- 
gin of the deposits is somewhat in doubt, but appears 
to have been the result of decomposition of seaweeds 
at a time when this part of the continent was under the 
ocean. With the upheaval of the land salt water lakes 
were formed, and, with the evaporation of the water, 
nitric acid was generated by the decomposition of the 
seaweeds and this, acting upon shells and limestone, 
formed nitrate of calcium, and nitrate of calcium unit- 
ing further with sulphate of soda, left also by the evap- 
orating sea water, gives the result, nitrate of soda and 
sulphate of calcium. The beds have been preserved 
in their present condition for ages, because of the fact 
that rain seldom falls on this part of the coast. Moist- 
ure would dissolve and destroy the product. 

The export of nitrate of soda amounts annually to 
more than twenty million Spanish quintals, of one 
hundred pounds each, and this is valued at thirty mil- 
lions of dollars. The state receives from this export 
over twenty millions of dollars annually, an amount 
exceeding all the general import duties, and in the 



Tarapaca fields alone over thirteen thousand men find 

Beside the nitrate works, there are in the north 
valuable silver mines, and south of the silver mines 
the copper regions, in the vicinity of Coquimbo. We 
have then, coal in the south, copper in the north, 
silver still farther north and then nitrate of soda and 
guano. The rich copper mines at Coquimbo, yielding 
from thirty to sixty per cent of pure metal from the 
ore, were not discovered until after the revolution, 
though Coqtiimbo (or rather La Serena) is one of the 
oldest cities in Chile. There for many years a most 
wasteful process was adopted, and it was not until 1840, 
that reverberatory furnaces were introduced and prim- 
itive methods of extracting the metal abandoned. The 
mountains about Coquimbo are filled with the ore ; at 
Ovalle the surface stones are green with copper. Though 
the importance of the copper industry is not now what 
it was in former years, still the product amounted in 
1888, to 31,241 tons. There is scarcely a limit to the 
number of tons the output might be made to reach, as 
the deposits of copper throughout these regions are 
practically inexhaustible. 

The production of silver has been great, the mines 
being exceedingly rich. There has been a slight fall- 
ing off in the output recently, but still the industry is 
an important one. The first railway built in the coun- 
try was in 1852 from Copiapo to the rich silver district 
of Chaiiaral. Before the road gave better facilities for 
transportation, the poorer ores, just as with copper, 
were thrown aside. With an outlet by rail the inhab- 
itants set about working up the discarded ores, even 
pulling down houses and walls which had been con- 
structed of the refuse from the mines in order to sell it 
for export. With the building of railroads from the 


port towns to the mines, a new impetus was given the 
industr}', and the ports of Antofagasta, Chanaral, Cal- 
dera, Taltal, and other northern places, exported an- 
nually minerals and metals to the value of several mil- 
lions of dollars. 

The rich mines of Caracoles, discovered in 1870, are 
ten thousand feet above the sea, situated on the slope 
of the Andes. There are over four thousand of the 
mines registered. The most valuable product is a chlo- 
ride of silver and mercury, which contains over sixty 
per cent of silver, and two of mercurj^ These mines 
together with the nitrate of soda deposits in this dis- 
trict, have made the port of Antofagasta an important 

To the north of Antofagasta are the great nitrate and 
guano fields, the principal ports for shipment being 
Iquique, Pisagua, Taltal, Caleta Buena, Junin, Toco- 
pilla, and Puerto Olivia. Thus it will be seen that 
this long, rocky, rainless coast line, extending along 
the Pacific for a distance of seven hundred miles, is 
one of the richest districts in the world. The whole 
country is a vast mine of minerals. Perhaps the Ta- 
marugal Pampa, which contains the nitrate deposits, 
will not always be the source of wealth that it is at 
present, but at least for some years to come the vil- 
lages and oficinas will thrive, the ports will present a 
lively appearance and nitrate kings and the Chilean 
government will grow rich. 

Each ofici7ia, or mining camp, in these boundless 
deserts must be furnished with distilled or transported 
water. Nothing is grown, save in the oasis of Pica 
and in a few places where pits are dug down to mois- 
ture, or in some of the great gorges. The workmen 
live in corrugated iron huts around each oficina, and 
with their women and children constitute a little village 

CHILE OF 1^0- DAY 397 

of from one thousand to three thousand population. 
There is a general store at each oficina, belonging to 
the company, and this, it is safe to say, realizes enor- 
mous profits on everything sold. It has been estimated 
that the workmen spend sixty per cent of their earn- 
ings in the store and drink and gamble with the forty 
per cent. The moral and material condition of the 
laborers is degraded rather than benefited by the very 
wealth which they dig from the earth, for little of it 
remains in the country to improve and beautify it. 



Chile may be divided, physically, and for conven- 
ience of reference, into the maritime country, or that 
portion of the country bordering upon the Pacific, and 
the midland country, or that portion in the interior. 

Transversely, it may be divided into four great re- 
gions, viz: the rainless, desert zone of the north, the 
mineral region, extending from Peru to Copiapc and 
comprising the provinces of Tacna, Tarapaca, Antofa- 
gasta and northern Atacama ; the semi-desert zone, 
comprising the southern part of Atacama and the pro- 
vinces of Coquimbo and Aconcagua; the agricultural 
zone, with a considerable amount of rainfall, compris- 
ing the provinces from Valparaiso to Puerto Montt at 
the southern end of old Chile ; and the timber and 
fisheries zone, extending from Puerto Montt southward 
to Cape Horn. 

The maritime country is traversed south of the thirty- 
first parallel by three principal chains of low moun- 
tains, all running parallel with the Andes. These con- 
stitute the Cordillera ranges, and between them are 
numerous fertile valleys watered by mountain streams. 
The central ranges terminate abruptly in the vicinity 
of Puerto Montt ; the western range follows the coast 

line. The midland country is, generally speaking, a 




plain, from which arise here and there considerable 
hills. Beyond the plain country the lofty Andes pierce 
tl}e clouds with great volcanic peaks rising to a height 
of over twenty thousand feet, the. highest being oppo- 
site the center of Chile on each side of the Uspallata 
Pass between Mendoza and San Rosa. Here the great 
volcanic peaks of Tupangato and Aconcagua rise to a 
height of over twenty two thousand feet above the sea 
level. Numerous other peaks tower to a height of 
from fifteen thousand to eighteen thousand feet. In the 
mountains on the Chilean side are the sources of the 
many rivers which cut their way through the fertile 
plains and the Cordilleras to the Pacific; between the 
lofty snow-capped peaks are numerous valley pastures 
where herds are kept. 

North of 31° the Cordillera ranges become less regu- 
lar; they scatter into spurs as they approach the des- 
ert regions and are covered with sandy wastes. The 
Atacama desert is a plateau with a height varying from 
four thousand to ten thousand feet. The country along 
the coast bears evidence of recent upheavals, similar, 
though on a larger scale, to the elevation of several 
leagues of coast region at Valparaiso in 1882, when an 
uplift of about six feet occurred. Going inland there 
are found five terraces, indicating as many uplifts of 
the land at different periods, the terraces ranging in 
height from one hundred and eighty to two hundred 
and eighty feet. In the vicinity of Coquimbo the 
terraces extend back some distance into the coun- 
try, forming little plains upon which the cities of 
Coquimbo and La Serena are built. Seashells are found 
in different places at elevations of from five hundred to 
one thousand three hundred feet, so that present changes 
of surface are mild compared with those of other ages. 
Chile is, in fact, a new creation, geologically speaking, 


as these terraces, the numerous volcanoes, the earth- 
quakes and the prevalence of mineral springs through- 
out the country, would go to show. About seventj'-fiye 
miles southeast of Chilian hot springs are found almost 
at the snow line of the Chilian volcano. There are 
numerous other mineral springs celebrated for their 
medicinal qualities. 

Though so lofty, the Chilean Andes are traversed by 
several passes. Eleven have been examined, but only 
two or three of them are ever used. The principal 
pass connecting Chile with Argentina is that of the 
Uspallata between San Rosa and Mendoza. It is over 
it that the transandine railroad runs. 

In the southern Andes numerous lakes abound, some 
of them being of considerable extent, as that of Llan- 
quihue at the foot of the mountains near Puerto Montt. 
It is thirty miles long and twenty-two wide. North of 
Llanquiliue are several other large lakes, Ranco and 
Villarica being the largest. This chain of lakes, extend- 
ing from Puerto Montt to the head waters of the river 
Tolten, constitutes, in fact, a continuation of the Gulf 
of Ancud, as the Chilo4 Archipelago is in reality a con- 
tinuation of the mainland. There are two quite large 
lakes still farther north in the province of Concepcion, 
which lie high up in the Andes. Guilletue covers about 
fifty square miles ; La Laja, a short distance below 
Guilletue, has a beautiful waterfall at its outlet. The 
only lakes north of these are small bodies of water 
formed in the craters of extinct volcanoes high up in the 
Andes. Some of them, however, have an extent of 
two or three miles. 

Nearly all the rivers of Chile have sand bars at their 
mouths, which effectually impede navigation. The Bio- 
bio has a length of two hundred and twenty miles and 
receives three large affluents, the Laja, Duqueco and 


Bergara. Above the bar it is navigable for a distance 
of one hundred miles ; a steamer plies upon it between 
Concepcion and Nacimiento. The Maule is one hun- 
dred and fifty miles long and is navigable a distance 
of seventy miles. The Valdivia has a length of one 
hundred miles, of vyhich fifty are navigable. The Im- 
perial is navigable only thirty out of its one hundred 
and fifty miles. The Tolten has a length of sixty miles 
and is navigable. The Bueno is navigable twenty miles 
out of one hundred and ten. Going farther north the 
streams have considerable size, but are not navigable, 
as they are shallow and the water they bring down 
from the mountains is used for purposes of irrigation. 
Such are are the rivers Maypo, Rapel, Coquimbo, Hu- 
asco, Copiapo, Itata, Aconcagua, Mataquito, Limari 
and others — quite large streams at certain seasons of 
the year, but shallow in summer. The Copiapo often 
becomes a sandy bed during the dry season. Further 
north the river beds are deep gorges, for the most part 
destitute of water. 

Earthquakes are of frequent occurrence, but are usu- 
ally so light that but little damage is done by them. 
Scarcely a year passes that there are not rumblings or 
shocks somewhere, but the destructive earthquakes hap- 
pen rarely. They appear to be most severe in the 
south and are, indeed, seldom destructive in the north- 
ern provinces. In the period of two centuries and a 
half following the settlement of Chile by the Spaniards, 
there occurred five great earthquakes. This would be 
an average of two for each century. The first was 
early in the sixteenth century and destroyed some vil- 
lages in the south; the second was in 1647, and par- 
tially destroyed Santiago; the third in 1657, nearly de- 
molished the capital ; the fourth was on June i8th, 
1730, when Concepcion was considerably shaken up, 


its walls and many of its buildings thrown down; and 
the fifth, on May the 26th, 1751, completely destroyed 
the latter city with a great tidal wave and threw down 
all the villages between the thirty-fourth and fortieth 
parallels of latitude. But, as is usual with Chilean 
earthquakes, there were sufficient warnings of it by 
preceding slight shocks to enable the inhabitants to 
find places of shelter and safety. There was also an 
earthquake in 1737, on the Island of Chilo6. 

Concepcion was rebuilt on a new site in the valley 
of Mocha after the earthquake of 1730. In 1835, the 
city was again destroyed by a great earthquake and 
tidal wave. The wave swept up Talcahuano Bay, de- 
stroying shipping in the harbor, and then, leaping over 
the land, inundated the country for miles, destroying 
everything in its path. Concepcion was left in ruins, 
each row of houses being a line of debris. Talcahuano 
was also a heap of ruins, hardly, one brick or stone 
being left above another. Besides these two cities, 
seventy villages of southern Chile were to a greater 
or less extent destroyed. Other earthquakes have oc- 
curred, but with the exception of this terrible visita- 
tion of 1835, comparatively little damage has been done 
during this century. One occurred on August 13th, 
1868, another on March 25th, 1871. The latter destroyed 
considerable property in Santiago and Valparaiso. An- 
other on July ist, 1873, caused some damage. 

There are few good harbors connected with the Chil- 
ean ports, but there are a number of an inferior sort, 
some fifty-five in all, but only a few which could be 
utilized for anchorage purposes. Valparaiso is the most 
important port, but not the best. Its harbor is pro- 
tected, save when northerly winds are blowing, for on 
that side it is exposed and damage to shipping some- 
times happens. The best harbor is that of Talcahuano ; 


it is well-protected, with a good depth of water and 
room for any number of vessels which may anchor 
there. Coquimbo has a good safe harbor, well-shel- 
tered on the west, south and east. Valdivia has an ex- 
cellent, though rather small harbor. Other ports are 
Caldera, Huasco, Constitucion, Tom^, Coronel, Ancud 
and San Carlos. The nitrate and mining districts have 
made a number of important ports in the north, such 
as Iquique, Antofagasta, Pisagua and other small places. 
Many new ports along the whole coast line have at- 
tained some degree of importance since the middle of 
the century, which were not opened before. 

In the north the harbors are open to the sea and 
blocked with dangerous reefs, so that ships must an- 
chor some distance out. At Iquique there are several 
small moles, but these being insufficient, vessels are 
loaded and unloaded by carriers who wade through the 
surf with great burdens upon their backs, or with light- 
ers which ply back and forth from the moles. Along 
this whole northern coast line towering cliffs rise with 
almost perpendicular escarpments from the seashore. 
They are dark, barren, forbidding and frown with 
beetling brows over the ocean. At the places where 
the gorges, or old river beds, run down to the water's 
edge, little valleys spread out and upon them the towns 
are built. The cliffs rise from 1,500 to 2,000 feet above 
the water and increase toward the interior to 3,000 and 
4,000 feet, and then to 8,000 and 10,000 feet as the 
Andes are approached. 

Chile lays claim to numerous islands, the most im- 
portant of which are Chiloe and the islands south of 
it forming the archipelago of that name. There are 
more than a hundred of them, about half of which are 
well settled and possess excellent harbors. There are 
numerous islands south of this archipelago which Chile 


now claims, also Mocha, Santa Maria and Quiriquina, 
lying close to the coast between Chilo6 and Concepcion 
Bay. Chiloe is a veritable garden, possessing a humid 
atmosphere, a soil exceedingly fertile, a temperature at 
all times like spring, where snow or frost is seldom 
known. Fine crops of wheat, "barley, potatoes and 
other grains and vegetables are raised. There are fine 
herds of domestic animals, and the waters are filled 
with fish, shellfish and fur-bearing animals. 

Farther south the islands are for the most part moun- 
tainous and the climate wet, cold and disagreeable. 
Guaitecas, Guaianeco, Magellanes and Tierra del Fuego 
are given up to seals, whales, wild fowl and Fuegian 
Indians. The Indians roam at will over the west coast 
and the islands of Chonos and Guaianeco, a most mis- 
erable lot of human beings. Smyth's Channel is as 
picturesque as the Hudson. It is a narrow passage 
between the islands and the mainland, extending three 
hundred and thirty-eight miles from the Gulf of Penos 
to the Straits of Magellan, and averaging about two 
miles in width. Peaks, rocks and glaciers constitute 
a rugged picture upon each side, while further in the 
background the mountains rise from three to six thou- 
sand feet in height. In some portions of the channel 
a vessel can scarcely pass through between the cliffs 
and around the tortuous curves, so that navigation by 
night is unsafe. For this reason onl}' one line of 
steamers follows this route, other lines preferring to 
encounter the storm-swept ocean without, rather than 
to pass up this sheltered channel. The Straits of Ma- 
gellan are wide and through them all the steamers pass ; 
sailing vessels must still round the terrible Cape Horn, 
where the mighty Andes rise up in Mt. Sarmiento 
7,000 feet into the clouds and then fall prostrate be- 


neath the towering on-rushing waves, before which even 
mountains may not stand. 

The Island of Juan Fernandez, rendered famous by 
the imagination of De Foe, belongs to Chile, together 
with its outlying companions, several in number. 
These islands were first discovered by Juan Fernandez 
in 1563, and colonized, but the colonists soon aban- 
doned them. They became a favorite resort for the 
South Sea pirates, a headquarters for buccaneers. Ulloa 
visited them in 1741, Lord Anson remained there three 
months with a scurv5'-afflicted crew ; about the middle 
of the last century Don Domingo Rozas, of Chile, sent 
colonists to settle there. Political exiles were fre- 
quently banished there during the early part of this 
century ; later, several well organized efforts have been 
made by the Chilean government to colonize these 
islands with a better class of citizens. Chile also 
claims Easter Island. 

Chile is singularly free from ferocious animals and 
poisonous reptiles. There are eleven species of rep- 
tiles, five saurians, four ophidians, one frog and one 
toad. The serpents are perfectly harmless. In the 
timbered districts of the south there is plenty of game 
for the sportsman, but not of the savage kind. Pumas 
(Chile lions) are occasionally met with in the Andes 
and on the heights the huanaco is found. A small sil- 
ver fox abounds in the south. But there are no tigers 
(or jaguars), no wolves, such as infest other neighbor- 
ing states. The plateaux and plains stretching from 
the Andes to the Cordillera are almost destitute of 
game. Perhaps the towering Andes on one side and 
the Atacama desert on the other, have prevented the 
passage of animals into this favored land, or, it may 
be that the Indians, whom the Spaniards found settled 


in the country as agriculturists, long ago destroyed the 
wild beasts. 

There are seven species of cheiroptera, mostly bats, 
twelve species of carnivora, embracing four felines, 
three foxes, one weasel, two polecats, the nutria and 
otter, six species of phocidce, one marsupial {didelphys 
elegans), twelve genera and twenty-five species of ro- 
dents (twelve being mice), the chinchilla and its co- 
geners and a species of rabbit, two species of edentata 
{^dasypus and pichiciego, the latter rare and peculiar to 
Chile), three ruminants, the huanaco, and two deer, (the 
pudu and huemut). Four species of the ceiacea abound, 
two dolphins, the sperm whale and right whale. Per- 
haps the most interesting of the mammals are the 
phocidm. The phoca lupina, closely resembles the com- 
mon seal, the difference being principally in its size 
and color. The phoca elephantica (Jame or sea-elephant), 
is frequently twenty feet in length. It has short tusks 
and a sort of trunk on its nose, which, with its size, 
gives it some resemblance to the elephant. The sea- 
hog and sealion are so called because of faint resem- 
blance to those animals. 

The forests are usually quiet, though there are 
many kinds of birds. The chuca is an interesting spe- 
cies, being the Indian bird of ill-omen. If his merry 
note rings out to the right of the traveler, he is cheered 
on his way; if, however, the shrill cry is on the left, 
he turns back and avoids danger. There are many 
species of the raptores— condors, vultures, hawks and 
owls — and of the incessores. Parrots with beautiful 
plumage and pigeons flit through the forests. The 
families of grallatores and natatores are represented by 
numerous species. 

The choros is a peculiar kind of oyster, and is used 
by the inhabitants for food. Those in Talcahuano Bay 


have a good flavor. There are innumerable crustaceans 
and mollusks in the south ; there are three species of 
perch, one kingfish, three siluridse, shads and lampreys. 

The forests of southern Chile have a certain sombre 
beauty peculiar to themselves, the foliage being of 
great variety and exquisite coloring. The trees grow 
to a considerable height and are intertwined with par- 
asitic vines and creepers. One of these parasites is 
called "angel's hair" and hangs from the trees like 
threads of lace. There is an undergrowth of ferns, 
bamboos, shrubs and canes, the latter attaining a height 
sufficient to interlace treetops and form roofs of green 
over the forest avenues. On the mountains grows the 
stately pine. One species of this is indigenous to 
southern Chile, the Pehuen, or Araucania imbricata. It 
grows to a height of one hundred feet or more and 
bears a fruit greatly appreciated by the Pehuenche In- 
dians, who derive their name from it. 

There are many kinds of sweet-scented and beautiful 
flowering plants and rosebushes, particularly along the 
rivers. Mint, nettles, plaintains, trefoils and mallows, 
grow as well in Chile as anywhere else; so also lupins, 
loveapples, celery, cresses, mustard, and fennel. Trop- 
ical plants, such as sugar cane, pineapples, bananas, 
sweet potatoes, jalaps and mechoacan,grow well enough 
in the northern states. There are also many wild plants 
peculiar to Chile. Maize and the cereals all grow in 
this climate. The Indians cultivated Indian corn be- 
fore the arrival of the Spaniards, also species of rye 
and barley. The potato seems to have found in Chile 
its native soil ; two species of it grow wild, with over 
thirty varieties. There are several varieties of the qui- 
nua, and two principal species of the gourd. The In- 
dians cultivated a dozen different kinds of beans before 
the country was discovered by Europeans, and it is 


still a staple product with them. Strawberries grow 
wild ; there are two kinds of the madi and many spe- 
cies of the pimento. There are species of leeks, and 
one specie of wild basil which exudes a saline substance 
often used as salt. 

There are a number of plants, excellent for dyeing 
purposes. A species of madder called relbun is exten- 
sively used ; also a species of agrimony (giving a yel- 
low), the cuUi (furnishing a violet), and other varieties. 
Probably no country has a greater number of medi- 
cinal plants; over two hundred have been discovered 
having properties more or less valuable. Grasses and 
sedges are abundant and there are a great number of 
reeds and rushes. Hay is not needed in the country, 
as cattle graze throughout the j'ear ; but in the south- 
ern provinces fodder of different kinds is baled for 
shipment to the nitrate regions. 

Willows, wild cherries, wild oranges, white or win- 
ter cinnamon, carob, maqui, mulberries and tamarinds 
grow in different parts of the country. The cactus Co- 
quimbanus has thorns eight inches long and these are 
used by the women for knitting needles. The white 
cinnamon, ca«^/«', called by the natives "boighe, " grows 
to a height of fifty feet and is considered by the abor- 
igines as a sacred tree. Thej' ascribe to it great heal- 
ing properties, carry branches of it in their religious 
ceremonies, and wave it when they conclude treaties 
of peace. 

The palma Chilensis is a species of cocoanut which 
grows in some of the northern provinces and is highly 
esteemed ; the date grows in the province of Copiapo. 
Melons thrive everywhere, and millions of them are 
consumed by the peons and Indians. All kinds of 
fruits grow, apples, peaches, quinces, pears, cherries, 
oranges, lemons, citrons, olives, and others. 



The government of Chile, like the government of a 
few other countries, considers the building and operat- 
ing of railroads as a legitimate function of legislative 
and executive concern. An important item of the na- 
tional expenditure has been for the extension of the 
railway system. To this purpose have the nitrate 
royalties been largely applied. Chile was the first 
country in South America to build railroads ; the work 
was begun in 1850. 

The state at present owns and operates the line be- 
tween Santiago and Valparaiso, with the important 
branch of Los Andes, which is on the great South 
American trans-continental line from Buenos Ayres to 
Santiago and Valparaiso. The state also owns and 
operates the line from Santiago to Talcahuano, and its 
branches to Palmilla, Los Angeles, Traiguen and Col- 
lipulli. These lines have a combined length of 1,068 
kilometers, or less than seven hundred miles, and were 
worth in 1888, something near fifty millions of dollars 
and gave a clear profit of over a million and a half, 
exactly 3. 11 per cent upon the capital. They carried 
over three millions of passengers, a remarkable show- 
ing, when we take into consideration the fact that 


Chile's population does not greatly exceed three mil- 
lions ; but they are a restless, moving, traveling, as 
well as aggressive people. 

The state also owns the line from Chanaral to Ani- 
mas and Salados, being about forty miles in length, 
or, more correctly, sixt}'-five and one-fourth kilometers. 

There is a large amount of private capital invested 
in railways; in all, private corporations own about 
sixteen hundred kilometers, besides the Arauco com- 
pany's line from Concepcion to Curanilahue, sixty- 
six kilometers in length, and several short lines in the 
coal districts of the south. There are something like 
twelve or thirteen lines projected, or being now con- 
structed by private capital, in the nitrate and mineral 
provinces, and the state is interested in contracts for 
the building of other lines, all originally to have been 
completed in from two to five years from November, 
1888. When the lines are fully completed and in oper- 
ation, about one thousand kilometers more will be add- 
ed to the railwa3' system. 

The transandine railway from Buenos Ayres to 
Valparaiso, about eight hundred and fifty miles in 
length, is owned by several companies. The Buenos 
Ayres and Pacific railway owns to Villa Mercedes, 
four hundred and thirty miles from Buenos Ayres; the 
Argentine Great Western owns from Villa Mercedes to 
Mendoza, two hundred and twenty miles ; Clark's Eng- 
lish Transandine Company controls the line from Men- 
doza to Los Andes on the Chilean side, a distance of 
one hundred and ten miles (about) to the frontier, and 
a further distance of forty miles to Los Andes, which is 
owned by a different company; thence it is fifty-four 
miles b}' the government line to Valparaiso. In all, five 
companies own the line from ocean to ocean, and there 


are three different gauges of the track, causing two 
transfers of passengers and freight en route.* 

This project of spanning the Andes with a railroad 
is one of the gigantic feats of modern engineering. 
The Uspallata Pass is, in round numbers, 1,300 feet 
high, and the road overcomes an elevation of nearly 
10,000 feet in crossing it. On the Chilean side the 
grade is exceedingly steep, and to ascend it the Abt 
system of cogged locomotive wheels and racks, bolted 
to the sleepers of the track, are used to overcome the 
gradients for a distance of ten or twelve miles. There 
are several immense bridges and four or five tunnels 
on the route, the longest tunnel being 5,540 yards in 

Other transandine lines have been projected. The 
Ferrocarril Interoceanico will run from Buenos Ayres to 
Talcahuano and will have a length of fourteen hundred 
and twelve kilometers, or about eight hundred and fifty 
miles. It will cross the Andes over the Antuco Pass 
at a height of nearly seven thousand feet above sea ■ 
level, and join the Chilean state lines at Yumbel. So 
far, work upon this line has just been begun on the 
Chilean side. Another route, called the Transandine 
Railway of the '^ox'Cs\{Ferrocarril Transandino del Norte'), 
exists on paper and has had a concession granted it by 
the Chilean government for a line to run from Copiapo 
into Argentina; this important road may be built in 
time. All the roads are equipped with the best mod- 
ern rolling stock, of American manufacture. 

Thus in time we may expect that the vast regions 
traversed by these new and projected lines will be 
opened to agriculture and commerce, though years must 
first elapse, since every rail, tie, timber and brick must 

*At the time of this writing there is a small_ gapin the mountains between Men- 
doza and Los Andes not completed, Financial difficulties may cause a delay in 
the work. 


be conveyed into the mountains on muleback, and the 
waterfalls must be made to generate electric power, and 
electricity to turn machinery to drive the great drills 
through the long tunnels. 

The private lines of railways in operation in Chile 
just before the late civil war were as follows; Iquique 
to Pisagua and branches, three hundred kilometers ; 
Mejillones to Cerro Gordo, twenty-nine kilometers; Ari- 
ca to Tacna, sixty-three kilometers; Antofagasta to 
Huan Chaca and branch, four hundred and forty kil- 
ometers; Taltal and Cochiyugal, eighty-two kilometers; 
Caldera and Copiapo and branches to Chanarcillo, San 
Antonio and Puquios, two hundred and forty-two kil- 
ometers; between the two Carrizals and Cerro Blanco 
mine, eighty-one kilometers ; Coquimbo to La Serena 
and to Ovalle and Panulcillo, one hundred and thirty- 
eight kilometers ; La Serena to Vicuna, seventy-eight 
kilometers ; Tongoi to Tamaya, iifty-five kilometers ; 
Laraquete to Moquegua, forty kilometers. Other lines 
are nearing completion. 

In the year 1890, there were thirteen thousand seven 
hundred and thirty miles of telegraph lines, of which 
eight thousand miles were owned by the state. There 
were four hundred and eleven telegraph offices, of which 
three hundred and four belonged to the state. Over 
these government lines six hundred and three thousand 
six hundred and twenty-eight messages were sent, be- 
side those sent over the private wires. There were at 
that same time five hundred and six postoffices, the 
mails carrying from seventeen to twenty millions of 
letters annually. 

Next to the railways, an important item in the an- 
nual budget is the support of the army and navy. Large 
and costly buildings have been erected in the capital 
for purposes of military schools and government bar- 



racks. There are the Escuela Militar, Academia de 
Guerra, an institute of military engineers, which sends 
out oificers to travel in Europe to gain knowledge of 
military matters, a military club, and a military journal 
subsidized by the state. The army on a peace footing 
consists of five thousand eight hundred and eighty-five 
men, distributed as follows: two regiments of artillery, 
one battalion of sappers and miners, eight battalions 
of infantry, three regiments of cavalry and one battalion 
of coast artillery of five hundred men. There are in 
active service nine hundred and forty-three officers, 
twelve generals, twenty-nine colonels, seventy-six lieu- 
tenant-colonels and eight hundred and twenty-six infe- 
rior officers. 

The National Guard {Guardia Nacional Sedentaria), 
consists of 8,970 artillerymen, and 42,120 infantry. 
This force can be called upon in the event of war. 

The Chilean navy is the pride of the government and 
people. It consists now of a monitor, four ironclads, 
three corvettes, two gunboats and several transports, 
dispatch and sailing vessels. The ironclads, "Almiraiite 
Cochrane" and "Blanco Encalada, " which figured prom- 
inently in the late war with Peru, were built at Hull 
in 1875. They each had 3,500 tons displacement, 
2, goo horsepower and nine inch armor. The "Cochrane" 
had four eighteen-ton and two, seven and one-half- 
ton guns; the "Blanco Encalada, " which was sunk by 
a torpedo-catcher in the late war, had six twelve and 
one-half-ton guns carried in a central battery.* The 
ironclad "Huascar, " captured from the Peruvians, was 
built in 1865; displacement 2,000 tons, horsepower 
1,050, armor four and one-half inches, armed with two 
turret and two forty-pounder guns. The protected 

'■■The contract has been let for raising this vessel and putting it again into ser- 


cruiser, "Esmeralda," was launched in June, 1883, at 
the Armstrong works; displacement 2,810 tons, armor 
one inch, horsepower 6,500, eight heavy guns, beside 
machine guns. The "Arturo Prat," recently built in 
France, is the finest ironclad in the Chilean fleet; it 
is of 6,902 tons and steams seventeen knots an hour; 
two cruisers of 2,080 tons each have recently been 
added to the navy, as well as two torpedo-boats. 

In 1890, there were two hundred and fifty-one offi- 
cers connected with the navy, five rear admirals, fifty- 
nine captains, twenty-seven lieutenants, and one hun- 
dred and sixty inferior officers. There were one thou- 
sand six hundred and nine sailors, and ninety cadets 
in the naval college at Valparaiso. Beside this very 
efficient college at Valparaiso, there is a naval club 
and periodical in Santiago, and a hydrographic office. 
There is no navy yard ; in the event of a ship needing 
docking and repairs, the want of a dry dock is a great 
inconvenience, as the ship must be sent to Europe. 

Chile's commercial fleet on the first of January, 1890, 
consisted of one hundred and fifty-two vessels of one 
hundred tons and more each ; beside there were other 
vessels with a total tonnage of 152,391 tons, of which 
twenty-nine were steamers. English, French and Ger- 
man lines of steamers ply between Valparaiso and 
Europe by way of the Straits of Magellan. The 
. Pacific Steam Navigation Company runs a line of fine 
steamers between Chilean ports and Peru and Panama. 
Mr. Wheelwright, an American citizen, was the first to 
introduce steam navigation into Chilean waters. In 
1835, he entered into an arrangement with the govern- 
ment to put on two small steamers, but it was not until 
1840, that he started the "Chile" and "Peru" on regular 
trips between Panama and South American Pacific 
ports. That was the nucleus of the Pacific Steam Nav- 



igation Company, which has sirce been maintained by 
English capital. In 1847, two additional vessels were 
added to the line, and in i860, weekly trips were made 
'between Valparaiso and Callao. In 1853 and 1858, the 
southern Chilean ports, Valdivia and Puerto Montt, 
were brought into communication with Valparaiso, the 
government agreeing to pay the company an annual 
subsidy of $40,000 for that service. ^ The company has 
enjoyed large subsidies from both the English and the 
Chilean governments, and was long enabled to buy off 
all attempted rivals and maintain its profitable monop- 
oly. Happily for Chile there are now two lines. 

The annual arrivals and clearances of vessels from 
Chilean ports is nearly ten millions of tons each. Pro- 
bably three-tenths of the number and tonnage are Brit- 
ish bottoms, four-tenths Chilean and three-tenths of 
other nationalities. 

Education has been for some years a matter of gov- 
ernment concern, as well as of political strife in Chile. 
It is free and at the cost of the state. The common 
people are still slow in availing themselves of the ad- 
vantages of Senor Balmaceda's schoolhouses, but every 
year marks advances. In the cities many adults are 
attending the night schools, and on the whole, new 
int-erest is being awakened in the practical benefits of 
education. Education has long been the political watch- 
word of the liberal party. 

The capital is the great educational center. The 
National University at Santiago has a yearly attendance 
of from ten to fifteen hundred students. This and the 
National Institute provide collegiate and professional 
courses. The latter numbers as many students as the 
university. There is the School of Medicine, which 
gives a very thorough and practical course. Law, 
mathematics, medicine and the fine arts are all taught. 


There are twenty-five provincial lyceums, with a yearly 
attendance of from three thousand to four thousand stu- 
dents. A normal school for the preparation of teach- 
ers, an institute for the deaf and dumb, an agricultural' 
department and other special schools, have been long 
established. There are one thousand and twenty-nine 
primary schools, four hundred and seventy-seven of 
which are mixed and the rest about evenly divided be- 
tween the sexes, being either for males or females ex- 
clusively. These have a total yearly attendance of 
from eighty to eighty-five thousand. Beside there are 
over five hundred private schools, with an annual at- 
tendance of about twenty-five thousand. In 1890, con- 
gress appropriated over ^7, 000, 000 for educational pur- 

In Santiago are a museum of natural sciences, an 
academy of fine arts, a conservatory of music and a 
botanical garden. There is a Methodist college where 
a good English course is given, and this stands in high 
estimation; the Presbyterians maintain an efficient 
seminary ; there are also other semi-missionary schools. * 
The national library contains some 70,000 volumes. 
Seven daily papers are published in Santiago, with a 
circulation of 30,000 copies, also several scientific and 
literary reviews. There are four daily papers in Val- 
paraiso, having a circulation above 20,000. Other cities 
also have dailies. Valparaiso has a museum of natural 
history, with sections devoted to the different branches. 
The museum at Santiago has branches devoted to min- 
eralogy, zoology, botany, geology, palaeontology, and 
ethnology, and has had in the past several eminent 

*There are probably nearly three-quarters of a million children in Chile be- 
tween the ages of six and fifteen who should be in school, so that only a small 
proportion — perhaps one-sixth of them — are availing themselves of the advan- 
tages of free schools. Of the three millions of people in Chile, it is a liberal es- 
timate to say that one million can read. But it requires time to bring about 
changes, in matters like these. As to the upper classes, they are well-educated, 
well-informed and in the highest degree cultured. They are a quick, imitative 
people and acquire foreign languages with great facility. 


scientific gentlemen interested in its success. The 
museum of fine arts publishes a review and has a very 
creditable collection of foreign and native works. An 
annual salon is also held in the capital, where several 
hundred works of art compete for the prizes offered. 
Schools of painting and sculpture have been started, 
but the attendance is only nominal. To encourage the 
fine arts, the government offers to send the most pro- 
ficient pupils to Europe with pensions. The conser- 
vatory of music at the capital has a fair average at- 
tendance, considerable interest being taken in this 
branch. Indeed, the pianoforte is a common article 
of furniture in Chile. 

On the whole, Chile is taking a step in the right di- 
rection for the formation of a true republic, she is edu- 
cating her people. 



Chile has no single city with the population of Buen- 
os Ayres or Rio de Janeiro, but she has her urban 
population scattered through many important centers. 
Santiago, the capital had, on January ist, 1890, a popu- 
lation not far from two hundred thousand. Valparaiso 
had half as many. Talca, Concepcion, Chilian, La 
Serena and Iquique came next in order in size and 
population. Then came Ovalle, Melipilla, Tacna, San 
Felipe, Copiapo, Curico, Los Angeles, Quillota, Lina- 
res, Cauquenes, Angol and Valdivia. There were 
seventy-seven cities and towns in Chile with popula- 
tions above that of villages, all important trade centres. 

Santiago is the metropolis of Chile, and to it the 
wealthy and influential persons of the provinces find 
their way. It is a beautiful city, with its grand plaza, 
its alameda, its hill of Santa Lucia, its shade trees, 
its gay political and social life. 

Valparaiso, perched upon rugged hills overlooking 
a blue bay of the Pacific, is an important commercial 
city. The streets are lined with fine shops, offices, 
banks and warehouses. There is a fine long mole, 
supplied with cranes, hydraulic machinery and all nec- 
essary appliances for taking care of the traffic of the 

port. Back of the mole are rows of customhouses, 



bonded warehouses, government buildings, and, a lit- 
tle farther in the background, the city itself, built on 
terraces of the hills. 

Concepcion is a city of over 25,000 people; it pro- 
mises to be one of the chief cities of Chile. It has a 
pushing and energetic class of inhabitants. There are 
three main streets running parallel with each other, 
well paved and lined with business houses. It has a 
fine large railway depot, tramways, telegraphs, tele- 
phones and electric lights. The city is situated at the 
head of Concepcion Bay on a charming spot, twenty 
minutes by rail from Talcahuano, its port. The latter 
is one of the best ports in Chile and bids fair some 
time to become a formidable rival of Valparaiso. Tom6 
and Penco are also ports of Concepcion. From these 
southern ports are exported vast quantities of wheat, 
wool, wines, barley, oats, linseed and honey. Trans- 
portation facilities are excellent. Beside the railways 
to the capital and the towns to the south, the steam- 
ers of five European lines stop there on their regular 
trips north. 

Between the capital and Concepcion, the provincial 
cities, situated in the midst of rich agricultural dis- 
tricts, are all thriving. Such are Chilian, Talca, San 
Fernando, Rengo and Rancagua. So are also the cities 
farther south in the old Araucanian territories, Los 
Angeles, Angol, Traiguen, Valdivia. The first three 
of these towns are of about the same size, each num- 
bering some six or seven thousand inhabitants. Val- 
divia, a German city, numbers about 23,000 population. 
These places are situated in a country but recently 
opened to settlement, and, surrounded as they are by 
a rich agricultural zone, are destined to become fore- 
most among the cities of Chile. 

Cauquenes is a place of from seven to ten thousand 


inhabitants, and is noted for its baths and as a summer 
resort. Puerto Montt is one of the most active cities 
in southern Chile and numbers about fifteen thousand 
people. It is a German town. 

La Serena in the north is one of the oldest cities in 
Chile. It has a population of some seventeen or 
twenty thousand ; Copiapo has a population not quite 
as large as that of La Serena. Iquique comes next 
with a population about the same as that of La Serena, 
then Pisagua and Antofagasta, each about half the size.* 

Of the political parties of Chile, perhaps enough has 
been already said. As we have seen, there are two 
groups, conservatives and liberals, each with several 
factions. The conservatives are split into three fac- 
tions : Conservadores proper, Clericales and Montt- Varis- 
tas. The liberals have been at different times split 
into four sections : Liberales del Gobierno, Nacionales, 
Sueltos and Radicahs. There are then, the Montt-Va- 
ristas, aristocrats; Clericales, or church party; Conser- 
vadores, or Conservatives, but not extremists ; Liberales, 
•consisting of those holding more moderate views; and 
lastly, radical extremists and factions with varying 
shades of political belief. 

The government is representative, and, to a certain 
extent, popular. The president is elected for a term 
of five years and is not, under the amended constitu- 
tion, eligible to' a second term, except after an interval 
of five years. He is elected b}'^ electors appointed 
directly by the voters of the provinces, in the propor- 
tion of three electors for each deputy to which the 
province is entitled. His salary is Ji8,ooo per annum. 

*In giving the population of Chilean cities, it is difficult to arrive at a mathe- 
matical degree of accuracy, as the estimates vary fully one-half. The population 
of Santiago is placed as low as 186,000 and as high as 237,000; that of Valparaiso 
from 105,000 to 109,000; Concepcion 24,000 to 40,000; Chilian 21,000 to 60,000, etc. 
The larger estimates, however, appear to be wide of the mark, such, for instance, 
as accrediting TarapacS with ft population of 33,000. _ Still, it must be remembered 
that all of these cities have recently made large gains. 


He is assisted by a council of state, composed of eleven 
members, five chosen by himself and six elected by the 
congress ; his cabinet consists of six ministers: Interior, 
Foreign Affairs, Worship and Colonization, Justice and 
Public Instruction, Finance, Departments of War and 
Navy, Industry and Public Works. 

The president appoints and removes the intendentes 
of provinces and the gobernadores of departments. 
Were Chile a true federation this power would not be 
lodged in the hands of the chief, and intendentes and 
gobernadores would be elected by the people. The 
governors of departments appoint the subdelegates who 
preside over the sublegations, and these in time ap- 
point the inspectors of districts. 

Municipal authority is lodged in city councils and 
they are elected every third year. The judicial author- 
ity is vested in a supreme court, which has jurisdic- 
tion over the whole republic. Below the supreme 
court are five courts of appeal, and other subordinate 
tribunals in the provinces, courts of first instance in 
the departmental capitals, and subordinate courts in 
the districts. The judges are appointed by the presi- 
dent under certain rules, and the commissions can only 
be revoked after a legal trial for cause. 

The national congress is composed of an upper and 
lower house ; the senate is elected by the provinces 
for six years, one senatdr being allowed to three depu- 
ties and every fraction of two deputies ; the chamber 
of deputies is elected by the departments in the pro- 
portion of one deputy for every 30,000 inhabitants, or a 
fraction greater than 15,000. Deputies are elected 
every three years and the senate renews one-half the 
number of senators every three years. Both deputies 
and senators must have property qualifications. 

There are twenty-three provinces and one territory, 


seventy five departments, eight hundred and fifty-five 
sublegations and three thousand and sixty-eight dis- 



The following table will give the area and capitals of the different 
provinces, the population according to the census of November 26th, 
1885, and the estimated population for January ist, 1890. Also the 
population per square mile. 








sq. miles 

Nov. 26 

Jan. I, 1890 


1885 ' 



Magellanes, Ter., 

Tierra del Fuego, 
Straits, and coast 

Punta Arenas 




— . 

north to 47°S.Lat. 








Puerto Montt 















76, 067 

























































San Fernando 
























San Felipe 






La Serena 


































The province of Cautin was created by law March 12th, 1887, also 
the province of Malleco. Antofagasta and TarapacS were received 
from Peru and Bolivia by the terms of the treaty of peace, October 



20th, 1883. Antofagasta was made a province July 12th, 1888. Tac- 
na is to continue in the possession of Chile for ten years dating from 
the time of the treaty, at the end of which time a plebiscite is to de- 
cide to which country it shall belong and an award of $10,000,000 is 
to be paid by the country gaining it. The population as given in the 
foregoing table is probably below the actual population, as the census 
returns are admittedly incorrect. It is usually given at above 3, 000, - 
000, with 50,000 Indians. At the last census the foreign population 
is given at 87,077. Of this number, 34,901 were Peruvian, 13,146 
Bolivian, 9,835 Argentinian, 6,808 German, 5,303 English, 4,198 
French, 4,114 Italian, 2,508 Spanish, 1,275 Swiss, 1,164 Chinese, 924 
Anglo-American, 674 Austrian, 434 Scandinavian, and the rest scat- 
tering. This population has largely increased since the last census in 
1885, particularly as to the German and English residents. The cen- 
sus gave an equal male and female population, and the number of 
births and deaths about the same. 


The debt of Chile stood on January ist, 1890, as follows: 


External debt 47, 116, 460 

Internal debt 24,013,579 

Paper money 22,487,916 

Total 93.617.955 

The estimated income for 1890 was 58,000,000 pesos, and in addi- 
tion to this there was a balance from i88g of 31,257,526 pesos. Esti- 
mated expenditures for 1890 67,069,809 pesos. Imports and exports 
yearly are not far from 65 million pesos each. The peso has a 
nominal value of one dollar, but its actual value is gi.2 cents (1891). 


There were at this time 19 banks of issue with a joint capital of 
23, 111,887 pesos, and a registered issue of 16,679,790 pesos. Beside 
the regular banks there are a number of land banks which issue 
scrip bearing interest and lend money upon real estate security. The 
annual circulation of these varies from sixty to seventy-five million 


Beside the silver peso, Chilean money is put out in the following 
denominations: Ten dollar (condor), five dollar (medio condor, or 
doblon), two dollar (escudo), and one dollar (peso), gold pieces. 
There are half, fifth, tenth and twentieth of a dollar silver pieces, two 
and a half, two, one, and one-half cent pieces on copper and nickel. 




CHAPTER I— The territory 

Article i 

The territory of Chile extends from the Desert of Atacama to Cape 
Horn, and from the Cordilleras of the Andes to the Pacific Ocean, 
comprising the archipelago of Chilod, all the adjacent islands and 
those of Juan Fernandez. 

CHAPTER II — The form of government 

Art. 2 
The government of Chile is a popular representative one. 

The Republic of Chile is one and indivisible. 

Art. 4" 

The sovereignty inheres essentially in the Nation, which delegates 
its exercise to the authorities established by this constitution. 

CHAPTER III— Religion 

The religion of the Republic of Chile is the Apostolic Roman Cath- 
olic, and the public exercise of any other is excluded.* 

* Other religious denominations are not now prohibited from worshiping in 
churches owned by private individuals or associations, 


CHAPTER IV— Citizens of Chile 
The following are Chileans: 

ist. Those born within the territory of Chi'e. 

2d. Children of Chilean parents, born in a foreign country, by 
the sole fact of becoming domiciled in Chile. The children of Chil- 
eans born in a foreign country, when the father is at the time in the 
service of the Jfepublic, are Chileans, even for the ends for which the 
fundamental laws, or any others, require birth on Chilean territory. 

3d. Foreigners who, having resided one year in the Republic, 
shall declare before the municipal authorities of the territory in which 
they reside their desire to fix their domicile in Chile, and shall ask 
naturalization papers. 

4th. Those who may obtain naturalization by special favor of the 


Art. 7 

The municipal authorities of the department of the residence of 
such persons as have not been born in Chile, 'are competent to de- 
clare whether or not they are entitled to naturalization under the 
provisions of paragraph 3d of the preceding article. If the decision 
of the respective municipality be favorable, the President of the Re- 
public will issue the proper naturalization papers. 

Art. 8 

The following are citizens with the right of suffrage: All Chileans 
who, having reached tie age of twenty-five years, if unmarried, or 
twenty-one years, if married, and knowing how to read and Write, and 
shall possess either of the following requisites: 

ist. Any real estate, or capital invested in any kind of business or 
industry. The amount of the real estate or capital will be fixed by 
special law every ten years, for each province. 

2d. The exercise of an industry or trade, or the possession of an 
employment, rental or usufruct, 'whose emoluments or products shall 
be proportional to the real estate or capital mentioned in the preced- 
ing paragraph. 

Art 9 

No person shall enjoy the right of suffrage who shall not be enrolled 
in the registry of electors of the municipality to which he belongs, 
and who shall not have in his possession a certificate of qualification 
three months prior to the election. 

Art. 10 

The function of active citizenship with right of suffrage is suspend- 
ed for the following causes: 


ist. Physical or moral incapacity that prevents the free and rea- 
sonable exercise of the faculties. 

2d. The condition of domestic service. 

3d. Arrest under an accusation of an offence punishable by a se- 
vere or infamous penalty. 

Art. II 

Citizenship is lost for the following causes: 

ist. Condemnation to a severe or infamous penalty. 

2d. Fraudulent failure in business. 

3d. Naturalization in a foreign country. 

4th, Acceptance of employment, offices, distinctions or pensions 
from a foreign government, without special permission of Congress. 

Those who from any of the above mentioned causes shall have lost 
their citizenship, may regain it by action of the Senate. 

CHAPTER V — Public rights of Chileans 
Art. 12 

The constitution secures to all the inhabitants of the Republic; 

ist. Equality before the law. In Chile there is no privileged class. 

2d. The right to fill all public employments and offices without 
other conditions than those prescribed by law. 

3d. The equal distribution of imposts and taxes in proportion to 
their possessions, and the equal distributions of other public burdens. 
A special law will determine the manner of recruitment and enroll- 
ment of substitutes for the land and naval forces. 

4th. The liberty of residence in any part of the Republic, of re- 
moval from one place to another, or departure from its territory, un- 
der the police regulations, and always without injury to other par- 
ties; and no person can be arrested, held or exiled, except in the man- 
ner prescribed in the laws. 

5th. The inviolability of all property, whether belonging to indi- 
viduals or communities, and no one can be deprived of his ownership 
of the same, nor of any part of it, however small, or of any right he 
may have in it, except by judicial decision; save when the interests of 
the state, specified by law, shall demand the use or expropriation of 
the same; and in such cases previous indemnification shall be given 
to the owner by agreement with him or by valuation made by compe- 
tent men. 

6th. The right of assemblage without previous permission and 
without arms, Meetings held in the squares, streets and other places 
of public use shall be always governed by police regulations. 


The right of forming associations without previous permission. The 
jnght of presenting petitions to the constituted authority, on any sub- 
' ject of iprivate interest has no other limitation than that of using in its 
exercise respectful and proper terms. 


7th. The liberty of publishing their opinions through the press, 
without previous sensorship, and no one shall be condemned for 
abuse of this right, except in virtue of a judgment after statement of 
said abuse by sworn witnesses, and after trial and sentence, according 
to law. 

CHAPTER VI — The national congress 
Art. 13 

The legislative power is lodged in the National Congress composed 
of two chambers, one of Deputies, the other of Senators. 

Art. 14 

The Deputies and Senators are held inviolable for the opinions 
they express and for the votes they cast in the exercise of their offices. 

Art. 15 

No Deputy or Senator, after the day of his election, can be accused, 
prosecuted or arrested, except in flagrante delicto, unless the chamber 
to which he belongs shall previously authorize such accusation by 
declaring that there is ground for proceeding to trial. 

Art. 16 

No Deputy or Senator from the day of his election shall be accused 
unless before the chamber to which he belongs, or before the 
Permanent Committee, if the chamber be not in session. If it be 
declared that there are grounds for proceeding to trial, the accused is 
suspended from his legislative office and answerable to the proper 

Art. 17 

In case of the arrest of any Deputy or Senator in flagrante delicto, 
he shall at once be brought to the bar of the respective chamber, or 
before the Permanent Committee, upon the summary charges. The 
chamber or the committee shall thereupon proceed in accordance with 
the provisions of the second part of the preceding article. 


the chamber of deputies 
Art. 18 

The Chamber of Deputies is composed of members elected for the 
departments by direct suffrage, and in the form laid down by the law 
of elections. 

Act. 19 

One Deputy shall be elected for every twenty thousand inhabitants, 
and for every fraction not less than twelve thousand. There shall 
also be elected substitute deputies, whose number shall be fixed by 

Art. 20 

The Chamber of Deputies shall be entirely renewed every three 

Art. 21 

The following are the qualifications for election as Deputy : 
ist. To be in the enjoyment of the rights of a citizen elector. 
2d. An income of five hundred pesos at least. 

Art 22. 

The Deputies are eligible for re-election indefinitely. 

Art. 23 

The following persons are ineligible as Deputies : 

Priests in regular standing; 

Rectors or vice rectors; 

Justices of the courts of first instance; 

Governors of provinces and departments; 

Chileans mentioned in paragraph three of Art. 6, unless they have 
been in possession of their naturalization papers at least five years 
prior to their election. 

The following are eligible, but must choose between the office of 
Deputy and their respective employments: 

Employes residing out of the place of meeting of the Congress; 

Every Deputy who, after his election, shall accept any salaried 
employment in the exclusive gift of the President of the Republic, 
shall cease from his representative functions, except in the cases 
provided for in Art. go of this Constitution. 

the senate 

Art. 24 

The Senate is composed of members elected by direct vote of the 


Provinces, each one of which may choose one Senator for every three 
Deputies or fraction thereof, as of two Deputies. In the same man- 
ner one substitute Senator shall be elected for each province to 
replace the regular Senators chosen for that province. 

Art. 25 

Both the Senators and their substitutes shall continue in office for 
six years, and may be re-elected indefinitely. 

Art. 26 

The regular Senators sh all be renewed every three years in the 
following manner: 

The provinces which choose an even number of Senators shall 
renew one-half of their number at the election which takes place 
every three years; and those which elect an odd number, shall make 
the renewal in the first three years, leaving for the next triennial 
election the odd Senator not renewed in the preceding one. Those 
provinces which have only one Senator, shall make the renewal every 
six years, and the same rules shall be observed for the substitute 

Art. 27 

In case o£ the death of a Senator, or of the inability of one for any 
reason to discharge the duties of his office, the province which he 
represents shall, at the first renewal, choose another to complete the 
terra for which he had been elected. Similar measures shall be 
taken whenever a Senator is answerable to any of the cases of disabil- 
ity mentioned in Art. 23, 

Art. 32 

qualifications for election as senator 

1st. The exercise of citizenship at the time. 
2d. The age of thirty-six years completed. 
3d. Never to have suffered condemnation for crime. 
The exclusive condition applied in Art. 23 to Deputies applies like- 
wise to senators. 

Art. 36 

powers of congress and special function of each chamber 

The following powers are delegated exclusively to Congress: 

ist. To approve or disapprove of the annual budget of the funds 

intended for the expenditures of the public administration, which 

must be presented by the government. 


2d. To approve or disapprove of a declaration of war, at the 
proposal of the President of the Republic. 

3d. To declare, in case of the resignation of his office by the 
President of the Republic, whethei' the reasons assigned by him for 
the act incapacitate him or not from the exercise of the duties of said 
office, and, in consequence, to accept or refuse his resignation. 

4th. To declare, in case of doubt concerning the cases specified in 
Articles 74 and 78, whether the impediment to the exercise of his 
office by the President is of such a nature as to necessitate the hold- 
ing of a new election. 

5th. To count the votes and verify the election of the President of 
the Republic in conformity with Articles 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72 and 

6th. To make exceptional and transitory laws, whose duration 
shall not be more than one year, in restraint of the liberty of the per- 
son and the press, and to restrict or suspend the liberty of meeting, 
when demanded by imperious necessity for the defense of the state, 
for the preservation of the constitutional system or for internal peace. 
If such laws designate penalties, the application of these shall always 
be made by the established tribunals. 

Beyond the cases prescribed in this paragraph, no law shall be 
passed to suspend or restrict the liberties or rights secured by Art. 12. 

Art. 37 

The following are possible only by virtue of law : 

1st. To impose taxes of any kind or nature, to suppress existing 
ones and determine in case of necessity their apportionment among 
the provinces or departments. 

2d. To fix annually the expenditures of the public administration. 

3d. To determine also every year the land and naval forces to be 
maintained in time of peace or war. 

The taxes are fixed for the period of eighteen months only, and the 
land and naval forces for a like period. 

4th. To contract indebtedness, to recognize debts already created, 
and set apart funds to meet them. 

5th. To create new provinces or departments; to fix their bound- 
aries; to open better ports, and establish customhouses. 

6th. To fix the weight, fineness, value, style and denomination of 
the coins, and to regulate the system of weights and measures. 

7th. To permit the introduction of foreign troops into the territory 
of the Republic, and determine the length of their stay in the same. 

8th. To permit the quartering of bodies of troops in the place of 
the sessions of the Congress, or within ten leagues of the same. 


gth. To authorize the departure of the national troops from the 
territory of the Republic, and fix the time for their return. 

loth. To create or abolish public employments; determine or 
change their nature, increase or diminish their salaries; to grant 
pensions and decree public honors for great services. 

nth. To grant general pardons or amnesties. 

I2th. To designate the place of residence of the nation's represent- 
atives, and of holding the sessions of the Congress. 

Art. 38 

The following are the exclusive functions of the Chamber of 

ist. To judge of the election of its members, pronounce upon 
charges of nullity made concerning the same, and accept their resig- 
nations, when the reasons for the same are of such a nature as to 
incapacitate them from the exercise of their duties. For a judgment 
upon these reasons there must be a concurrence of three-fourths of the 
Deputies present. 

2d. To bring charges before the Senate, whenever it shall think 
proper to enforce the responsibility of the following oflScials: 

Cabinet Ministers and Councillors of State, in the manner and for 
the crimes set forth in Articles 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97 and 107. 

Generals of the army or navy, for having gravely compromised the 
national safety and honor, and in the form provided for Cabinet 
Ministers and councillors of state. 

The members of the Permanent Committee, for grave omission in 
the discharge of the duty imposed by part second, Art. 58. 

Governors of provinces for the crimes of treason, sedition, viola- 
tion of the constitution, malversation of the public funds, and official 

Judges of the higher courts of justice for notable dereliction in their 

In the last three cases the Chamber of Deputies will first declare 
whether or not there are grounds for considering the charge, and 
afterward, at an interval of six days, whether the charge shall be 
presented, after hearing the report of a committee of five persons 
chosen by lot from its own members. In case of an afiSrmative 
decision, two Deputies shall be appointed to present and prosecute 
the charge before the Senate. 

Art. 39 

The following are the functions of the Senators: 

1st. To judge of the election of their own members; pronounce 


upon charges o£ nullity made regarding them, and accept their resig- 
nations, when the reasons assigned are such as to incapacitate them 
morally or physically from the discharge of their official duties. No 
judgment can be made upon said reasons without the concurrence of 
three-fourths of the Senators present. 

2d. To judge officials accused by the Chamber of Deputies in 
accordance with the provisions of Articles 38 and g8. 

3d. To approve nominations made by the President of the 
Republic for archbishoprics and bishoprics. 

4th. To give or refuse their consent to acts of the government in 
cases where such action is required by the constitution. 


Laws may originate in the Senate or in the Chamber of Deputies, 
and be proposed by any member, or in a message addressed by the 
President of the Republic to those bodies. Laws in relation to taxa- 
tion of any nature whatsoever, and in regard to recruiting, can 
originate in the Chamber of Deputies alone. Laws relating to amend- 
ments to ths constitution and to amnesty can originate only in the 

Art. 41 

When a bill has been passed in the body where, it originated, it 
shall be sent immediately to the other chamber for discussion and 
approval during that session. 

Art. 42 

A bill rejected in the chamber where it originated, can not be again 
brought up in the same until the session of the following year. 

Art. 43 
A bill approved by both chambers shall be sent to the President of 
the Republic, who, if he approves it, shall promulgate it as a law. 

Art. 44 
If the President disapproves the bill he shall return it to the 
chamber where it originated, with such remarks thereon as he may 
judge proper, within the space of fifteen days. 

Art. 45 
If the President returns the bill, rejecting it completely, the same 
shall be considered as not proposed, and can not be again presented in 
the session of that year. 

Art. 46 

If the President returns the bill with corrections or modifications, 


it shall be reconsidered in both chambers, and it approved by both 
in the form suggested by the President, it shall become a law and be 
returned to him for promulgation. 

If such modifications and corrections be not approved by both 
chambers, the bill shall be considered as not proposed, and can not be 
presented again during the session of that year. 

Art. 47 

If the said bill be again proposed in any of the sessions of the follow- 
ing years and be approved by both chambers and sent to the President 
of the Republic, and he shall reject it in toto, the chambers shall 
again take it into consideration and it shall become a lav?, if 
approved by a two-thirds majority of the members present in both 
chambers. The same shall also take place, in case the President 
returns it with corrections and modifications, and each chamber 
approve it without such corrections and modifications by the same 
two-thirds majority of the members present. 

Art. 48 

If the bill, once returned by the President, be not proposed and 
approved by the chambers during the two years next following, it 
shall, if afterward brought up, be considered as a new bill, as far as 
affected by the provisions of the preceding Article. 

Art. 49 

If the President of the Republic does not return the bill within 
fifteen days after its presentation to him, it shall be considered as 
approved and be promulgated as law. If the chambers close their 
session before the expiration of the fifteen days within which the bill 
should be returned, the President shall return it within the first six 
days of the ordinary session of the following year. 

Art. 50 

A bill approved by one of the chambers and rejected hi toto by the 
other shall return to the chamber where it originated and be again 
considered, and if it be approved by a two-thirds majority of the mem- 
bers present, it shall be sent a second time to the chamber which 
rejected it, and it shall not be considered as again rejected by this 
chamber, unless by the concurrence of the votes of two-thirds of its 
members present. 

Art. 51 

Any bill which shall be amended or corrected by the revising cham- 
ber, shall be returned to that where it originated, and if such addi- 


tions or corrections be approved by an absolute majority of its members 
present, it shall be sent to the President of the Republic; but if the 
additions or corrections be rejected, the bill shall be sent a second time 
to the chamber, and if the said additions or corrections be insisted on 
by a majority of two-thirds of the members present, the bill shall be 
sent back to the other chamber and said additions or corrections shall 
not be regarded as again rejected, unless by the concurrent vote of 
two-thirds of its members present. 

sessions of congress 

Art. 52 

The ordinary sessions of Congress shall begin on the first day of 
June of each year, and shall close on the first of September. 

Art. 53 

When convoked in extraordinary session it shall consider the 
business for which it has been called together, to the exclusion of any 

Art. 54 

The Senate shall not enter into or continue in session without the 
concurrence of one-third of its members, nor the Chamber of Deputies 
without that of one-fourth of its members. 

Art. 55 

If on the day indicated in the constitution for the opening of the 
ordinary sessions, Congress shall be sitting in extraordinary session, 
this latter shall be closed and the matter for which it had been con- 
voked shall continue to be considered in the ordinary session. 

Art. 56 

The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies shall open and close their 
ordinary, as well as extraordinary sessions, at the same time. The 
Senate, however, may assemble without the presence of the Chamber 
of Deputies for the exercise of the judicial functions indicated in part 
second of Art. 39. 

The Chamber of Deputies shall continue its sessions without the 
presence of the Senate, if at the conclusion of the regular term there 
shall be pending any charges against the officials designated in part 
second of Art. 38, but only for the purpose of declaring whether such 
charges are weM founded. 

the standing committee 
Art. 57 

Before the close of its ordinary sessions. Congress shall each year 



select seven members from each chamber, who shall compose the 
Standing Committee, which shall form a single body, and whose 
functions cease de facto on the 31st of the following May. 

Art. 58 

The Standing Committee, as the representative of the Congress, 
shall exercise supervision over matters pertaining to that body, in so 
far as concerns all branches of public administration, and it is there- 
fore its duty: 

ist. To watch over the observance of the constitution and the 
laws, and afford protection to individual rights. 

2d. To make to the President of the Republic such representations 
as shall conduce to said ends, and to repeat the same if the former 
shall not have been sufiBcient. 

When such representations relate to abuses or illegal acts committed 
by the authorities responsible to the President of the Republic, and he 
adopts none of the measures within his authority to put an end to such 
abuses and to punish the officials guilty of the same, it shall be under- 
stood that the President and the Minister of the respective department 
accept the responsibility for the acts of their subordinates, as if they 
had been done by their order or consent. 

3d. To grant or refuse its consent to such acts of the President of 
the Republic as, according to the provisions of this constitution, must 
be done with the knowledge and consent of the Standing Committee. 

4th. To request the President of the Republic to convoke the 
Congress in extraordinary session, whenever, in its judgment, such 
action is demanded by extraordinary and exceptional circumstances. 

5th. To render an account to Congress, at its first meetmg, of the 
measures taken by it in the discharge of its office. 

The committee is responsible to Congress for an omission to fulfill 
the duties imposed upon it by the preceding paragraphs. 

CHAPTER VIII — The president of the republic. 

Art. 59 

A citizen with the title of "President of the Republic of Chile" is 
the head of the administration of the state and supreme chief of the 

Art. 60 

To become President of the Republic it is necessary? 

ist. To have been born in the territory of Chile; 

2d. To be eligible as a member of the Chamber of Deputies; 

3d. To be at least thirty years of age. 


Art. 61 

The President of the Repubhc shall continue in the exercise of the 
duties of his ofiSce during the term of five years, and shall not be 
eligible for the succeeding term. 

Art. 62 

To be eligible a second or more times, there must in each case have 
intervened the space of one term. 

Art. 63 

The President of the Republic shall be elected by electors chosen 
by the people by direct suffrage. The number of these electors shall 
be three times the total number of Deputies belonging to the several 

Art. 64 

The electors shall be chosen by departments on the 25th day of 
June in the year when the Presidential term expires. Electors shall 
have the same qualifications as Deputies. 

Art. 65 

The electors shall meet on the 2Sth of July of the year when the 
Presidential term expires, and proceed to the election of the President 
in conformity with the general law of elections. 

Art. 66 

The electoral boards shall form two lists of all those persons who 
shall have been elected, and, after the same have been signed by all 
the electors, they shall send them enclosed and sealed, one to the 
Municipal Government of the capital of each province, in whose 
archives it shall remain deposited and closed, and the other to the 
Senate, where it shall be kept in the same manner until the 30th of 


Art. 67 

On that day the aforesaid lists shall be opened and read in a public 
session of both chambers assembled in the hall of the Senate, the 
President of this latter body presiding, and the balloting, if such be 
necessary, shall at once begin. 

Art. 68 

The person who shall have received an absolute majority of the 
votes shall be proclaimed President of the Republic, 


Art. 69 

In case no person shall have received an absolute majority, Congress 
shall choose between the two persons who shall have received the 
greater number of votes. 

Art. 70 

If the first majority shall have been divided between more than two 
persons, the Congress shall choose among them all. 

Art. 71 

If the first majority of- votes shall have been given to one person, 
and the second to two or more, the Congress shall choose among all 
the persons who shall have obtained such first and second majorities. 

Art. 72 

This choice shall be made by an absolute plurality of votes, and by 
secret ballot. If the first ballot shall not give an absolute majority, 
a second shall be taken in which the voting shall be confined to the 
two. persons who in the first ballot shall have received the greater 
number of votes. In case the number of votes obtained by each is 
equal, the balloting shall be repeated, and if again equal, the Presi- 
dent of the Senate shall give the deciding vote. 

Art. 73 

Neither the balloting nor counting of the votes in these elections shall 
take place, unless three-fourths of the total number of the members 
of each chamber be present. 

Art. 74 

When the President of the Republic shall have command in person 
of the armed forces of the Nation, or when, by reason of sickness, 
absence from the country or other grave cause, he shall not be able to 
discharge the duties of his office, the Minister of the Interior shall re- 
place him under the title of "Vice-President of the Republic." If the 
disability of the President shall be temporary, the said Minister shall 
continue to replace him until the President shall be able to resume 
the duties of his office. In case of the death of the President, accepted 
resignation, or other cause of absolute disability, which can not be 
removed before the expiration of the five years of his terra of office, 
the Minister acting as Vice-President, within a few days after assum- 
ing the office, shall issue the necessary orders for holding a new 
election for President, in the form prescribed by the constitution. 


Art. 75 

In case the Interior office be vacant, the oldbst Cabinet Minister 
shall take the place of the President, and if all the Ministerial offices 
be vacant, said place shall be filled by the oldest member of the 
Council of State, who is not an ecclesiastic. 

Art. 76 

The President of the Republic can not leave the territory of the 
Republic during the term of his office, or within one year after the 
conclusion of the same, without the permission of Congress. 

Art. 77 

The President shall cease to hold office on the same day that his 
five year term expires, and shall be succeeded by the President newly 

Art. 78 

If this latter be temporarily prevented from taking possession of the 
Presidency, he shall be replaced by the oldest Councillor of State, but 
if the impediment be absolute or likely to continue indefinitely, or for 
a period longer than the Presidential term, then a new election shall 
beheld in the manner prescribed by the constitution, and in the mean- 
time the oldest Councillor of State, not an ecclesiastic, shall fill the 
office in his stead. 

Art. 79 

When, in the cases contemplated in Articles 74 and 78, an election 
for President is to take place, at a time other than that prescribed by 
the constitution, the order for the election of Presidential electors, for 
the election of President, for the ballotings and verifications made by 
Congress, shall be given for the same days, and the same forms shall 
be observed, as prescribed by Articles 65 to 73 inclusive. 

Art. 80 

The President-elect, upon taking possession of his office, shall take 
the following oath, which shall be administered to him by the President 
of the Senate, in presence of the two chambers assembled in the hall 
of the Senate: 

I swear by our Lord and these holy gospels to discharge 

faithfully the duties of the office of President of the Republic; to 
observe and protect the Apostolic Roman Catholic Religion; to pre- 
serve the integrity and independence of the Republic, and to guard 
and have guarded the constitution and the laws. So help me God, 
according as I shall keep my oath. 



Art. 81 

The President of the Republic is entrusted with the administration 
and government of the State, and his authority extends to everything 
that has for its object the preservation of public order in the interior, 
and the exterior safety of the Republic; and with guarding and having 
guarded the constitution and the laws. 

Art. 82 

The following are special prerogatives of the President; 

ist. To assist in the making of the laws in accordance with the 
constitution, and to sanction and promulgate the same. 

2d. To issue such decrees, regulations and directions as he may 
judge necessary for the execution of the laws. 

3d. To watch over the oflScial conduct of judges and other judicial 
ofBcers; and, to this end, he may have recourse to the public author- 
ities, for the enforcement of disciplinary measures in the proper 
court, or, if there be sufficient grounds, for formulating the necessary 

4th. To prorogue the ordinary sessions of Congress for a period 
of fifty days. 

5th. To convoke the same with the consent of the Council of State 
in extraordinary session. 

gth. To appoint and remove at will the Cabinet Ministers and 
officials of the departments, the Councillors of State of his own choos- 
ing. Ministers to foreign countries, consuls and other foreign agents, 
civil and military governors. 

7th. To appoint the judges of the superior courts of justice, and 
those of first instance, at the proposal of the Council of State, in con- 
formity with part second of Article 104. 

8th. To present in threes for appointment as archbishops, bishops 
and other dignitaries of cathedrals, such persons as may be proposed 
by the Council of State. The person selected by the President for 
archbishop or bishop must also receive the approval of the Senate. 

gth. To fill the other civil and military offices in accord with the 
Senate, and, when this body is not in session, by agreement with the 
Standing Committee, conferring the grades of colonel, naval captains 
and other superior officers of the army and navy. On the field of 
battle he may appoint such superior officers at will. 

loth. To dismiss public employes for incompetency or other reas- 
on affecting injuriously the public service; but with the consent of the 
Senate, or during the recess of the same with that of the Standing 
Committee, in the case of chiefs of bureaus or higher employes, and 


upon information of the respective chief, in the case of subordinates. 

nth. Tograntleaves of absence, retirements from service, licenses 
and privileges of pension, all in accordance with the laws. 

12th. To watch over the collection of the public revenues and to 
decree their disposition, in accordance with the laws. 

13th. To exercise the dispensation of patronage to the churches, 
benefices and priests, in accordance with the laws. 

14th. To approve or prevent, with the approbation of the Council 
of State, the execution of decrees of ecclesiastical councils, papal 
bulls, briefs and rescripts, but if such contain general provisions, 
their enforcement can be approved or prevented only by means of a 

15th. To grant pardons to individuals, with the approval of the 
Council of State. Cabinet ministers, Councillors of State, members 
of the Standing Committee, commanders in chief and governors of 
provinces, accused by the Chamber of Deputies and condemned by 
the Senate, can be pardoned by Congress alone. 

i6th. To dispose of the land and naval forces, organize and dis- 
tribute them, as he shall judge proper. 

17th. To command in person the land and naval forces, in accord 
with the Senate, and, during its recess, with the Standing Committee. jj_,_ 

18th. To declare war with the previous approval of the Congress, 
and grant letters of marque and reprisal, 

19th. To maintain political relations with foreign powers, receive 
their ministers, admit their counsels, conduct negotiations, make pre- 
liminary stipulations, conclude and sign all treaties of peace, alliance, 
truce, neutrality, commerce, concordats and other conventions. 
Treaties must, before ratification, be submitted to Congress for ap- 
proval. Discussions and deliberations on these subjects shall be se- 
cret, if the President so desire. 

20th, To declare a state of siege at one or various points in the 
Republic, in case of attack from abroad, with the consent of the Coun- 
cil of State, and for a determinate time. In case of internal disturb- 
ances, it belongs to the Congress to declare one or more points in a 
' state of siege; but if that body be not in session, the President may 
do so, with the consent of the Council of State and for a determinate 
time. If at the reassembling of the Congress, the time specified shall 
not have expired, the declaration made by the President of the Repub- 
lic shall be considered as an ah^ of law. lt^y,^,A,r^^dtXi--*^ 

2ist. All matters pertaining to police add alj public establishments 
are under the supreme superintendence of the President of the Repub- 
lic, in conformity with the particular regulations by which they are 


Art. 83 

Charges can be made against the President of the Republic only in 
the year next after the conclusion of his term of ofi&ce, for any of the 
acts of his administration by which the honor and safety of the State 
shall have been greatly compromised, or the constitution openly vio- 
lated. The forms under which charges against the President must be 
made shall be those of Articles 93 to 100, inclusive. 

cabinet ministers 

Art, 84 

The number of Ministers and their respective departments shall be 
determined by law. 

Art. 85 

The requisite qualifications of a Minister are: 
1st. Birth within the territory of the Republic; 
2d. The qualifications necessary for a member of the Chamber of 

Art. 86 

All the orders of the President of the Republic must be signed by 
the respective Minister; and without this essential requisite they are 
without force. 

Art. 87 

Each Minister is personally responsible for the acts signed by hiin, 
and in soliduni for whatever he shall subscribe or agree to with the 
other Ministers. 

Art. 88 

At the opening of the sessions of Congress Cabinet Ministers shall 
give to it an account of the state of the Nation, each in regard to the 
matters concerning his own department. 

Art. 8g 

They shall also present to that body the annual estimate of the ex- 
penses required by their respective departments, and give an account 
of the disposition of the sums voted for the expenses of the previous 

Art. go 

The duties of a Cabinet Minister are not incompatible with those of 
a Senator or Deputy. 

Art. 91 

Cabinet Ministers, even when not members of the Senate or Cham- 


ber of Deputies, may attend the sessions of those bodies, and~ take 
part in the debates, but can not vote. 

Art. 92 

The Cabinet Ministers may be charged by the Chamber of Depu- 
ties with the crimes of treason, corruption in office, misappropriation 
of public funds, subornation, violation of the constitution, impeding 
the execution of the laws or failure to execute the same, and of grave- 
ly compromising the safety and honor of the Nation. 

Art. 93 

After the presentation of the charge, one of the eight succeeding 
days shall be indicated, in which the Minister against whom such 
charge is brought may make answer in respect to the acts imputed to 
him, and for deliberation in regard to proceeding with the considera- 
tion of the accusation. 

Art. 94 

If it be decided to proceed with the examination of the charge, a 
committee of nine persons shall be chosen by lot to present within 
the five days following a report as to whether there exist sufficient 
grounds for a formal accusation. 

Art. 95 

On the presentation of the report of said committee the Chamber 

shall proceed to discuss the same, giving a hearing to the members of 

the committee, the author or authors of the proposal to bring charges, 

and to the Minister and such Deputies as may wish to take part in the 


Art. 96 

As soon as the discussion shall end, if the Chamber decides to pre- 
sent the accusation, it shall appoint three of its members to represent 
it in formulating and prosecuting said accusation before the Senate. 

Art. 97 

As soon as the Chamber shall decide to bring the 'charges before 
the Senate, or declare that there are grounds for prosecution, the 
Minister accused shall be suspended in his official functions. Such 
suspension, however, shall cease, unless the Senate shall have ren- 
dered its judgment within the'six months following the date on which 
the Chamber of Deputies shall have decided to prosecute the charge. 

Art. 98 
The Senate, acting as a jury, shall try the Minister, and shall con- 


fine itself to declaring whether or not he is guilty of the crime or 
abuse of power charged. The declaration of guilt must be made by 
two-thirds of the number of Senators present at the session, and by 
virtue of such declaration the Minister is removed from his office. 
The Minister pronounced guilty by the Senate shall be sentenced in 
accordance with the laws, by the ordinary court of jurisdiction, both 
as to the application of the penalty provided for the crime committed 
and to the enforcement of his civil responsibility for the damages and 
losses caused to the State or to individuals. 

The provisions of Articles 95, 96, 97 and the present one, shall also 
be observed in any other accusations or charges that may be made by 
the Chamber of Deputies in conformity with the terms of paragraph 
second. Article 38, of this constitution. 

Art. 99 

Cabinet Ministers may be accused by any private individual, on ac- 
count of any losses suffered unjustly through any act of the Minister 
accused. Such charge must be addressed to the Senate for its deci- 
sion as to whether or not it be well founded. 

Art. 100 

If the Senate declare that the charge is well founded, the complain- 
ant shall cite the Minister to appear before the proper court of jus- 

Art. 1 01 

The Chamber of Deputies may bring charges against a Minister dur- 
ing his term of office, or within six months subsequent to its termina- 
tion. During these six months, he must not absent himself from the 
Republic without the permission of Congress, or in its recess, of the 
Standing Committee. 

the '-.ouncil of state 
Art. 102. 

There shall be a Council of State composed as follows: 
Of three Councillors chosen by the Senate and three by the Cham- 
ber of Deputies, at the first ordinary session after each congressional 
election, and the retiring Councillors may be re-elected. In case of 
the death or disability of any of these, the respective Chamber shall 
appoint a substitute who shall fill his place until the congressional 
election following: 

Of a member of the Superior Court of Justice, residing in Santiago; 


Of an ecclesiastic occupying a position of dignity; 

Of a general in the army or navy; 

Of a chief of some office of the Treasury; 

Of an individual who has filled the position of Minister of State, 
Diplomatic Agent, Intendente, Governor or Chief of Municipality. 
These last five Councillors shall be appointed by the President of the 

The Council shall be presided over by the President of the Repub- 
lic, or in his absence by one of its members appointed by itself as Vice- 
President, virho shall be chosen annually, and may be reelected. 

The Vice-President of the Council shall be considered the oldest 
member for the ends contemplated in Articles 75 and 78 of this con- 

Cabinet Ministers shall only have a voice in this Council, and if 
any Councillor be chosen Minister, he shall vacate his former office. 

Art. 103 

The qualifications for Councillor of State shall be the same as for 

Art. 104 

the powers of the council of state 

ist. To give its opinion to the President of the Republic in all 
cases in which he shall ask it. 

2d. To suggest to the President for appointment, in cases of va- 
cancies in courts of first instance and the higher tribunal of justice, 
such persons as it shall deem suitable, in conformity with the propo- 
sitions of the Superior Tribunal, as by law provided, and in the form 
prescribed in the same. 

3d. To present nominations by threes for Archbishoprics and 
Bishoprics, dignitaries and prebends of cathedrals of the Republic. 

4th. To take cognizance of all matters pertaining to patronage and 
protection, which may come into dispute, in obedience to the decision 
of the Superior Tribunal of Justice, as by law required. 

5th. To take cognizance likewise in disputes of jurisdiction be- 
tween the administrative authorities, and in such as may arise be- 
tween these and the courts of justice. 

6 th. To declare whether or not there be grounds for prosecution 
upon criminal charges against Intendentes, Military Governors, and 
Governors of Departments; except in the cases in which charges 
against Intendentes are instituted by the Chamber of Deputies. 

7th. To give its assent to the declaration of a general call to arms 


in one or more provinces invaded or threatened, in case of foreign 

8th. The Council of State has the right to move for the dismissal 
of the cabinet ministers, intendeutes, governors, and other delinquent, 
incapable, or negligent public employes. 

Art. 105 

The President of the Republic shall propose for the consideration 
of the Council of State; 

ist. All projects of law (bills) which he shall judge proper to sub- 
mit to Congress. 

2d. All projects of law which the Senate and Chamber of Deputies 
shall pass, and send to him for his approval. 

3d. All matters which are required by the constitution to be 
heard by the Council of State. 

4th. The annual estimates of expenditures to be sent to Congress. 

5th. All matters in which he shall judge it necessary to hear the 

opinion of the Council. 

Art. 106 

The decisions of the Council of State are simply advisory, except in 
the particular cases in which the constitution requires that the Presi- 
dent shall act with its approval. 

Art. 107 

The Councillors of State are responsible for the decisions they 
render to the President, which may be contrary to the laws and with 
manifestly evil intention, and they may be accused and tried in the 
manner provided in Articles 93 to 98 inclusive. 

CHAPTER VIII — The administration of justice 

Art. 108 

The power of judging civil and criminal causes belongs exclusively 
to the tribunals established by law. Neither Congress nor the Presi- 
dent of the Republic can in any case exercise judicial powers, or 
advocate pending causes, or revive causes already decided. 

Art. 109 

By virtue of law alone can any change be made in the powers of the 
courts, or in the number of their officials. 

Art. no 

The judges of the superior tribunals and those of the courts of first 
instance shall hold office during good behavior. Commercial judges. 



common magistrates and other inferior judges shall hold their oflSces 
for the time specified by law. The judges, whether perpetual or for 
a term, can not be deposed from ofiSce except for cause legally decided. 
Art. Ill 
The judges are personally responsible criminally for corruption in 
o£Bce, failure to observe the laws which govern trials, and, in general, 
for any evasion or extortion in the administration of justice. The law 
shall determine the cases and the manner in which this responsibility 
shall be enforced. 

Art. 112 

The law shall determine the qualifications which judges shall res- 
pectively possess, and the necessary number of years of practice as 
advocate before appointment to the superior tribunals or lower courts. 

Art. 113 

There shall be in the Republic one magistracy (tribunal) whose 
duty it shall be to have the superintendence direct, correctional and 
economical, of all the tribunals and courts of the Nation, in accord- 
ance with the law determining its organization and attributes. 
Art. 114 

A special law shall determine the organization and powers of all 
tribunals and courts that may be necessary for the prompt and full 
administration of justice throughout the territory of the Republic. 

CHAPTER IX — Government and internal administration 

Art. 115 

The territory of the Republic is divided into provinces, the provin- 
ces into departments, the departments into sub-delegacies, and these 

last into districts. 

the intendentes 

Art. 116 

The government in chief of each province in all the branches of its 
administration is vested in an Jntendente, who shall exercise his 
powers in accordance with the laws, and under the order and direc- 
tions of the President of the Republic, whose natural and immediate 
agent he is. His terra of office shall be four years; but he may be 
reappointed for an indefinite time. 

THE governors 

Art. 117 
The government of each department is vested in a governor, sub- 


ordinate to the Intendente of the province, and whose terra of ofiSce 
shall be three years. 

Art. ii8 

The governors are appointed by the President of the Republic, on 
recommendation of the respective Intendente, and can be removed by 
this latter pe I'son with the assent of the President of the Republic. 

Art. 119 

The Intendente of the province is also governor of the department 
in the capital of which he resides. 

the sub-delegates 

Art. 120 

The sub-delegacies are each governed by a sub-delegate, who is 
appointed by the governor of the department to whom he is subordi- 
nate. The sub-delegates shall hold their office for two years; they 
may be removed by the governor, who shall give his reasons to the 
Intendente. They also may be re-appointed for an indefinite time. 

the inspectors 
Art. 121 

The districts are governed by an inspector, under the orders of the 
sub-delegate, who may appoint or remove him, giving his reasons to 
the governor. 

the municipalities 

Art. 122 

In each capital of a department there shall be a municipality, and 
in such other centers of population as the President of the Republic, 
with the approval of the Council of State, shall think proper to 
establish such. 

Art. 123 

The muncipalities shall be made up of such number of magistrates 
and aldermen as the law shall fix, having regard to the population of 
the territory in which they are established. 

Art. 124 

The aldermen shall be elected by the direct vote of the people and 
in the manner provided by the law of elections. They shall hold 
office during three years. 


Art. 125 

The law shall decide the manner of the election of the magistrates 
and the length of their term of office. 

Art. 126 

The following are the qualifications for election as magistrate or 
alderman : 

ist. The active exercise of citizenship; 

2d. At least five years residence in the territory of the municipality. 

Art. 127 

The governor is the chief of all the municipalities in his depart- 
ment, and president of that one in which his capital is established. 
The sub-delegate is president of the municipality in his sub-delegacy. 

Art. 128 

The following are the powers of the municipal officers within their 

ist. To care for the public health, comfort, display and amuse- 

2d. To promote agriculture, education, industry and commerce. 

3d. To care for the primary schools and other educational institu- 
tions that are supported by the municipal funds. 

4th. To have superintendence of hospitals, asylums, houses for 
abandoned children, jails, houses of correction, and charitable institu- 
tions, in accordance with the regulations prescribed for the same. 

5th. To have charge of the construction and repair of roads, pave- 
ments, bridges, and all necessary or ornamental public works, which 
are maintained from the municipal funds. 

6th. To administer and pay out the fund of ways and means, in 
accordance with the rules prescribed by law. 

7th. To make the allotments of taxes, number of recruits and sub- 
stitutes apportioned to the Municipality, in case the law shall not have 
designated other persons or authority for that purpose. 

8th. To address to Congress every year, through the Intendente 
and the President of the Republic, such petitions as it shall judge 
proper, whether in relation to the general welfare of the State or the 
particular welfare of the department, and particularly in regard to 
the raising of means and meeting the extraordinary expenses demand- 
ed for the construction of new works of public utility in the depart- 
ment, or for the repair of those in existence. 

gth. To propose to the general Government, or to that of the 


province or department, such measures o£ administration as may 
conduce to the general welfare of the department. 

loth. To make municipal ordinances in regard to these subjects, 
and present them, through the Intendente, to the President of the 
Republic, for his approval with the advice of the Council of State. 

Art. 129 

No agreement or regulation of the Municipality which shall not be 
in conformity with the established regulations, can be carried into ef- 
fect without being brought to the attention of the Governor, or of the 
Sub-delegate, when of his jurisdiction, and he can suspend its execu- 
tion if he finds it prejudicial to public order. 

Art. 130 

All of the municipal offices belong to the corporation, and no one 
shall be excused from service in the same unless for cause specified 
by law. 

Art. 131 

A special law shall regulate the internal government of municipal 
bodies and shall designate the duties and powers of all those charged 
with provincial administration and the manner in which such duties 
and powers shall be exercised. 

CHAPTER X — The guarantees of safety and property 
Art. 132 

In Chile there are no slawe, and he who treads its soil becomes and 
remains free. No Chilean can'fefigage in the slave trade; and no for- 
eigner engaged in the same can reside in Chile or be naturalized in 
the Republic. 

Art. 133 

No one can be condemned without legal trial, and by -s^tue of a 
law made before the act for which he is tried. A. 

Art. 134 

No one can be tried by special commissions, by other than the courts 
provided by law and previously established. 

Art 135 

In order that an order of arrest may be executed, it is necessary 
that it be issued by the authority having the right to make arrests, 
and be made known to the arrested person at the time of its execution. 



Art. 136 

Any delinquent in flagrante delicto may be arrested without an or- 
der, and by any person, but for the sole purpose of conducting him 
before a compStent judge. 

Art. 137 

No one can be kept imprisoned or detained, except in his own house, 
or public places designed for that purpose. 

Art. 138 

OfiScials having charge of prisons can not receive into them prison- 
ers without copying into their register the order for the arrest issued 
by the authority having the right of making arrests. They may, how- 
ever, receive into the precincts of the prison, as under detention, such 
persons as may be brought there for the purpose of being presented 
to the competent judge; but they must report to such judge within 
twenty-four hours. 

Art. 139 

If under any circumstances the public authority shall cause the ar- 
rest of any inhabitant of the Republic, the officer ordering such arrest 
shall, within twenty-four hours, give notice to the proper judge, and 
arraign the person arrested for his disposal. 

Art. 140 

No magistrate having jurisdiction over a house of detention can be 
prevented or hindered from visiting a prisoner confined in it. 

Art. 141 

This magistrate shall, if the prisoner so request, transmit to the 
proper judge a copy of the order of arrest given to the accused; or de- 
maud that such copy be given him; or himself give a certificate of the 
imprisonment of the person, if at the time of his arrest no copy of 
said order was given him. 

Art. 142 

When a sufficient bond has been given for the person or for indem- 
nification for the act, in the form prescribed by law for the particular 
case, no one not amenable to a severe or infamous penalty can be kept 
in prison, or under restraint. 

Art. 143 

Any individual imprisoned or detained illegally through infraction 
of the provisions of Articles 135, 137, 138 and 139, may, either by 
himself or by any one acting in his name, have recourse to the magis- 


trate designated by the law, to demand the enforcement of the legal 
forms. Such magistrate shall order the accused to be brought before 
him, and such order shall be implicitly obeyed by all those in charge 
of prisoners or places of detention. As soon as he shall have informed 
himself of the facts in the case he shall cause all legal defects to be 
remedied and place the accused at the disposal of the proper judge; 
proceeding summarily and with dispatch, correcting defects or report- 
ing them to the proper authority. 

Art. 144 

In criminal cases the accused shall not be obliged to take oath as to 
his or her own acts, nor shall his or her children or grandchildren, 
husband or wife, or relatives to the third degree of consanguinity and 
second of affinity, inclusive, be so obliged. 

Art. 145 

Tortures shall not be applied, nor in any case shall confiscation of 
property be imposed. No infamous penalty shall extend beyond the 
person of the condemned. 

Art. 146 

The house of every inhabitant of Chilean territory is an inviolable 
asylum, and can not be torn down except for special cause determined 
by law, and in virtue of the order of the proper authority. 

Art, 147 

Epistolary correspondence is inviolable. No papers or documents 
can be opened, intercepted or searched, except in the cases specially 
designated by law. 

Art. 148 

The Congress alone can impose taxes, direct or indirect, and with- 
out its special authorization, every authority of the State, and every 
individual is forbidden to impose them, under any pretext whatever. 

Art. 149 

No kind of personal service or tax can be exacted, except in virtue 
of a decree by the proper authority based on the law authorizing such 
exaction, and showing such decree to the party taxed in the act of 
imposing such service or tax. 

Art. 150 

No armed body shall make requisitions, or exact any kind of assis- 
tance, except through the civil authorities, and by request of the same. 


Art. 151 

No kind of labor or industry shall be prohibited, unless opposed to 
good morals, or to the public health or safety,,or unless the interest 
of the Nation so demand and the law so require. 

Art. 152 

Every author or inventor shall have the exclusive property of his 
discovery or production for the time specified in the law; and in case 
the law require said discovery or production to be open to the public, 
suitable indemnification shall be made to the inventor. 

CHAPTER XI— General provisions 

Art. 153 

Public instruction is one of the first things to claim the attention of 
the government. The Congress shall formulate a general plan of na- 
tional education, and the respective Cabinet Ministers shall annually 
make a report of the condition of the same throughout the Republic. 

Art. 154 

There shall be an office of Superintendence of public instruction, 
whose duty it shall be to inspect public teaching under the direction 
of the government. 

Art. 155 

No payment shall be taken account of in the Treasury of the State, 
unless made in virtue of a decree, in which the law is cited or the 
part of the estimate approved by both Chambers which authorizes 
such expenditure. 

Art. 156 

All Chileans able to bear arms shall be enrolled on the militia lists, 
unless specially exempted by law. 

Art. 157 

Obedience is the essential necessity of the public forces. No armed 
body can be a deliberative one. 

Art. 158 

Every resolution made by the President of the Republic, the Sen- 
ate, or the Chamber of Deputies, in the presence or at the request of 
an army, or of a general at the head of an armed force, or of any as- 
semblage of people, who, whether armed or unarmed, shall be diso- 
bedient to the authorities, is null in law, and of no effect. 


Art. 159 

No person or collection of persons shall assume to act for or to rep- 
resent the people, arrogate to themselves its rights, or petition in its 
name. The violation of this Article is sedition. 

Art. 160 

No magistrate, no person or collection of persons can assume, even 
under pretext of extraordinary circumstances, any authority or rights 
not expressly conferred on them by the laws. Any act in violation of 
this prohibition is null. 

Art. 161 

When one or more places in the Republic shall be declared in a 
state of siege, in conformity with the provisions in part twentieth of 
Article 82, only the following powers, by virtue of such declaration, 
are granted to the President of the Republic: 

1st. To imprison persons in their own houses, or in places not 
jails or others destined for the confinement of common criminals. 

2d. To remove persons from one department to another on the 
mainland, and within the space comprised between the ports of Cal- 
dera, on the north, and the province of Llanguihue, on the south. 
The measures taken by the President by virtue of the state of siege, 
shall last no longer than this, as otherwise they may be in violation 
of the constitutional guarantees given to the Senators and Deputies. 

Art. 162 

No entails of any kind yet established, or which may be established 
in the future, shall impede the free alienation of the properties effect- 
ed by them, assuring to the beneficiaries of such entail the value of 
the property alieniated. A special law shall regulate the manner of 
carrying this law into effect. 

CHAPTER XII— The observance and amendments of the 

Art. 163 

Every public functionary on taking possession of his ofiice shall 
make oath to support the Constitution. 

Art. 164 

The Congress alone, in conformity with Articles 40 and following, 
can settle any doubts that may arise in regard to the meaning of any 
of its Articles. 


Art. 165 

. No motion for the amendment of one or more Articles of this Con- 
stitution shall be admitted, unless it be supported by at least one- 
fourth of the members present in the Chamber where it is proposed. 

Art. 166 

If the motion be entertained, the Chamber shall decide whether or 
not such Article or Articles need to be amended. 

Art. 167 

If both Chambers by a two-thirds vote in each, shall decide that 
said Article or Articles should be amended, a resolution to this effect 
shall be sent to the President, for the purposes expressed in Articles 
43. 44. 45. 46 and 47. 

Art. 168 

When the necessity for said amendments shall be expressed by law, 
the next Congressional election shall be awaited, and in its first ses- 
sion after said election, the proposed amendments shall be discussed, 
the bill having its origin in the Senate, according to Article 40, and 
the same forms shall be observed as for other bills, in accordance with 
the Constitution. 

NOTE — Articles 28, 29, 30 and 31 were stricken out by amendments adopted in 


The following books and articles will be found of interest concern- 
ing Chile: 

"Historia General de Chile," by Diego Barros Arana. In 12 vols. 
(Santiago, 1884). Also his histories of the war of Chilean indepen- 
dence. These are the best authorities. 

Claudio Gay's monumental tomes are a reliable history — "Historia 
General de Chile." 

' 'Obras Historicas sobre Chile, " by Don Vicuna Mackenna. His his- 
tory of the war with Peru is the best work on that subject. 

"Historia General del Reyno de Chile," by R. P. Diego Resales. 

Molina's History of Chile (translated). (Longmans, 1809). 2 vols. 

Ovalle's works and Ercilla's poems. 

Historiadores de Chile, coleccion de documentos relatives a la histo- 
ria nacional. (Santiago, 1861, and each year following) . 

Geografia fisica de la Republica de Chile. (A. Pissis). 

"Descubrimiento y Conquista de Chile," by Miguel Luis Amunate- 
gui. (Santiago, 1885). This is a valuable work now in its second edi- 

"Comentarios sobre la Constitucion politicade 1833." Manuel Cor- 
rasco Albano. (Santiago, 1874, 2d edition). 

"Cronica de la Araucania. " Horacio Lara. 2 vols. (Santiago, 

"Corapendio de la Historia de Chile, 1492-1884." Gasper Toro. 

"Historia de la Administracion Errazuriz." This is a valuable 
work never finished and now out of print. It is preceded by ap in- 
troduction which contains a review of the movements and struggles 
of political parties in Chile from the year 1823 to 1871. The author 
is Isidoro Errazuriz. 

Historia de Chile, durante los cuarenta anos trascurridos desde 1831 
hasta 1871. Dr. Raman Sotomayor Valdez. 2 vols. (Santiago, 1875). 

El Libro del Carbon de piedna en Chile. Benjamin Vicuna Macken- 
na. (Santiago, 1883). 

El Libro de la Plata. By the same author. 



Historia de la Guerra del Pacifico. 1879-1881. Diego Barros Ara- 
fna. (Santiago). 

Geografia Descriptiva de la Republica de Chile. Emigue Espinoza. 
(Santiago, i8go). 

Estudio sobre la Organizacion Economica y la Hacienda Publica de 
Chile. 2 vols. (Santiago, 1880). 

Historia de la Guerra de America, entre Chile, Peru y Bolivia. 
TomSs Caivano. (Florence, 1883). 

Los Finances de Chile. Edward Ovalle Correo. (Paris, 1889). 

Narracion Historica de la Guerra de Chile con el Peru y Bolivia. 
Mariano Felipe Paz Soldan. (Buenos Ayres, 1884). 

Guerra del Pacifico. Pascual A. Mareno. (Valparaiso, 1885). 
This is a recapitulation of all the official documents, correspondence 
and other publications referring to the war with Peru. 

El Parvenir en Chile de los Emigrantes Europeos. Louis Dorte. 
(Santiago, 1884). 

Conflicto entre el Presidente de la Republica y el Congreso. (San- 
tiago, 1890). Imprenta de los Debates. 

Historia de la Dictadura y la Revolucion en Chile de 1891. Egafia. 
(Valparaiso, i8gi). 

Los Capitales Salitreras de Tarapaci. Guillermo E. Billinghurst. 
'(Santiago, 1889). 

El Abastecimiento de agua potable del Puerto de Iquique: Estudio 
escrito por Guillermo E. Billinghurst. (Iquique, 1887). 

Condicion legal de los Pemanos nacidos en Tarapaca. Informe es- 
pudido. Guillermo E. Billinghurst. (Santiago, 1887). 

Condicion legal de los Estacamentos Salitreros de Tarapaca. (Iqui- 
que, 1884). 

Estudio sobre la Geografia de TarapacS. Billinghurst. (Santia- 
go, 1886). 

Diccionaria Geografia de la Republica de Chile, por Francisco D. 
Asta Burnoga. 

"Historia de la Administracion Santa Maria," por C. Waker Mar- 
tinez. This work is published in Santiago in two volumes, and is one 
of the very best later political histories of Chile, though written by a 
stanch conservative from a partisan standpoint. It is argumentative 
in style, but a very comprehensive work. 

Synopsis Estadistica y Geografica de Chile, 1888. 

Estadistica Comercial de la Republica de Chile, 1889. 

Memorias presentandos al Congreso nacional por los Ministros de 
Estado en los departmentos de Relaciones Exteriores, Hacienda, etc. 
■(Santiago, i8go). 


Die Republiken von Sud-Amerika, Geographisch und Statistisch, by 
J. C. Wappaus. 

The following works in English will also be found of interest: 

"Memoirs of General Miller." This is perhaps the best English 
account of the War of Independence. 

Captain Basil Hall's "Journal in Chile, Peru and Mexico," is also a 
graphic account of the same struggle. So also are "Lord Cochrane's 
Services in Chile, Peru and Brazil." (Dundonald). Maria Graham's 
"Journal of a voyage to Brazil and Chile," etc., and Haigh's "Trav- 
els in Buenos Ayres and Chile." 

Other valuable works and articles are, Meir's "Travels in Chile 
and La Plata;" Stevenson's "Twenty Years in South America;" Bon- 
nycastle's "Spanish America;" Watson's "Spanish and Portuguese 
South America;" Nile's "South America and Mexico, " covering the 
period of the revolution; American Register, Vol. II, page 273; Ec- 
lectic Review, Vol. XLII, page 406; Nile's Register, Vol. XIV, page 

Later works are, Markham's article in Winsor's "Narrative and 
Critical History of America, " also in the Encyclopaedia Brittanica; 
Appletou's Annual Cyclopaedia; "Statesman's Year-Book;" Dahl- 
gren's "South Sea Sketches;" Hunter's "A Sketch of Chile;" "Hand- 
book of the American Republics;" "The Progress and Actual Condi- 
tion of Chile, " by G. Rose-Innes; "South America" (Bates); "Notes. 
of a Naturalist in South America" (Ball). Theo. Child's "Spanish- 
American Republics, " and Maurice H.Hervey's "Dark Days in Chile," 
are late works. 

On the war between Chile and Peru, Mr. Clements R. Markham's- 
' 'The War between Chile and Peru,'' is the best account in English. 
His late work, "A History of Peru," covers the period succinctly. 

Lieutenant Mason's "War on the Pacific Coast of South America," 
— War series No. 11, Washington, 1885 — is also a reliable account, 
and from a military standpoint, the best. Boyd's "Chile in 1879-80," 
is pleasant reading. On the Civil war of 1891. Mr. Maurice H. Her- 
vey's "Dark Days in Chile," is the most complete account we have in 

The student of Chilean history will want to look into the Almagro 
afiair in Prescott's "Conquest of Peru," and will read with interest 
Garcilasso de la Vega's Royal Commentaries, which work is now ia 
very handy form in Markham's translation. He will also read for 
entertainment, "Wanderings in Patagonia," by Beerholm, "Across 
Patagonia, " by Dixie; "Adventures in Patagonia," by Coan: "Cruise 
of Tierra del Fuego " by Snow; "South America," by Gallenga, and 
"The English in South America," by Mullhall. 


A Page 

Abascal, Jos6 Fernando... 149, 157, 159 
Acevedo, TomSs Alvarez de...ii4, 115, 

Aconcagua 11 1, 164, 21 r 

Acuna, Antonio de, y Cabrera. . 106, 125 

Adams 306 

Agriculture 253 

Aguada des Ingles 184 

Aguillera, Inez 95 

Aguirre, Francisco 47, 56, 58 

Aillavilu 48 

Aillavilu II 97 

Albarracain, Colonel 300 

Aldea, Sergeant 282 

Aldea, Don Jos6 Antonio Rodriguez, 195 

Alderete 49, 56, 61 

Aldunate, Luis 321 

Alejo 106 

Alfalfa 389 

Alfonso, Jos6 264 

Allegre, Marquis Selva 133 

Alliance 233 

Almagrians 23 

Almagro 21, 30, 33 

Almagro, Diego 23, 34 

Altamirano, Eulogio 306 

Alva, Francisco de, y Noruena. .101-125 

Alvarado, General 172, 298 

Alvarez 136 

Alvear 136 

Alzerreca, General 329, 362 

Amat, Manuel 113, 126 

Amenguel, Colonel 301 

America no 



Amunfitegui, Miguel Luis 264, 301 

Ancon 190, 223, 324 

Ancanamon 98 

Andes 25, 405 

Andres 71 

Andrews, Captain Joseph 179 

Angol 83, 84, 91, 92, 384. 389. 418 

Animals 405 

Anson, Lord 11 1 

Antepillan 89 

Antequera 132 

Antiguena 73 

Antof agasta 346, 347, 420 

Antulevu 82 

Antunecul 74 

Aponte, Gabriel Cano de in, 126 

Apo-ulmenes 39 

Appendix 423 

Aqueducts 29 

"Aquilles" (warship) 222 

Aragon 110 

Arana, Barros 265 

Aranda, Martin 86, 100 

Araucanians 28, 30, 31, 37. 4°. 48, 181 


Arauco 38, 102, 178, 384 

Arauco Company 33° 

Arauco, Fort of 52, 74. 76.87,99, 106, 


Arauco, Siege of 75 

Architecture 28 

Arenales, Colonel 188 

Arenas, Antonio 306 

Argentine Republic 232, 253 




Argomedo, Jos6 Gragorio 144 

Armangos 135 

Arms 31 

Army 412 

Arrate 342 

Art 31 

Artigas. 136 

Astronomy 31 

Atacama desert 23, 25, 32, 346 

Atacama grants 29 

Atahualpa 21, 24 

Aturez 330 

Augustine iig 

Aurelie Antoine I .239 

Authorities on Chilean History 456 

Aveles, General Gabriel de 121, 126 

Ayacucho 193 

Ayacucho, Battle of 137 

Azua, TomSs de 112 

Azuaga, D. Fr. Pedro 71 


Baides, Marquis of 105, 106,125 

Balcarce 136, 172 

Ballenar, Baron of n8 

Balmaceda, Jos^ Manuel. .329, 332, 336, 

337. 345. 355. 

Balmaseda, Juan de 114, 126 

Baltimore affair 367 

Banking 391 

Banks 266, 424 

Baptista, Mariano 306 

Baquedano, General 298, 302, 311, 

313. 320. 

Barbosa 301, 311, 359, 362 

Barcelo, Colonel 301 

Bargas, Pantano de, Battle of 137 

Barley 389 

Barreda, Francisco Sanchez de la, iii, 


Barrionuevo, D, Fr. Fernando 71 

Basque no 

Bastidas, Roderigo, 79 

Beans 389 

Beauchef, Major 185, 202 

Bella-Vista, Battle of 210 

Bello, Andres 224, 228 

Belgrano, General 132, 135 

Benalcazar 21 

Benavides, Ambrosio de 114,115 

Benavides, Vincent 177 


Benevente 209 

Bernal, Lorenzo 74, 79 

Bemey, Antony 115 

Berroeta, Felix de 113. 126 

Bilbao, Francisco 231 

Biobio River 37, S3 

Birds 406 

' 'Blanco" (vessel) 246 

Blanco, Don Ventura 213 

Bolivar, General.. 133, 139, 192, 210, 218 

Bolivia 133 

Boloquesi 302 

Bonaparte, Joseph 128 

Borgono, Don Jos6 Manuel 172, 213 

Boroa 39, 95 

Bovadilla 53 

Boyaca, Battle of 136 

Brayer, General 168, iy% 

Brazil 135, 136, 214 

Bread 29 

Bricks 393 

Buena 346 

Buendia, General Jos6 27S 

Buenos Ayres 114, 132, 134, 214 

Bulnes, General Manuel. .218, 223, 227, 


Cabinet 334, 421 

Cabinet Ministers 442 

Cabrera, Dr. Ladislao 275 

Cachapoal River 42, 158 

Caceres 309, 313, 315, 322 

Cacique 29 

Cadeguala 83,8+ 

Cadiz 128 

Cadiz monopoly 115 

Calderon, Francisco Garcia 315 

Callacalla 50 

Callao 190, 210, 314 

Camacho, Colonel 295, 300 

Cambiaso 229 

Camel 29 

Camera de Apolaciones 145 

Camerones 324 

Campero, Narcisco, 295, 299, 316 

Campino, Don Joaquim 206 

Campo 93 

Camus 342 

Canals 123 

Cancha- Rayada 153, 170 




Canete 66, 74, 76, 384 

Caiiete, Massacre of 66 

Canseco, Lieut. Diez 283 

Canterac, General 192 

Canto 316, 322, 343, 346, 359 

Cape Horn 325, 404 

Capitals 423 

Captains of the Friends no 

Capuchins 232 

Caracas 134, 137 

Caracoles mines 256 

Caralava 92 

Carampangui 98 

Caravajal, Don Fermin 118 

Carbajal 287 

Cardena 221 

Carmargo 41 

Carrasco, Francisco Antonio.. .125, 126, 

Carrera, Jos6 Miguel 144, 147, 175 

Carrera, Juan 147, rsg 

Carrera, Luis 147 

Carrillo Z2i, 306 

Cavalho, Colonel 353 

Carving 31 

Casanate, Pedro Portale 106, 125 

Casma 223 

Castaneda, Gregori 73 

Casteili 134 

Castellon, Carlos 321 

Castillero 86 

Castro 76, 107, 202 

Castro, Vasca de 45 

Catalonia 121 

Catipillan 83 

Catipiuque 86 

Catiray 98 

Caupolican 51, 54, 58, 61, 69 

Cauquenes 116, 418, 419 

Cauques 27 

Cauton River 49 

Cavendish, Sir Thomas 84 

Caxamarca 22, 27 

Cayancara 82 

Cerda, Cristoval de la loi, 125 

Cerdena 222 

Cereals 407 

Cerro Grande, Battle of 235 

Chacabuco 163 

"Chacabuco" '79 

Chacajco 39 


Chacao 77 

Chanarcillo 229 

Charez, Colonel Silva 235 

Charles 11 109 

Charles III 114 

Charles IV 127 

Checacupe 132 

Chief 29 

Children of Sun 31 

Chilian 103, 106, 107, 150, 218 , 418 

Chilo^. .68, 76, 94, 107, 116, 148, 202, 210, 
211, 404. 

Chilotes 28 

Chiquilanians 28, 80 

Chivecura 91 

Choapo 112 

Chonos Islands 404 

Chorillos 311 

Chorocomago 184 

Christiancy 306 

Chupas, Battle of 23, 35 

Cicarelli 229 

Cienfuegos, Jos6 Ignacio..,i52, 204,225 

Cisneros, D, Fr. Augustin 79 

Cisniros 133 

Cities 416 

Citizens 426 

Civilization 28 

Civil Service 327 

Clay 30 

Clericales 335 

Clentaru 106 

Climate 32. 387 

Cloth 30 

Clothing 31 

Coal 261, 391 

Coal Mines 232 

Cobija 323 

Cochrane, Lord Thomas. ..181, 190, 373 

Coelemu "2 

Colchagua 211, 218 

Colcura 106 

Coleta 346 

Colhue 39 

Coliguna ii4 

Colocolo 51, 62, 71. 88 

"Colocolo" (warship) 322 

Colombia ^37 

Commerce 4^4 

Company of Jesus "9 

Complexion 29 




Coiicepcioii,.48, 58, 79, 84, 107, 112, 211, 

216, 418, 419. 

CoQcepcion, Diocese of 1 18 

Concha, Jos6 de Santiago 107, iii, 

123, 126. 

Concon, Battle of 360 

Conde de la Conquista 143 

Condell, Captain 281 

Condorcanqui 132 

Congress 421, 428 

Congressionalists 346 

Conquistadores 29 

Conservadores 335 

Conservatives 335 

Constitution 149, 215, 218, 241, 328, 

333. 425. 

Consulting Council 209 

Copiapins 27, 47 

Coptapo 33, 41, 44, m. 329, 235, 418, 


Copper 31, 267, 395 

Coquimbo 33, 41, 46, 196, 311, 235 

Cordova, Alonzo de, y Figueroa. . . 102, 

106, 125. 
Cordova, Luis Fernandez, y Area, 102, 


Coronal 232 

Corral Castle 185 

Corsairs 84 

Cortez, Pedro 92 

Corteo 44 

Council of the Indes 1 34 

Council of State 421, 444, 445 

Count of Populations 112 

"Covadonga" (gunboat) 245 

Covarrubias, Alvaro 239 

Covarrubias, Marquis of 118 

Coya 91 

Coya, Clara Beatrice 89 

Creoles 129 

Crops 267 

Crosbie, Captain 189 

Cruz, Don Anselmo r86 

Cruz, Jos6 Marie de la 231 

Cuevas 162 

Cujo 92, 114 

Cultivation 28 

Cumberland 180 

Cunches 28, 50, 67 

Cuquimpuans 27 

Cural6 177 


CuraDteo 104 

Cur^s 28 

Curico Ill, 112, 116, 4,18 

Curignancu 113 

Curimilla 104 

Customs 374 

Customhouses 226 

Cuzco 23 

Damas River 49 

Davila, Colonel 309 

Daza, General Hilarion..., 275 

Debt 205, 268, 317.331. 424 

De Hoz 47 

Deputies 429 

Derteano, Dionisio 305 

Diaz, Alonzo 79 

Dike at Santiago 121 

Dioceses ii8 

Distaff 30 

Dominicans 119 

Drawing 31 

Drunkenness 29 

Durois 241 

Dutch 84 

Duties 331 

Dyes 31 

Earthquake 79, 1 12, 401 

Easter Island 405 

Echeverria, Don Joaquim i86 

Education 330, 415 

Edwards 330 

Egan, Patrick 371 

Egafia, Juan 156 

Egana, Don Mariano, 198 

Electoral College 237 

Electricity 330 

Elaspuru 221 

Elizanda 213 

Elorreaga 153 

El Paposo 102 

Emaraldas River 22 

Encalada, Manuel Blanco 153, 172. 

180, 182, 204, 211, 222. 

Encol 39 

England 133 

English 84, 105, III, ng, 377 

Ercilla, Alonzo de 68 




Errazuriz, Fernando 198, 202 

Errazuriz, Fredrico. ...247, 255, 262, 318 

Escala, General Erasmo 27S, 290 

"Esmeralda" 182, i8g, 243 

Espejo 173 

Espinosa, Julio 365 

Espiritu Santo 83, 85 

Estanco 130 

Exports 267, 268, 419 

Eyzaguirre, Augustin 152, 198,211 

Eyzaguirre, Jos^ Alejo 225 

Farmer, The 29 

Fauna 405 

Feudal tenure 47 

Ferdinand VII 127, 128, 180 

Feniandini 231 

Ferreti, Mastai 204 

Feuill6 107 

Figueras 121 

Figueroa, Don Tomas de 145 

Finances 226 

Fine Arts 417 

Fire Department 331 

Flora 407 

Florin 225 

Food 29 

Forests 407 

Fort Liben 83 

Fowls 29 

France 232 

Franciscans 119, 151 

Frate, Celestino del 269 

Freire, Ramon. . . 162, 176, 177, 196, 201, 

Freire, Francisco 330 

French 114, 119, 121 

Frias 260 

* Fruits 407 

Fuegians 384 

Fuente, Luis Merlo de la 97, 125 

Fuentes, Captain 351 

Gainza, General Gavina 153 

Gallo, Pedro Leon 235, 237 

Galvarino 181 

Galvez 247 

Gaiuarra 220, 299 

Gamboa, Martin Ruiz de T], 80, 125 I 




Garcia de Garcia, Aurelio..284, 306,322 

Garcilasso 28 

Garezan 287 

Garin, Captain 351 

Garments 30 

Garido 222 

Garro, Don Josfi de 107, 126 

Gas 232 

Gasco 46 

Gavilan 167 

Gay, Claudio 224 

"General Orbegoso" (warship) 219 

Germans 232, 377 

Glass 393 

Godeffroy & Son 249 

Godinez, Juan 39 

Godoi 365 

Godoi, Manuel 127 

Gordas 141 

Gold 31. 43^ 49 

Gorbea 224 

Gorostiago, Col. Alejandro 322 

Government 409, 420, 425 

Governors ; 421, 447 

Goyeneche 133 

Gramuset, Antony 114 

Grapes 389 

Grasales, Doctor 118 

Grass 389 

Grau, Miguel 280. 285, 286, 288 

Great Britain 232 

Guaianeco 404 

Guaitecas 404 

Guano 240, 259, 268, 324, 396 

Guanoalca 84,86 

Guayaquil 130 

Guechiuntereo 85 

Gueagan 29 

Guemes, Miguel 239 

Guenucolquin 104 

Guentecol 239 

Guepotan 83, 85 

Guill, Antonio de, y Gonzaga. . .113, 126 

Guipuzcoa 121 

Guise, Captain 181, 189 

Guzman, Luis Munoz de 118,123, 

126, 198. 


Habits 31 




Haciendas 377 

Hamlets 29 

' 'Hanibal of the Andes' ' 161 

Harbo.s 402 

Harrison, Benjamin F 37° 

Henriquez, Father Camilo 156 

Henriquez, Juan de 107, 126 

HlUiar, Captain i43 

Hill of the Baron 223 

Himeria, Bishop of 326 

Holland 94 

Holy Alliance 204 

Hospitals 330 

Hospitallers "9 

Hotham, Rear-Admiral 342 

Hoyos, Colonel 185 

Hoz, Sanchez de 4^ 

Huacho 190 

Hualqui ii3 

Huamachuco 27, 322 

Huancayo 325 

Huanuco 27 

Huaque 132 

Huiro jgo 

Huascar 24 

Huasco 33. "2, 113 

Huayana Capac 22, 27 

Huenecura, 95 

Huilliches, 28 

"Hussars of Death" 171 


Iglesias 309, 323 

Illegitimacy 326 

Illicura 39, 99 

Immigration 390 

Imperial 49, 83, 94 

Imperial, Siege of 70 

Imports 268 

Incas 22, 28 

"Independencia" (steamer) 181, 245 

Indians 30, 404 

Industries 28 

Infante, Jos^ Miguel 152, ig8 

Inspectors 448 

Intendentes 421, 447 

Intrepid 181 

Iquique 346, 418 

Irizarri, Antonio Jos6 de 156, igg 

Irrazabal, Don Fernando 118 

Islands 403, 404 


Italians "9 

"Itata" 347i 368 

Itata River 46. 151 


Janequeo 85 

Jariez 228 

Jauregui, Augustin de 114, 126 

Jesuits 112, iig, 232 

Jesus 91 

Jonte, Antonio I35i ^44 

Juan Fernandez Islands.. .111, 116, 159, 


Jujay 160 

Junin 346 

Junta de Gobierno 143 

Justice, Administration of 421, 446 


Karampanque 82 

Kilacoyan mines 91 

Kilpatrick 246 

King Charles 23 

Korner, Colonel 34S 

La Cerda 147 

La Cotero 295, 314 

Laounza 119 

La Fuente 221 

Lagomarsino, Captain 302 

Lagos, Colonel Pedro 303, 311 

Lalgualdad 230 

Lake Lauquen 49 

Lakes 388, 400 

Language 28 

La Paz 133 

La Perouse 120 

La Plata 135 

La Plata, Viceroyalty of 114 

La Puerta 307 

La Serena 45. 47i 84, 107, 418, 420 

La Serna 191 

Las Heras, Juan Gregorio. .i57, 172, 187 

Las Salinas, Battle of 22, 34 

Lastarria, Jos^ Victorino 239, 264 

Lastra, Francisco de 155, 217 

Latorre, Captain 283, 302 

Lautaro 54, 60 

"Lautaro" (frigate) 179 




Lauzas. 134 

Law of Civil Responsibilities 236 

Laws 31 

Lazarettos 330 

Lead 31 

Leaven 29 

Lebas 172 

Legislation 433 

"Lerzundi" (warship) 243 

Leucoton 57 

Leviantu 114 

Levipillan loi 

Leyra, Colonel 303 

Liberates del Gobierno 332, 335 

"Liberating Army of the Andes' ' ... 161 

Library, National 156, 416 

Liceo de Mora 224 

Lientur ._ loi 

Ligua 112 

Lillemu 76 

Lillo, Eusebio 306 

Lima 23, 130, 133, 188, 324 

Linares 418 

Lincopichion 105 

Lincoyan 48, 56, 65, 71 

Liquors 29 

Lircay, Battle of 218 

Lisperguer, Juan Rodulfo 96 

Literature 224 

Lizarroga, D. Fr. Reginaldo ^^ 

Loans 261 

Lobos 324 

Loncomallu 104 

Loncomilla, Battle of. 231 

Lonconobal 83 

Loncothegua 91, loi 

Loom 30 

Los Angeles m, 151. 418 

Los Loros, Battle of 235 

Lota 232 

Lowe 172 

Loyola, Don Martin Onez de 89, gi, 

92, 125. 

Luco, Barros 339 

Lumaco 89, 97 

Luque, Father 22 

Lynch, Patrick, 305, 307, 310, 315, 322, 373 


Mackenna, Benjamin Vicuna.. 1521, 72, 

235. 263, 373. 


Magellan, Ferdinand 23 

Magellan, Straits of, 32, 51, 229, 266, 404 

Magistracies u^ 

Magu 29 

Maize 29, 389 

Manco 24 

Mancura, Marquis of 104 

Manso, Jos6 de iii, 126 

Manufactures 31 

Manzanera 185 

Mapochinians 27, 42 

Mapocho River 43, 113, 121, 122 

Mapocho (valley) 28 

Maquegua 39 

Marco 129 

Maria Louisa 127 

"Maria Isabel" 180 

Mariantu 33. 7i 

Mariloan 214 

Marino 137, 158 

Mariquina 39 

Markets 226 

Marmolejo, D. Fr. Bartolem^ Roder- 

igo Gonzales, -. 71 

Maroto, General 163 

Marriage 270, 326 

Martin, Gasper.^ I44)i48 

Martinez 304, 311 

Martinez, Carlos Walker 261 

Marven 39 

Matta 237, 369. 

Maturano, Marcas 239 

Maule, Province of. . . . 116, 118, 211, 218 

Maule River 22, 28, 148 

Maypo 122, 157 

"Maypo" 347 

Mazarredo, Eusebio 242 

Meal 29 

Medellin, D. Fr 71 

Medina, Don Francisco Todeo Diaz 

de, y Collado 123, 126 

Meiggs, Henry 241 

Melendez, Pedro 98 

Melilanca 83 

Melipilla 41, m, 418 

Melipuru 65 

Membrillar i53 

Mendoza, Don Garcia Hurtado de..6o, 

63, 122, 123. 

Menes^s, Francisco de 106, 125 

Mestizos 81 




Metals 32 

Military System 39 

Militia 113 

Millacolquin 8g 

Millalauco 62 

Miller, Major 172, 179, 185, 373 

Minerals 268 

Mines 260, 377 

Mining 28, 31 

Mirab^ 191 

Miraflores 314 

Miranda 44, 137 

Missionaries 97, 99, no 

Mocha 104 

Mocopulli 203 

Molina, Alonzo 84 

Molina, Juan Ignacio iig 

Molina, Pedro 107 

Monteagudo 170, 193 

"Monteaguado" (warship) 219 

Money 267, 424 

Monopolies 120 

Monroy, Alonzo 42, 44 

Montalban, Diego 100 

Monte Pinto 63 

Montero, Diego Gonzales 106, 125 

Montero, Lizardo 293, 316, 323 

Montevideo 134 

Montt, Jorge 339, 367 

Montt, Manuel 229, 233, 237, 251, 319 

Montt-Varistas 233, 247, 321, 332, 335 

Monvoisin 228 

Moon 31 

Moore, Captain 280 

Moquequa igi 

Mora 224 

Moraga, Captain 351 

Morales, Don Francisco Xavierde, 114, 
126, J 29. 

Morillo i2g 

Morro Solar 312 

Moya 221 

Mt. Mariguenu 56, 74, 86 

Mt. Sarmiento 404 

Municipal Officers 421, 449 

Muuoz, C olonel 2gg 

Muxica, Don Martin 106, 125 

Muzi, Don Juan 204 


Nacionales 335 


Nagtolten 39 

Nancu 98 

Napoleon 127 

Narborough, Sir James 103 

Nativity, Fort of 102 

Navamorquende, Marquis of. . .1C7, i25 

Navarro 176 

Navy C77, i\zz 

Neculguena :ci 

Negrete iii, 114 

Neirie 16: 

Nepotism 330 

Newspapers 416 

Nic-Aguirre, Don Juan 124 

Nicochea 164, 172 

Niebla 1S5 

Nieto 133 

Nitrate 268,-273, 324. 336, 346, 393 

Nobility 39 

Nongoniel, 83 

Novoa 2og 

Nugent 203, 214 

"Numancia" (frigate) 244 

Numbers 31 

Nunez, Admiral Mendez 245, 246 

Obando, Francisco de 112, 126 

O'Brien, Captain 172, 179 

Ochagavia 217 

"O'Higgins" 181 

O'Higgins, Ambrosio. .116, 118, 120, 126 
O'Higgins, Bernardo.. 148, 151, 152, 157, 

168, 186, 195, 200, 373. 
O'Higginistas. 210 


■ 31 

Olaneta 137 

Olivares iig 

Ongolmo 71 

Orbegoso 223 

Order of Mercy 118 

Ordonez 170 

O'Reilly, General 18S 

Organez 26 

Ornaments 31 

Oro, Diego del 53 

Osbom 306 

Osorio 129, 159, 168 

Osorno 69i 95 

Osorno, Marquis of 118 

Ovalle 418 




Ovalle, Alfredo 365 

Ovalle, Juan Antonio 119, 112 

Ovalle, TomSs 217 

Pachacamac 21 

Pacific Steam Navigation Co 414 

Paicavi gS 

Paillaeco 88 

Paillamachu S9, gi, 93, 95 

Paillataru 76, 77 

Painting 31 

Palacios 287 

Palican 40 

Panama 193 

Paraguay 132 

Pardo, Arias 74 

Pareja, General Antonio 149 

Passes 400 

Passo 135 

Pastene, Jean Baptista 45 

Patagonia 325 

Patagonians 384 

Paucarpata 223 

Paullu Topu 24, 25, 26 

Paynenancu 79, 82 

Pehuenches 28, 80, 114, 162, 218 

Pelantaru 8g 

Pelucones 210 

Pena 135 

Peiia, Captain 304 

Penalosa 86 

Penco 40, 4Ei 

Peneones 27 

Penquistos 149 

Pensions 327 

Peralta, Francisco Ibanez de. . .107, 12G 

Pereda, Angel de ro6, 125 

Pereja, Admiral 243 

Perez, Jos^ Joaquin. . . 135, 230, 236, 237, 

247. 319- 

Peru 102, 272 

Peruvians 25, 29, 289 

Petorca i j 2 

Pezet, President 245 

Pezuela 133, 179, 189 

Philip II 61 

Philip V 109 

Physics 31 

Pica, Marquis de la loG 

Picoaga 221 


Piculgue 103 

Pierola, Nicolas de 295, 309, 315 

Pigs 29 

Pincheira 214, 218 

Pinchincha, Battle of 137 

Pineda, Alvaro g6 

Pino, Joaquin del 122, 126 

Pintado, Bernardo Vera 142 

Pinto, Colonel Castro 300 

Pinto, Francisco Anibal.. .210, 212, 216, 

264, 318, 

Pinzon, Admiral 242 

Pipiolas 2og 

Pirates, 84 

Pisagua 346, 420 

Pisco 189 

Pissis 229 

Pius IX 204 

Pizarro, Francisco 21, 35 

Pizarro, Gonzalo 24, 46 

Pizarro, Hernando 23 

Pizarro, Juan 24 

Plains 32 

Planchon 162 

Plants 29 

Police 331 

Political Parties 420 

Ponchos 32 

Ponte, Marco del 160, 162, 165 

Population 32, 262, 420, 423 

Portada de la Guia 223 

Portales, Don Diego.. 147, 217, 221, 222, 


Portales, Cea & Co 205 

Portugal 127 

Posadas 136 

Post oiEces 412 

Potatoes 29 

Potosi 137, 160 

Potrillo 184 

Pottery 30 

Poveda, TomSs Martin de 107, 126 

Prado, President 215, 280, 282, 289 

Pran 66 

Prat, Belisario 265, 282 

Prato, Belisario 336 

President 333, 420, 436 

Prieto, J~aquin 178, 216, 223, 227, 3ig 

Promancions 27, 34 

Property rights 29 

Protector of Peru ir8, igr 




Provinces ii6, 423 

Prueba 183 

Public works 391 

Puchanqui 86 

Pudeto, Battle of zio 

Puelches 28, 39, 83, 85 

Puerta Olivia 347 

Puerto Montt 232, 420 

Pueyredon 136 

Pulse 29 

Pumacagua 159 

Punta Arenas 229, 385 

Puren 39i 84 

Puren, Fort of 11 1 

Putaendo 162 

Putapichion loi 


Quanagua 39 

Quecheregua 39, 154 

Quemada, Juan de Xara 98, 125 

Quepuanta 104 

Quevada, Dr 259 

Quiapo 71 

Quichua 28 

Quilacura 46 

Quillai 31 

Quillin 105, III, 114 

Quillota 41, 222, 418 

Quillotanes 27, 45 

Quilo 155 

Quinel 102 

Quinones, Francisco de 93, 125 

Quintano 172 

Quintanilla, Gen. Antonio 210 

Quintero 345 

Quintero Bay 84 

Quintuguenu 86 

Quirihue 112 

Quiroga, Roderigo de 72, 76, 79, 125 

Quito 21, 133, 137 

Quitoan Kingdom 27 


Rabbit 29 

Radicales 335 

Railroads 232, 236, 241,2531 259, 268, 

330, 331. 391. 409- 

Ramirez, General 133, 259 

Ramon, Alonzo Garcia 62, 81, 84, 94, 



Rancagua 158, 236 

Rapel River 28 

Rayna 144 

RecabSrren 290, 313 

Recloma 50 

Religion 31, 242, 425 

Rencu 65, 71 

Repocura 39 

Revenues 226, 266, 331 

Reyes, Alejandro 239 

Reyes, Antonio Garcia 230 

Reynoso, Alonzo. 64, 6g 

Reynoso, Francisco 52 

Rezabal, Jos6 de 121, 126 

Riggin, Charles W 369 

Rights of Citizens 450 

Rio, Juan Garcia del 192 

Riojo, Fort 185 

Rios, Colonel 293 

Rios, Gonzalo 45 

Rivera, Alonzo de 94, 95, 98, 123 

Riveros, Galvarino.. .284, 290, 296, 305 

Rivers 388, 400 

Rivos 221 

Roads 25, 121 

Robelledo roi 

Roble 151 

Robles, Colonel 342 

Robleria 103 

RofaoUedo, Juan Williams 245, 278 

Rodgers, Commodore 246 

Rodriguez 287 

Rodriguez, Manuel 162, 171, 175 

Rodriguez, Carlos 213 

Rodriguez, Jos6 Santiago 204 

Rodriguez 134 

Rojas, Jos6 Antonio de 115, 142 

Roman Catholics 242 

Rondeau 136 

Rosales 119, 144 

Rosalis, Don Rosario de 139 

Rosas, Domingo Ortiz de 112, 126 

Royal Audience, 96 

Rozas, Domingo 405 

Rozas, Doctor Juan Martinez de, . . .144 


Saavedra 25 

Saavedra, ComeUo 265, 315 

Salamanca, Manuel de iii, 126 

Salas, Manuel 156 




Salaverry-Gamarra 220, 221 

Saldias 178 

Salt 31 

Salta 134, 160 

Salvador 234 

San Bruno 160 

San Carlos 150, 184, 202 

San Carlos, Duke of 118 

Sanchez, Juan Francisco.. 150, 153, 208 

San Felipe 235, 418 

San Fernando 1 1 1 

San Francisco 341 

SanFuentes 234. 251, 332, 336 

Sangarara 132 

San Juan 3x2 

San Lorenzo, 135 

San Luis de Loyola, 92 

San Martin. . .118, 133, 136, 160, 164, 200 
San Miguel, D. Fr. Antonio de, y Sol- 

ier 79 

San Pedro 106 

San Roman 221 

San Rosendo 106 

San Sebastian 121 

Santa Barbara 113 

Santa Cruz, Andres 220, 223, 294 

Santa Juana 177 

Santa Maria, Domingo 235, 245, 265, 

318, 325, 327» 329, 332. 

Santa Rosa 164 

Santa Teresa 312 

Santiago 4,2, 107, 211, 376, 415, 418 

Santiago, Diocese of 118 

Santo Domingo 121 

Saravia, Diego 96 

Saravia, Melchor, Bravo de 78, 125 

Sardinia 232 

Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino 228 

Schley, Captain 368 

Schools 269, 4t3, 415, 416 

Senate 421 

Senators 429 

Serrano, Lieut 282 

Seville 128 

Siereo 29 

Silva, General- 309, 322 

Silva, Waldo 338 

Silver 31 

Simpson, Robert 223 

Sinchi Rocca 27 

Sinclair, Sir John, . , , , , 214 


Slavery 117 

Smallpox 118 

Smuggling 194 

Smyth's Channel 404 

Soap 31 

Socabaya, Battle of 221 

Solar, Miguel X64, 213, 221 

"Sons of the Land" 171 

Soto, Colonel 342 

Sotoma} or, Alonzo de 80, 84, 125 

Sotomayor, Emilio 275, 293, 311 

Sotomayor, Luis de 86 

Sotomayer, Rafael 264, 284, 300 

Spaniards 25 

Spindle, 30 

Steamship Lines 225, 331, 414 

Suarez, Colonel 309, 316 

Suarez, Inez 42 

Sub-delegates 448 

Sucre 137 

Sueltos , .335 

Suffrage 426 

Sun 31 

Syri Tupac 89 

Tacna, . . , 418 

Taforo, Francisco de PauUo 269, 325 

Tagle, Francisco Ruiz 217 

Tagle, Torre 193 

Tajamar 121 

Talambo 242 

Talaverrano, Fernando 100, 125 

Talbot, John W 369 

Talca 94, 104, III, 150, 153, 235, 418 

Talcahuana 6g, 150, 167,169 

Talcamavida, Fort of 106, 113 

Taltal 347 

Tapia, Juan 84 

Tarapaca 324, 336, 346 

Tariff 196, 202, 232, 267 

Tarochina .82 

Tavira, San Salvador de 243 

Telegraph 241, 262. 268, 412 

Telephone 330 

Tierra del Fuego 404 

Timber 390 



Tithes 130 

Tobacco 130. 196, 317 

Tocapilla W..346 




Tocornal, Manuel ADtonio 230, 239 

Toesca, Joaquin 124 

Tonatiuh 2i 

Tools 31 

Toquis 30, 39 

Torrico 221, 314 

Tounens, M. de 239 

Trade 266 

Treaties 121, 232, 253, 323, 325, 371 

Tri bes 27 

Tribunal of Audience 116 

Tribunal of Vigilance 160 

Trinidad 83, 84 

Tristan 129, 135 

Tucapel 39i 53i 63, 71, 88, 102 

Tucapel, Fortress of 52, in 

Tucuman 73, 135 

Tumbez. - 27 

Tunconobal 67 

Tupac Amaru 89, 132 

Tupac Yupanqui 22 

Tupper, Colonel 218 

Tutuben in 


Ubalde 132 

Ulloa, Lopez de, y Lemus 100, 125 

UUoa, Pedro Sorez de loi, 125 

Ulmen 29, 39 

Umachiri 133 

University, National 112, 156, 415 

Urban Population 418 

UrJbe, Lieut 28a 

Urmeneta, Jos6 TomSs 255 

Urriola, Colonel 231 

Uspallata Pass 162 

Ustariz, Juan Andres de 107, 126 

Utensils 30 

Uthal-mapu 38 

Utiflame , gg 

Vaccination iig, 331 

Valdez, General 298 

Valdiveiso, Raphael Valentine 225, 

233, 257, 269. 
Valdivia (city) 84, 93. 107, 148, 184, 

384, 418, 419. 

Valdivia, Fortress of 116 

Valdivia harbor 104 

"Valdivia" (vessel) 190 


Valdivia, Lais de 97 

Valdivia, Pedro de.. .35, 36, 40, 118, 125, 


Valparaiso 84, 107, 208, 211, 376, 418 

Valparaiso, Marquis of 118 

Val verde, Colonel 278 

Varas, Antonio 230, 233, 236, 330 

Vecchio 100 

Vega, Francisco Laso de la 103, 125 

Vegetables 29, 407 

Velasco 78 

Venezuela 137 

Venganza 179 

Vera, Doctor Bernardo 156, 206 

Vergara, Eujenio 321 

Vergara, Jos6 Francisco,.. 300, 306, 321, 


Vial, Don Agustin 198,230 

Vicuna, Claudio 348, 357. S^S 

Vicuna, Francisco Ramon 215, 235 

Vicuna, Manuel 225 

Vidaurre, Juan 222, 235 

Viel, Admiral 365 

Vilcapugio 135 

Villac Umu 24 

"Villa de Madrid" (vessel) 246 

ViUagran, Francisco de. ..46, 47, 56, 73, 


Villagran, Pedro 59. 125 

Villalobo? 160 

Villa Nueva 163 

Villarica 49, 79. 86, 94 

Vilumilla no 

Vineyards 377. 389 

Viscarra, Pedro de 89, 92, 125 

Volcanoes 32 


Wheat 389 

Wheelright, William 225 

Whitehead 240 

Wine 130, 389 

Wine-making 389 

Women 30 

Wyndham 179 


Xauxa 27. 193 

Ximenes loi 



Y Page 

Yaghans 384 

Yanacocha 221 

Yerbas Buenas 150 

Yumbel 93, 106 

Yungay 223 

Yupanqui 27 

Z Page 

2ambrano, Mateo de Toro , 143 

Zanartu, Luis de 113 

Zapiga 341 

Zentano, Don Ignacio 186 

Zuniga, Francisco de 104, 125 

Zurita, Juan, 73 


Under this general title we are pub- 
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